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Harvard  College 












oi  —  d'Ajuda.  Chaoara  da  Fioresta  —  61 




•i^'^  f  H/^ 









f  RiO  D£  JANSiRO 


61  —  Rua  d'Ajuda,  Chaoata  da  Floresta  —  61 








H.  K.  li  Gasion  d'Orleans,  Cuunl  dlu 


11  li,  llie  Viscount  of  Jaguai^y 

H.  E.  the  Viscounl   of  Bom  Re  tiro 

H.  E.  -:ie   Viscount  of  Sousa  Franco  (died  on  May  5) 

Coinmendador  Joaauim  Antonio  d'A-evedo 

Written,  at  the  invitation  of  the  Illustrioiis  High  Commission 
of  the  National  Exhibition  of  1876,  for  the  purpose  of  appearing 
in  the  Centennial  Exhibition  at  Philadelphia,  this  work  is  the 
property  of  the  said  Commission  and  to  its  hnmble  author  belongs 
alone  the  responsibility  of  the  errors  and  imperfbotions,  which 
without  doubt  blemish  it. 

Rio  de  Janeiro,  on  the  ISth  of  April  1876. 


I     OF     J-AuasTXT^Ii-^ 



On  the  1st  of  January,  1688,  Salvador  CorrSa  do  S&  e 
Benevides  died  in  Lisbon,  aged  ninety^four;  he  was  the 
first  grand  alcaide  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  a  nobleman  of  the 
Royal  Household,  a  knight  commander  of  S.  Salvador  de 
Alagdas,  and  of  S.  John  de  Cassia  of  the  order  of  Christ. 

He  was  a  son  of  Martin  de  S&,  and  of  Donna  Victoria  da 
Costa,  and  a  grand-son  of  Salvador  GorrSa  de  S&,  first  ca- 
pitao  m6r  (governor)  of  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  of  which 
he  was  one  of  the  founders.  He  was  bom  in  that  same  city 
and  baptized  in  that  parish  of  S.  Sebastifto  in  1594. 

He  spent  his  life  serving  his  country. 

He  first  distinguished  himself  in  1513,  when  he  safely      /(^, 
conveyed  to  Portugal  thirty  vessels  in  spite  of  the  Dutch 

In  1625  he  raised  three  hundred  men  in  the  captaincy  of 

VOL.  I  1 

S.  Vicente,  and  embarked  with  them  for  Bahia  to  assist  in 
the  expulsion  of  the  Dutch,  who  had  taken  the  city  of 
S.  Salvador ;  he  landed  at  Espirito-Santo  and  had  an  im- 
mediate opportunity  of  repulsing  the  Dutch,  who  had  come 
in  six  vessels  to  sack  the  town;  after  this  exploit  he  went 
on  to  Bahia  where  he  arrived  in  April,  in  time  to  contribute 
to  the  expulsion  of  the  invaders. 

Having  been  appointed  admiral  of  the  South  sea  in  1634, 
he  received  orders  to  attack  the  rebels  who  were  menacing 
Paraguay ;  he  routed  the  Gakqui  Indians,  and  took  their 
terrible  chief,  D.  Pedro  Ghamuiry,  prisoner,  returning  as 
conqueror  ;  he,  however,  received  twelve  wounds  from 

In  1637  he  received  the  appointment  of  capitSo-m6r  and 
governor  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  ;  he  had  the  good  fortune  to 
proclaim,  in  this  captaincy,  the  restored  king  Don  John  IV  of 
Portugal,  evincing  much  prudence  and  energy;  by  conci- 
liatory means  he  quelled  the  tumults  of  the  colonists  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  who  rose  against  the  Jesuits,  who  had  liber- 
ated the  Indians,  and  dispelled  the  agitation  of  the  Paulistas 
caused  by  the  same  motives  ;  with  these  he  was  longer  in 
obtaining  the  same  results,  but  at  last  peace  was  restored. 

In  1644  he  was  appointed  general  of  the  fleet  whose 
duty  it  was  to  escort  Brazilian  merchant  vessels;  he  was 
also  commissioned  to  control  the  exploration  of  the  mines, 
receiving  at  the  same  time  the  nomination  of  deputy  of  the 
ultramarine  council.  He  delegated  the  other  powers,  in  or- 
der to  devote  himself  entirely  to  the  first  and  most  diffi- 
cult of  his  functions  :  he  made  three  voyages  to  Portugal, 
in  that  of  1645  he  appeared  with  thirty-six  sail  before  Re- 
cife, then  occupied  by  the  Dutch,  and  landed  a  detachment 
of  troops  at  TamandarS  to  assist  the  Pemambucanos,  who 
had  taken  up  arms  against  the  Dutch  supremacy. 

—  3  — 

Being  for  the  second  time  named  governor  of  the  three 
captaincies  of  the  South  of  Brazil,  (Espirito  Santo,  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  and  S.  Vicente),  and  receiving  orders  to  relieve  An- 
gola, he  armed  and  manned  ten  ships  at  the  people's  ex- 
pense, four  at  his  own,  and  with  five  government  galleons, 
set  sail  for  Africa.  Arriving  at  Quicombo  he  routed  the  Dutch 
who  occupied  the  place,  and  forced  them  to  capitulate  ; 
he  afterwards  attacked  the  river  Congo,  and  every  where 
re-established  the  dominion  of  Portugal,  receiving  as  a  re- 
compense for  the  expulsion  of  the  Dutch  from  all  the 
coast  oi  Angola,,  the  permission  to  carry  two  Africans  as 
supporters  of  his  coat  of  arms. 

In  1658  he  was  again  appointed  to  the  government  of 
the  south  of  Brazil,  independent  in  every  respect  of  that 
of  Bahia.  In  this,  his  third  administration,  he  found  the 
inspection  of  the  mines  a  moat  difficult  and  ungrateful 
task,  being  moreover  harassed  by  a  revolt  which  broke 
out  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  during  his  absence.  His  energy  and 
prestige  conquered  and  overcame  these  difficulties,  and  in 
1661  he  made  over  to  his  successor  in  the  government,  all 
the  captaincies  perfectly  quiet,  and  the  administration 
regularly  established. 

On  his  arrival  in  Lisbon,  he  met  with  ingratitude  in  lieu 
of  recompense.  In  1666  some  consolation  was  afforded  him 
by  the  grant  of  the  title  of  Viscount  of  Asseca  to  his  son 
Martin  Corrfia  de  S4  ;  he  himself  received  nothing,  or  rather 
^as  the  subject  only  of  intrigues  and  oppression  at 

When  Affonso  VI  sent  for  him  to  ask  his  advice  before 
his  deposition  on  the  23d  of  September,  1667,  SAeBenevides, 
then  seventy  three  years  of  age,  proposed  energetic  and 
coerci  ve  measures,  and  offered  his  services  to  carry  them 
out.  In  consequence  of  this  advice,  and  owing  to  the  favor 

—  4  — 

which  he  enjoyed  at  the  Court  of  the  unfortunate  King, 
his  son,  the  Viscount,  was  arrested  and  impeached. 

On  the  death  of  his  son,  leaving  his  grand-children 
orphans^  S&  e  Benevides  was  restored  to  liberty,  and  rein- 
stated in  the  war  and  ultramarine  council»  in  which  he 
had  a  seat. 

Oblivious  of  ingratitude  and  injustice,  Sk  e  Benevides^ 
when  near  ninety  years  of  age,  started,  on  hearing  the  news 
of  the  revolt  of  the  petty  king  of  Pata,  on  the  east  coast  of 
Africa,  against  the  power  of  Portugal,  and  offered  his  serv- 
ices to  suppress  the  rebellion. 

His  friends  reminded  him  of  his  advanced  age. 

«  I  should  die  content »  he  replied  « if  I  fell  on  the  bat- 
tlefield, hearing  the  roll  of  musketry! » 

Whilst  yet  strong,  haughty^  and  of  unflinching  spirit, 
Salvador  GorrSa  de  S&  e  Benevides  expired  calm  and  full  of 

His  name  brings  to  mind  one  of  the  first  and  most  distin- 
guished heroes  of  Brazil. 

His  mortal  remains  were  inhumed  in  the  sachristy  of 
the  monastery  (since  extinct)  of  the  bare-foot  Carmelites, 
where  also  the  bones  of  the  celebrated  Brazilian,  Alexander 
de  GusmSo,  a  worthy  and  brotherly  neighbor,  were  depos- 
ited somewhat  later. 

n  OF  jj^j<TTJA.Trsr 


This  name  was  borne  by  a  Hercules. 

Contempt  for  life  in  the  face  of  the  greatest  peril,  the 
strength  of  Alcides,  unsurpassed  bravery  which  did  not 
stop  short  of  rashness,  blindness  to  the  number  of  the  ene- 
my, self-denial,  for  being  a  rough  and  simple  seaman,  he 
dreamt  not  of  encouraging  promotions,  a  sublime  sense  of  the 
duty  of  a  soldier  in  battle,  breast  of  rock,  arms  of  iron, 
soul  of  fire,  and  the  nature  of  a  hero,  such  were  the  dis^ 
tinguishing  qualities  of  Marcilio  Dias. 

A  poor  and  uncouth  sailor,  his  parentage  and  birthplace 
are  unknown ;  with  his,  probably,  troubled  infancy  and 
youth  no  one  is  acquainted,  but  every  one  in  the  Brazilian 
fleet  esteemed  him  for  his  strength,  for  his  courage,  and 
for  his  good  conduct. 

—  6  — 

The  date  of  his  birth  being  unknown,  it  is  but  just  that 
he  should  appear,  on  the  2d  of  January,  1865,  before  the 
mournful  day  of  his  heroic  death,  a  day  for  him  of  dazzling 

It  is  well  known  that  the  Paraguayan  war  was  preceded 
by  reprisals,  effected  by  a  Brazilian  army  corps,  that  ad- 
vanced from  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do 
Sul,  and  by  the  small  squadron  that  under  the  command  of 
the  Bayard  of  the  Brazilian  navy,  now  Viscount  Taman- 
dar6,  was  stationed  in  the  waters  of  Montevideo,  whose 
government  refused,  in  a  provoking  manner,  to  give  satis- 
faction for  the  murders,  robberies  and  savage  attacks  on 
Brazilian  subjects,  committed  by  the  military  forces  of 
that  government. 

General  Flores,  a  well-known  and  most  influential  man 
of  the  Oriental  Republic  of  Uruguay,  was  in  arms  against 
the  faction  or  party  in  power  at  Montevideo.  The  division 
of  the  Brazilian  army  under  the  command  of  the  old  and 
brave  general,  Menna  Barreto,  supported  by  the  ships  of 
the  squadron  and  with  the  assistance  of  General  Flores, 
laid  siege  to  the  fortified  town  of  Paysandu  in  Decem- 
ber, 1864,  and,  not  obtaining  a  capitulation,  attacked  it. 

The  commander  of  Paysandu  was  Leandro  Gomes,  the 
most  implacable  enemy  of  the  Brazilians,  whose  life,  how- 
ever, was  saved  through  the  generosity  and  humanity  of 
the  Brazilian  conqueror. 

For  the  assault  of  Paysandu,  a  portion  of  the  crews  of 
the  Brazilians  ships  were  landed,  and  among  the  attack- 
ing seamen  was  Marcilio  Dias. 

The  place  was  strongly  fortified,  and  caused  lamentable 
losses  to  the  batteries  raised  against  it.  Amongst  others, 
a   hero,  then   called  the  Invulnerable  by  the  enemy, 

-  7  — 
Mariz  e  Barros,  commanded  a  battery  and  directed  the  at- 
tack. Marcilio  Dias  was  under  his  orders. 

On  the  2nd  of  January,  1865,  Mariz  e  Barros  ordered 
the  attack  on  the  enemy's  trenches. 

The  fight  was  hot  and  terrible;  in  the  midst  of  the  smoke, 
of  the  roar  of  artillery,  of  the  roll  of  musketry,  and  of 
the  shouts  of  the  combatants,  the  imposing  figure  of  Mar- 
cilio Dias  was  seen  advancing  in  front  of  the  foremost. 

The  herculean  sailor  did  not  speak,  he  was  a  silent,  head- 
strong lion ;  but  he  was  a  war  engine  carrying  all  before 
him,  sowing  destruction  in  his  impetuous  passage. 

After  many  hours  of  sanguinary  and  furious  combat, 
the  cry  of — victory!...  was  heard,  when  the  homeric  figure 
of  the  seaman  Marcilio  Dias  was  seen  hoisting  the  Brazi- 
lian flag  on  the  tower  of  the  church  of  Paysandu. 

With  the  names  of  the  generals,  and  of  the  heroes  of  that 
glorious  day,  official  dispatches  extolled  that  of  the  rough 

Marcilio  Dias,  laureated  by  the  national  gratitude,  ignor- 
ing the  glory  in  which  his  name  was  wrapped,  reappeared 
on  the  1 1th  of  June,  1865. 

On  the  11th  of  June  he  was  an  imperial  sailor  on  board 
the  steamer  Pamahyba,  the  epic  hell  of  blood  and  fire  of 
the  battle  of  Riachuelo. 

On  board  this  ship,  attacked  by  the  boarders  of  four 
Paraguayan  steamers,  Pedro  Afibnso,  captain  of  the  1st 
battalion  of  infantry,  Greenhalgh,  and  other  officers  had 
fallen,  when  the  second  in  command,  first  lieutenant  Fe- 
lippe  Firmino  Rodrigues  Chaves,  gave  the  order  to  blow 
up  the  ship.  Marcilio  Dias,  not  despairing  of  victory,  still 
fought  on  deck  against  numberless  enemies,  stumbling 
against  the  dead  bodies  of  his  comrades. 

The  reckless  giant,  opening  a  way  through  the  ranks  of 

—  8  — 
the  Paraguayan  multitude,   left  on  either  side  enemies 
killed  or  wounded  by  his  saber. 

At  last  four  of  the  most  courageous  Paraguayans  stop 
and  attack  the  Hercules,  who  had  then  been  wounded. 

Marcilio  Dias  fights  against  these  odds  and  kills  two, 
but  terribly  wounded,  falls  like  some  giant  tree,  or  rather 
like  an  immense  monument. 

Dying,  however,  he  yet  hailed  the  Amazonas  who  ran 
down  the  enemy's  vessels  that  had  grappled  the  Par- 

Brazil  had  gained  the  victory,  Marcilio  Dias,  cut  to 
pieces  by  the  Paraguayan  swords  and  axes,  in  the  dying 
agonies  heard  the  sound  of  the  Brazilian  hymns  of 

He  died  on  the  12th  of  June,  calm  and  uncomplaining, 
without  evincing  any  consolation  from  the  renown  he  left. 
He  expired  as  a  modest,  quiet,  simple  man  who  never  feared 
death,  and  with  the  conviction  that  he  had  well  done 
his  duty. 

Marcilio  Dias,  a  simple  seaman,  was  twice  a  giant  to 
have  thus  gained  a  place  in  his  country's  history  in  the 
midst  of  so  many  heroes  of  a  higher  social  position. 

In  the  Brazilian  navy  there  is  a  ship  of  war  which  bears 
and  perpetuates  the  name  of  Marcilio  Dias. 

HI  OF  J-A-N-U^-A-It-Y 


ManoelJ^Antonio  GalvSo,  son  of  Jeronymo  Josd  GalvSo 
and  Donna  Anna  Maria  Rosa,  was  born  on  the  3rd  of 
January,  1791,  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia,  the 
cradle  of  so  many  distinguished  men. 

It  was  intended  that  Manoel  Antonio  GalvSo,  after  study- 
ing humanities,  should  enter  into  commerce,  and  having 
practised  as  a  clerk  in  Lisbon,  where  he  was  sent,  and 
in  Bahia,  to  where  he  had  returned,  he  went,  to  London 
and  there  remained  three  years  in  the  counting-house  of 
a  merchant  called  Wilson.  Having,  however,  changed  his 
plans,  he  went  to  Goimbra  in  1813,  and  took  his  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Laws,  at  that  university  in  the  year  1819. 

Having  been  appointed  juiz  de  fdra  (j^dgej  of  Goyaz  in 

TOb.  1  2 

—  10  — 

1820,  he  there  disagreed  with  the  governor,  and  sided 
with  the  constitutional  party. 

Having  been  elected,  by  the  province  of  Bahia,  a  deputy 
to  the  chamber  called  to  revise  the  constitution,  he  was 
afterwards  appointed  ouvidor  (superior  judge)  to  Matto 

He  rose  through  every  step  in  the  magistrature,  and 
served  in  the  casa  da  SupplicagSo  (Supreme  court  of  jus- 
tice of  Lisbon),  in  the  court  of  appeal  of  Bahia,  and  was 
superannuated  in  the  Supreme  Court  of  Justice  of  Brazil. 

He  did  not  distinguish  himself  less  in  his  parliamentary, 
political,   and  administrative  career. 

Bahia  elected  him  as  deputy  in  1826,  the  first  legisla- 
ture, and  afterwards  in  1863,  and  of  the  triple  list,  pre- 
sented by  the  electors  of  the  same  province,  he  was 
chosen  a  senator  of  the  Empire  by  the  present  Emperor 
Don  Pedro  II. 

Up  to  that  date  he  had  served  as  president  of  the 
following  provinces :  Of  Alagoas  in  1828,  of  Espirito  Santo, 
immediately  afterwards,  and  in  1831,  of  Minas  Geraes, 
whence  he  passed,  in  the  same  year,  to  that  of  S.  Pedro 
do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  over  which  he  presided  for  the 
second  time  from  1846  to  February  1848. 

In  1835  he  was  appointed  envoy  extraordinary  and  mi- 
nister plenipotentiary  of  the  Empire  in  England,  whence 
he  retired  in  1839,  having  refused  a  diplomatic  mission 
in  the  same  character  to  Russia. 

On  the  1st  of  September,  1839,  Manoel  Antonio  Galv&o, 
who  had  but  lately  arrived  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  entered 
the  cabinet,  taking  the  portfolio  of  home  affairs,  in  which 
he  rendered  good  service,  though  the  cabinet  existed  only 
for  a  few  months. 

In  1844  he  was  again  in  power,  as  minister  of  justice, 

~  11  - 

and  he  was  one  of  the  chief  promoters  of  the  pacification 
of  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  which 
had  been  in  a  state  of  revolt  since  1835.  Whilst  in  this 
ministry  he  had  the  honor  of  representing  Louis  Phillip, 
king  of  France,  at  the  baptism  of  the  Prince  Don  Affonso. 

In  1845,  having  been  appointed  plenipotentiary  of  Brazil, 
to  negotiate,  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  with  the  Bristish  minister, 
a  treaty  of  commerce,  he  made  a  declaration  to  the  English 
diplomate,  that,  to  enter  into  negotiations,  it  was  indis- 
pensable that  the  bill  Aberdeen  should  first  be  revoked, 
as  it  was  offensive  to  the  dignity  of  the  Empire. 

Manoel  Antonio  GalvSLo  was  appointed  a  councilor  of 
State  in  1848,  and,  two  years  later,  on  the  21st  of  March, 
1850,  he  died  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  in  honorable  poverty. 

He  left  an  unsullied  and  an  illustrious  name. 

Gifted  with  admirable  talents  and  a  clear  intellect, 
though,  perhaps,  not  prossessing  vast  or  profound  knowl- 
edge, he  was  a  very  sagacious  statesman,  and  being  en- 
dowed with  quick  and  brilliant  powers,  he  was  ever  ready 
for  a  witty  epigram;  he  was  a  serious  and  penetrating 
observer  of  men ;  he  studied  facts  ;  his  good  sense,  his  love 
of  justice,  his  unblemished  probity,  and  extreme  good 
heartedness,  were  well  known.  This  distinguished  Brazilian 
always  belonged  to  the  liberal  monarchial  party. 

During  his  first  ministry  the  place  of  public  librarian  of 
the  capital  became  vacant ;  numerous  candidates  appeared, 
and  pressing  demands.  The  minister  Galv^o  gave  the  same 
answer  to  every  one :  «  This  place  will  be  given  to  a  man 
who  never  flattered  me,  and  who  does  not  ask  for  it.»  Canon 
Januario  da  Cunha  Barboza,  in  every  respect  worthy  of 
the  place,  was  appointed. 

Though  a  liberal,  Galvao,  as  a  deputy  in  the  first  legis- 
lature, avoided  party  discussions.   Some  time  later,  being 

-  12  - 
asked  the  reason  of  his  f orbearanoe,  he  replied :  « I  took  my 
log  out  of  the  fire  then,  that  Imight  not  repent  when 
the  flamebroke  out.  » 

Manoel  Antonio  Galv&o,  a  man  of  sound  conscience^  and 
incapable  of  misrepresenting  the  truth,  furnished  impor- 
tant information,  which  threw  great  light  on  the  history 
of  the  events  of  March  and  April  of  the  year  1831. 

He  used  to  say  that  on  his  way  to  take  charge  of  the  pres- 
idency of  Minas-Geraes,  he  met  on  the  road  the  Emperor 
Don  Pedro  I,  who  was  returning  from  that  province  dis- 
pleased and  in  a  meditative  mood,  and  that  the  Emperor 
told  him,  confidentially,  that  he  had  resolved  on  abdicating 
the  crown  of  the  Empire  of  Brazil. 

ITT    OF    jrj^lSTXJJ^'R'^ 

The  history  of  Brazilian  literature  is  enriched  vith  the 
names  of  some  young  poets  prematurely  dead,  prodigious 
expectations  nipped  in  the  bud,  brilliant  stars  extinguished 
and  buried  in  the  black  clouds  of  death. 

One  of  these  was  unquestionably  Gasemiro  Joz6  Marques 
de  AbreUy  or,  simply,  Gasemiro  de  Abreu,  born  on  the  4th 
of  January y  1837,  in  the  municipal  district  ofBarrade 
S.  JoSo,  province  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

The  smiling  days  of  infancy  he  passed  in  solicitude  at 
his  mother's  side.  Donna  Luiza  Joaquina  das  Neves,  and  he 
early  began  to  shew  his  taste  for  poetry.  This  taste  was  a 
rising  inspiration,  a  flame  which  could  not  be  extinguished* 

He  had  merely  finished  his  primary  education,  when  his 
father,  Josd  Joaquim  Marques  de  Abreu,  a  Portuguese  mer- 

—  14  — 
chant,  went  for  him  and  took  him  to  the  boarding  school  of 
that  excellent  old  Englishman,  John  Henry  Freeze,  in  Nova 
Friburgo,  requesting  that  he  should  be  educated  and  prepared 
for  a  commercial  career. 

At  that  school,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  Gasemiro  de 
Abreu  wrote  his  first  poem — Ave  Maria — a  boy  poet's  song, 
full  of  gentleness. 

At  the  age  of  fifteen  a  beautiful  girl  enraptured  him,  and 
during  this  almost  childish  love,  but  for  that  very  reason 
pure,  angelic,  during  that  sweet  first  love,  whose  perfume 
remains  in  the  heart  for  ever,  Gasemiro  de  Abreu  made 
verses,  and  (the  words  are  his),  some  one  then  called  him 

The  course  of  secondary  instruction  of  the  talented  and 
diligent  student,  was  almost  immediately  interrupted  by 
the  father,  who  took  him  from  Freeze's  school,  and  despite 
his  prayers  and  the  protests  of  his  aversion  to-a  commercial 
life,  obliged  the  boy  to  follow  him  to  the  city  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  and  there  installed  him  in  his  counting  house. 

From  that  day  forward,  a  distressing  and  lamentable 
difference  of  opinion  arose  between  father  and  son.  The 
father,  well  intentioned,  but  extremely  severe,  endeavored 
to  crush  his  son's  love  of  poetry,  and  to  open  for  him  the 
road  to  wealth  through  commerce.  The  son,  deprived  of 
books,  and  though  spied  that  he  might  not  write  poetry, 
eluded  the  father,  and,  at  night,  when  every  one  else 
slept,  he  watched  and  read  works  on  poetry  and  literary 
critique,  which  he  afterwards  hid,  and  revenged  himself 
on  the  Debit  and  Credit,  writing  verses  for  hours  together. 

The  father  discovered  the  innocent  subterfuges  of  the 
poet  son,  and,  irritated,  expelled  him  from  the  office,  and 
sent  him  to  Portugal  in  November,  1853. 

Another  error  committed !....  to  kill  the  poetic  genius  of 


Gasemiro  de  Abreu  the  rough  merchant  lighted  in  the  poet 
son*s  soul  a  longing  for  his  country. 

In  Portugal,  Gasemiro  de  Abreu  wrote  the  Cangdes  do 
exUio,  (Songs  in  exile)  perhaps  the  most  happily  inspired  of 
his  writings. 

Nostalgy  attacked  the  young  Brazilian ,  shortly  after 
the  first  symptoms  of  tuberculoses  became  manifest.  On 
hearing  the  news  the  father's  severity  relaxed  and  Gasemiro 
de  Abreu  was  allowed  to  return  to  his  beloved  and  longed 
for  country,  whose  gentle  breezes,  at  first,  appeared  to 
restore  his  health.  Illusion!.... 

Gasemiro  de  Abreu  went  to  his  father's  fazenda  (estate,) 
on  the  banks  of  the  Indaiassu  stream,  a  subsidiary  of  the 
river  S.  Joao,  a  cherished  and  romantic  fazenda,  where 
in  his  school  days,  he  was  wont  to  spend  the  vacation ;  the 
place  of  his  predilection,  and  that  which  had  witnessed  the 
charm  of  his  first  love.  Illusion!.... 

The  beautiful  girl  of  the  boy  poet's  love,  slept,  a  pure 
maiden,  in  a  funeral  couch,  under  the  shade  of  a  cypress  in 
the  cemitery. 

A  month  later,  Gasemiro  de  Abreu  returned,  an  obedient 
martyr,  to  the  business  life  which  an  obstinate  father's 
will  inflicted  upon  him. 

The  poet  was  nearly  twenty  years  of  age,  and  during 
two  more  years,  respectful  and  submissive  he  yielded ;  but 
at  night,  taking  advantage  of  the  liberty  allowed  him,  he 
joined  a  set  of  talented  young  poets,  who  still,  fortunately, 
flourish,  and  in  the  improvised,  and  friendly  Arcadia  his 
heart  and  soul  expanded  in  beautiful  and  tender  songs. 

On  the  13th  of  June,  1858,  Gasemiro  de  Abreu  was,  at 
last,  able  to  leave  his  father's  counting  house,  and  in  Sep- 
tember of  the  following  year,  his  poetical  compositions 

—  16  — 
with  the  title  Primaveras  (Spring)  were  published,  and 
applauded  by  the  press  and  by  the  public. 

Josd  Joaquim  Marques  de  Abreu,  against  his  will,  but 
frightened  at  the  progress  of  the  pulmonary  disease 
which  was  menacing  his  son,  liberated  or  rather  eman* 
cipated  him  from  commercial  slavery;  he  rejoiced,  however, 
on  hearing  the  praise  which  the  Primaveras  excited, 
and,  rough  as  he  was,  sick  and  on  his  deathbed,  he 
desired  that  the  poetry  of  his  son  Gasemiro  should  be 
read  to  him.  He  heard  them,  shedding  tears  in  his  fazenda 
on  the  Indaiassu,  sent  an  express  messenger  for  the  poet 
whose  presence  he  called  for,  and  who  arrived  in  time 
to  be  seen,  to  be  clasped  in  the  arms  of,  and  be  blessed  by 
him.  The  father  died  in  his  son's  arms,  consoled  in  death 
by  the  glory  of  the  poet. 
A  poet  with  no  future,  yet  another  illusion  !..• 
Casemiro  de  Abreu  returned  to  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro ; 
the  implacable  tuberculoses  however  progressed,  devouring 
the  lungs.  The  poet,  sorrowful  and  dejected,  still  continued 
his  songs,  when  becoming  worse,  he  was  sent  by  his  medical 
attendants  to  ask  a  miracle  from  the  climate  of  Nova- 

There,  having  at  least  the  consolation  of  his  mother's 
presence,  the  poet  still  lived  three  months,  till  the  18th  of 
October,  1850,  when  he  expired  so  quietly  that  he  appeared 
to  have  fallen  into  a  sweet  slumber. 

He  was  then  twenty-three  years  old,  and  left  to  his 
country's  literature,  his  book  of  poetic  canticles  with  the 
title  of  Primaveras. 

The  poetry  of  Casimiro  de  Abreu  is  full  of  sentiment, 
sweetness  and  melancholy,  and  undoubtedly  gave  promise, 
or  assurance,  of  a  great  lyric  poet. 

—  17  — 

A  just  critic  will  bear  in  mind,  that  the  inspired  youth 
was  less  than  twenty  years  old,  when  he  wrote  the  most 
beautiful  and  the  sweetest  of  his  verses,  and  among  others 
the  following,  which,  though  perhaps  not  the  best,  can  be 
transcribed  here : 

Berf  o  e  tnmnlo 

NO    ALBUM    d'uMA    MBNINA 

Trago-te  fldres  no  meu  canto  amigo ; 

—  Pobre  grinalda  com  prazer  tecida  — 
E— todo  araores—deposito  urn  beijo 

Na  fronte  pura  em  que  desponta  a  vida. 

£'  cede  ainda !— quando  moga  fores, 
£  percorreres  deste  liyro  os  cantos 
Talvez  que  eu  durma  solitario  e  mudo 

—  Lyrio  pendido  a  que  ninguom  deu  prantos  1  — 

Entao,  men  anjo,  compassiva  e  meiga 
Depoe-me  urn  goiyo  sobre  a  cruz  singella, 
E  nesse  ramo  que  o  sepulchro  implora 
Paga-me  as  rosas  d'esta  infancia  bella. 


▼oi..  1 

T7"  OF  j'JLinjjiLJEirz' 


Manoel  Botelho  de  Oliveira,  born  in  Bahia  in  1836, 
capitdo-'mdr,  a  nobleman  of  the  royal  household,  and 
graduated  in  jurisprudence  in  the  University  of  Coimbra, 
died  on  this  day  of  the  year  1711. 

Haying  returned  to  the  city  of  S.  Salvador,  after  taking 
his  degree,  he  exercised  the  profession  of  a  lawyer,  earning 
general  esteem  and  consideration,  being  for  some  time  a 
member  of  the  municipal  council. 

Being  well  informed,  and  a  lover  and  connoiseur  of  the 
Latin,  Italian  and  Spanish  poets,  besides  the  Portuguese, 
he  also  cultivated  poetry ;  but  he  allowed  the  best  years 
of  his  life  to  pass  by  without  thinking  of  publishing  his 
writings,  and  only  in  his  old  age,  when  nearly  seventy 
years  old,  did  he  have  them  published. 

—  20  — 

In  1705,  a  volume  in  4^  of  three  hundred  and  forty 
pages,  was  published  in  Lisbon,  containing  the  poetical 
works  of  Botelho  de  Oliveira,  with  the  following  very  long 
title :  Musica  do  ParnasOy  dividido  em  quatro  cdros  de 
rimas  portuguezas,  castelhanas,  itcUianas  e  latinos,  com 
seu  descante  comico  reduzido  em  dims  comedias  ( Music 
of  Parnassus,  divided  into  four  choruses  of  Portuguese, 
Castilian,  Italian  and  Latin  rhymes,  with  its  comic  song 
reduced  to  two  comedies). 

Mr.  Vamhagen,  now  Viscount  Porto  Seguro,  writing  the 
biography  of  this  Brazilian,  laments  that  he  should  have 
left  for  so  late  a  date  the  publication  and,  naturally,  the 
wish  to  correct  his  poetry,  it  being  impossible  that  they 
should  not  suflfer  theeflfects  of  an  abatement  of  the  intellect, 
under  the  weight  of  so  many  years. 

The  Musica  do  Parnazo  is  a  rare  work,  and  but  little 
sought  after;  but  if  it  have  no  great  poetical  merit,  it 
has  that  of  being  recommended  by  the  Academy  of  Lisbon 
which  declared  the  language  of  the  part  written  in  Portu- 
guese to  be  classical. 

Manoel  Botelho  de  Oliveira  deserves  a  historical  remin- 
iscence, not  because  he  was  the  first  son  of  Brazil  who 
made  public  the  suavity  of  the  metre  ;  but  because  he  was, 
at  least,  one  of  the  first  and  oldest  to  whom  this  glory  is 

"^TX    OF    3-A.liTTJA.Ti-^ 

mmm  u  seya  lisboa 

Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa,  was  bora  on  the  6th  of  Jan- 
uary, 1761,  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador,  capital  of  the  prov- 
ince of  Bahia.  His  parents  were  Henrique  da  Silva  Lisboa 
and  Helena  de  Jesus  e  Silva. 

This  distinguished  Brazilian  studied  humanities,  and  fol- 
lowed the  course  and  took  the  degree  of  Doctor  in  Giyil 
and  Canonical  Law,  at  the  University  of  Goimbra,  under 
the  protection  of  the  bishop  Don  Francisco  de  Lemos  Pe- 
reira  Coutinho,  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  his  distinguished  country- 

After  the  examination,  with  which  he  was  charged,  of 
the  coal  mines  of  Buarcos  and  of  the  lead  mines  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  town  of  Gqja,  in  Portugal,  writing  a 

favorable  report  on  them,   he  returned  to  Brazil,  having 
been  appointed  juiz  de  fdra  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Though  commended  by  the  viceroy  Luiz  de  Vascon- 
cellos,  he  disagreed  with  his  successor,  the  Count  of  Re- 
zende,  because,  there  being  great  dearth  of  farina  in 
the  city  and  a  monopoly  of  the  article  being  tolerated,  a 
number  of  vessels  being  loaded  with  it  for  exportation,  Bal- 
thazar da  Silva  Lisboa,  in  the  exercise  of  his  duties  as  a  magis- 
trate, commenced  an  inquiry  and  ordered  thecargos  of  the 
vessels  to  be  examined,  some  cases  of  farina  being  discov- 
ered with  the  mark  of  one  of  the  viceroy's  aides  de  camp. 

Having  been  discharged  from  the  office  of  Juiz  de  F6ra, 
he  left  for  Portugal  in  1796,  and  was  there  absolved,  by 
the  Court  of  the  Ultramarine  Council,  of  the  charge  of 
revolutionary  and  republican,  preferred  by  the  enemies  he 
had  left  in  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Having  been  appointed  ouvidor  of  the  district  of  HhSos, 
in  Brazil,  and  shortly  afterwards  judge  preserver  of  the 
forest,  he  studied  the  culture  and  felling  of  timber, 
and  wrote  the  Physica  dos  bosgues  dos  ilhios  e  a  Des- 
cripQ&o  da  comarca  do  mesmo  noma  (Physics  of  the  forests 
of  Ilhdos,  and  Description  of  the  district  of  the  same 
name),  which  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  of  Lisbon 
had  printed  in  its  collection. 

As  he  was  well  known  to  have  studied  metallurgy,  Bal- 
thazar da  Silva  Lisboa  was  charged  with  the  examination  of 
large  quantities  of  iron  found  in  the  streams  of  Bendig6,  at 
the  headwaters  of  the  River  da  Cachoeira,  and  of  the  coal 
mines  found  in  1813  at  the  river  Cotegipe.  Having  complied 
with  the  request  he  presented  a  scientific  report  on  the 
existence  and  conditions  of  the  iron  and  coal  in  the  places 

The  Count  of  Arcos,  governor  and  captain-general  of 

-23  — 

Bahia,  charged  this  distinguished  Brazilian  with  the  re- 
moval of  the  Indian  village  from  the  parish  of  Almada 
to  the  place  called  Ferradas,  and  he,  overcoming  by  gentle 
means  the  opposition  of  the  Indians,  gained  his  end  with 
great  fatigue  and  with  the  sacrifice  of  his  health. 

Being  superannuated  in  the  Finance  Council,  with  full 
pay,  he  retired  with  his  health  impaired  to  the  estate 
which  he  had  purchased  at  the  river  Gontas,  but  in  1821 
he  was  persecuted  for  being  opposed  to  the  constitution  of 
the  Portuguese  Gdrtes,  though  he  had  gone  to  the  city  of 
S.  Salvador  to  take  the  oath,  declaring,  at  the  same  time, 
it  is  true,  that  he  did  not  think  that  it  would  promote  the 
happiness  of  the  nation. 

In  1823  the  municipal  councils  of  Cachoeira  do  Rio  das 
Contas  and  of  Yalenga,  represented  against  Balthazar  da 
Silva  Lisboa,  as  an  enemy  to  the  cause  of  the  independence 
of  the  country,  and  the  old  and  illustrious  fugitive  was  able 
at  last  to  embark  on  board  an  English  brig,  which  con- 
veyed him  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  where  at  first  the  Emperor 
Don  Pedro  I  and  the  minister,  Josd  Bonifacio  de  Andrade, 
refused  to  receive  him. 

Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa  proved  his  innocence  by  docu- 
ments ;  he,  on  the  contrary,  was  an  enthusiast  of  the  in- 
dependence. Every  thing  leads  to  the  belief  that  the  rea- 
son for  the  persecution  he  suffered,  lay  in  his  sentiments 
unfavorable  to  democratic  ideas ;  if  he  was  not  an  abso- 
lutist, he  was  at  least  a  very  backward  liberal.  An  opin- 
ion is  not  a  crime. 

The  Emperor  and  the  minister  JosS  Bonifacio,  at  last 
did  justice  to  the  illustrious  old  man,  to  whom,  some  years 
later,  Don  Pedro  I  offered  a  chair  as  professor  in  the  faculty 
of  law  created  in  S.  Paulo,  which  he  refused,  alleging  his 
old  age,  he  being  then  nearly  seventy  years  old. 


The  distinguished  old  man,  however,  still  worked  assid- 
uously, and  in  1834  he  published  in  the  city  to  which  he 
had  retired,  the  Annaes  do  Rio  ie  Janeiro  (Annals  of  Rio 
de  Janeiro),  in  seven  volumes,  a  work  of  great  merit. 

When,  in  1838,  the  Historical  Geographical  Institute  of 
Brazil  was  founded,  Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa  welcomed 
it  with  enthusiasm,  and,  as  honorary  member,  presented 
it  with  a  valuable  manuscript  of  his  own,  Bosquejo  HisUh- 
rioo  de  litteratura  Portugueza,  sermndo  de  introducgdo 
a  um  corpo  Mographico  dos  mais  distinctos  Brazileiros  e 
demuitoB  vardescelebres  por  sews  servicos  ao  Brazil  (Bio- 
graphical sketch  of  Portuguese  literature,  being  an  intro- 
duction to  a  biographical  body  of  the  most  distinguished 
Brazilians,  and  of  many  men  celebrated  for  their  services 
to  Brazil). 

Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa  died  on  the  14th  of  August, 
1840.  His  name  remains  engraved  amongst  those  of  the 
most  illustrious  representatives  of  letters  and  sciences  in 
Brazil  during  the  first  half  of  the  19th  century. 

His  knowledge  in  various  branches  of  learning  may  be 
appreciated  in  the  different  tasks  which  he  was  commis- 
sioned bygovernment  to  accomplish. 

As  his  greatest  encomium  it  is  sufficient  to  say  that 
he  in  no  way  demerited  the  glory  of  being  the  brother  of 
the  learned  Jos6  da  Silva  Lisboa,  Viscount  of  Cayrti. 

-Tzn  o-p  jA.isrcrAii.-Y 


Francisco  Jos6  Furtado  was  born  on  the  13th  of  August, 
1818,  in  the  city  of  Oeiras,the,  then,  capital  of  the  province 
of  Piauhy  ;  he  was  the  legitimate  son  of  a  surgeon  of  the 
same  name  and  of  Donna  Rosa  da  Costa  Alvarenga,  who 
belonged  to  one  of  the  most  distinguished  families  of  Piauhy. 

When  only  two  years  of  age  he  lost  his  father,  and  his 
mother  marrying  a  second  time,  again  became  a  widow, 
her  second  husband  having  been  atrociously  murdered. 

At  the  age  of  nine  he  removed  to  Caxias,  in  the  province 
of  Marauhao,  his  step  father  being  then  still  alive,  and  there, 
in  the  birth  place  of  Gongalves  Bias,  he  passed  his  prepara- 
tory studies,  and  in  1833  went  to  Olinda,  where  he  imme- 
diately matriculated  in  the  juridical  academy. 

In  1837  he  received  the  news  of  the  dreadful  murder  of 

TOL.   I  4 

-26  — 
his  excellent  step  father,  and  of  the  impunity  of  the  assas, 
sins,  infamous  instruments  of  a  potentate  of  the  locality. 

«  This  melancholy  event  >  (says  the  learned  Dr.  Antonio 
Henriques  Leal,  in  the  biography  of  the  worthy  Furtado- 
published  in  the  Pantheon  Maranhense)  «  contributed  not  a 
little  toFurtado  taking,  so  early,  an  active  part  in  political 
discussions,  and  editing,  during  the  fourth  year  of  his  stud- 
ies, with  other  distinguished  colleagues,  the  Argos  Olin- 
dense.  > 

Several  quarrels  with  his  professors  resulted  from  his  edit- 
ing this  liberal  periodical,  and  to  aroid,  at  the  examina- 
tions, the  affront  which  one  of  his  colleagues  and  co-editor 
had  received,  (says  the  same  biographer), he  went  to  S.  Paulo, 
where  he  concluded  his  studies  and  took  his  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Laws  in  1838. 

In  the  following  year  he  returned  to  the  capital  of  Maran- 
hao.  The  province  was  then  in  open  revolt,  which  ravaged 
more  particularly  the  territory  of  Gaxias.  Furtado's  mother, 
however,  was  in  the  city  of  that  name,  and  he  did  not  hesi- 
tate to  fly  to  her  side.  Gaxias  was  besieged  by  the  rebels  and 
at  last  surrendered ;  the  young  bachelor  and  devoted  son, 
was  taken  prisoner  with  many  other  inhabitants. 

As  the  revolt  continued,  though  the  city  was  restored, 
Furtado  did  good  service  to  the  cause  of  government,  and 
was  rewarded,  in  1840,  with  the  appointment  of  municipal 
judge  of  Gaxias,  acting  as  district  judge  in  1841. 

Being  a  liberal  from  his  college  days,  he  took  his  place 
^n  the  party  which,  in  the  province,  hoisted  his  political 
colors.  He  was  elected  president  of  the  municipal  council 
of  Gaxias,  and  shortly  afterwards  member  of  the  provincial 
assembly;  he  also  exercised  different  police  functions, 
and  in  all  of  them  he  was  always  distinguished  for  his  vast 

—  27  — 

and  enlightened  intellect,  for  his  moderation,  and  for  his 
great  virtues. 

He  was  elected  a  deputy,  in  1847,  to  the  General  Assem- 
bly, for  the  legislature  which  commenced  in  1848.  He  took 
his  seat  in  May,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  most  notable  parlia- 
mentary men,  he,  in  his  speeches,  appeared  as  a  sub- 
stantial, grave,  and  profound  orator.  The  liberal  party, 
however,  went  out  of  power  on  the  29th  of  September,  and 
the  chamber  of  deputies,  adjourned  on  the  5th  of  October, 
was  dissolved  on  the  19th  of  February,  1849. 

Furtado  had  been  named  district  judge  of  Caxias  by  de- 
cree of  the  20th  of  September,  1848 ;  but  as  the  political  con- 
servative reaction  immediately  commenced,  he  was,  on  the 
19th  of  December  of  the  same  year,  removed  to  the  capital 
of  Pari,  where  he  remained  until  1856.  He  there  served  as 
district  judge,  as  judge  of  suits  of  the  finance  department, 
and  as  army  judge. 

In  1856  the  cabinet  of  the  Marquis  of  Parani  inaugur- 
ated the  political  principle,  then  called,  of  conciliation,  and 
Dr.  Furtado  was  transferred  to  the  capital  of  Maranhao  as 
special  commercial  judge ;  but  in  October  of  the  following 
year  the  model  magistrate  had  to  be  tried  in  the  adminis- 
tration, as  president  of  the  province  of  Amazonas. 

It  had  been  created  only  five  years ;  it  had  scarcely  any 
revenue,  it  is  at  a  great  distance  from  the  capital  of  the  Em- 
pire, and  it  received  no  assistance  from  the  central  govern- 
ment. The  province  of  Amazonas,  therefore,  so  vast  and  with 
a  population  so  sparse,  could  not  be  a  field  in  which  even 
the  most  consummate  administrator  could  display  his  Intel « 
ligence,  activity,  and  energy. 

Furtado  governed  the  province  unbiased  by  party  spirit  ; 
during  his  administration  the  municipal  elections  took  place. 
He  did  not  interfere  in  the  contest ;  the  liberty  of  the  vote 

was  perfect ;  both  winners  and  losers  eulogizing  the  presi- 

Not  commanding  the  means  to  do  the  good  that  he  wished, 
he  pointed  out  to  the  central  government,  the  great  and 
useful  measures  which  it  was  necessary  to  take,  and  with 
respect  to  these,  enlightened  the  provincial  assembly  in  a 
report  elaborated  in  a  most  masterly  manner.  The  catechi- 
sation  and  civilization  of  the  Indians,  the  creation  of  nation- 
al colonies  on  the  banks  of  the  Madeira,  the  fluvial  com- 
munication with  the  province  of  Matto  Grosso  and  with 
Bolivia,  the  urgent  repairs  of  ruined  forts  and  the  construe" 
tion  of  others,  were  subjects  which  he  studied  and  devel- 
oped with  practical  appreciation,  with  attentive  care,  and 
with  the  penetration  of  a  statesman. 

In  1859,  at  his  own  request,  he  was  exonerated  from  the 
presidency  of  the  province  of  Amazonas,  blessed  by  the 
different  political  parties,  and  returned  to  MaranhSCo, 
where  he  reassumed  his  charge  of  commercial  judge. 

In  1861  Furtado  returned  to  the  chamber,  having  been 
elected  a  deputy  for  the  second  district  of  the  province  of 
Maranhao.  He  was  already  known  as  a  talented  and  power- 
ful orator;  in  the  session  of  1861,  and  in  that  of  the  fol- 
lowing year  he  shone  as  a  severe  and  eloquent  doctrinal 

On  the  24th  of  May,  1862,  he  was  called  to  the  portfolio 
of  the  affairs  of  justice,  in  the  ephemeral  cabinet  which 
the  conservatives  of  the  chamber  threw  out  four  days 
later,  with  a  small  majority.  The  winners,  however,  did 
not  conquer  power,  which  passed  to  the  Marquis  of  Olinda, 
who  prepared  the  triumph  for  the  political  party,  of  wMch 
the  cabinet  of  the  24th  of  May  was  the  prelude. 

Furtado,  the  ex-minister,  in  the  test  exacted  by  the 
constitution,  was  unanimously  re-elected.  In   1863    the 


crown  dissolTod  the  chamber,  and  he  being  again  returned, 
was  elected  and  served  as  president  of  the  chamber  of  depu- 
ties from  January  to  the  24th  of  July,  1864,  when  the  Em- 
peror chose  him  senator,  from  the  triple  list  presented  by 
the  prorince  of  Maranhao. 

The  liberals  and  conservatives  offered  him  a  sumptuous 
farewell  banquet,  without  the  character  of  a  political 
party  manifestation ;  but  evidently  indicating  his  great 
personal  merit. 

Furtado,  in  the  presidency  of  the  chamber,  had  succeeded 
the  learned  councilor  Zacharias  de  Goes  e  Vasconcellos, 
who  had  left  it,  being  called  to  organize  a  ministry.  On 
the  31st  of  August  of  the  same  year,  he  succeeded  the  same 
statesman  in  the  government,  organizing  on  that  day  the 
cabinet  of  which  he  was  the  head. 

He  went  into  power  under  very  grave  circumstances ;  he 
had  inherited  the  difSculties  of  the  reprisals  provoked  by 
the  Oriental  Republic  of  Uruguay.  At  the  commencement 
of  his  ministry  a  terrible  commercial  crisis,  caused  by  the 
failures  of  the  principal  banking  houses,  menaced  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro, and  immediately  afterwards  the  savage  insults  of 
the  dictator  of  Paraguay,  Francisco  Solano  Lopes,  and  the 
unavoidable  war  in  vindication  of  the  national  honor, 
brought  to  the  cabinet  of  the  31st  of  August,  the  Furtado 
cabinet,  herculean  labors,  tortures  of  a  martyr,  the  im- 
position of  patriotic  tributes,  courageously,  energetically 
paid,  with  the  most  decided  civism,  and  glory  which  has 
only  been  equalled  by  the  glory  of  the  patriarchs  of  the 
independence  of  Brazil. 

In  the  Uruguayan  question  the  Furtado  cabinet  complete- 
ed  the  political  work  commenced  by  the  cabinet  of  concil- 
or    Zacharias,    firmly    and    splendidly  establishing   the 

—  90  - 

power  of  the  arms  of  the  Empire  in  the  brilliant  victory  of 

Whilst  the  banking  houses  were  falling,  and  daring  the 
afilictive  writhings  of  commerce,  he,  with  the  vote  of  the 
council  of  State,  took  arbitrary  measures,  which,  at 
all  events,  tranquilized  the  people  and  afforded  time  for 
the  satisfaction  of  responsibilities,  which  the  abnormal 
and  stormy  situation  of  the  money  market  did  not  then 
permit,  engendering  despair,  menacing  imminent  and 
immediate  disaster  to  great  commercial  firms,  which,  in 
their  ruins  would  have  buried  many  others,  though,  per- 
haps, of  less  importance. 

In  the  war  with  Paraguay,  Furtado  was  the  fortunate 
Pompey,  who,  striking  the  earth  with  his  foot,  raised  the 
army  that  brought  victory  to  Brazil. 

On  the  7th  of  Jamcary^  1865,  this  distinguished  states- 
man signed  the  memorable  decree  which  called  to  arms 
the  Voluntarios  da  Patria  (the  country's  volunteers),  and, 
contrary  to  the  expectations  of  many,  from  the  provinces 
came  numbers  of  those  glorious  batallions  which  became 
immortalized  in  the  war  for  the  vindication  of  national 

This  great  measure,  which  proved  immense  confidence 
in  the  patriotism  of  Brazilians,  and  which  had  such  an 
extraordinary  influence  on  the  war,  owing  to  the  en- 
thusiasm with  which  it  was  accepted,  having  been  con- 
ceived, proposed,  and  executed  by  Furtado,  m&rks  a 
date,  preferable  to  any  other,  for  the  article  in  which 
his  name  is  registered  in  this  book. 

Whilst,  with  the  Voluntarios  da  Patria,  a  numerous 
army  was  extemporized,  the  cabinet  of  the  31st  of  Au- 
gust, through  the  energetic  action  and  activity  of  its 
minister  of  marine  (Councillor  Francisco  Xavier  Pinto 

.-31  - 
Lima),  reorganized  the  navy.  Of  old  and  condemned  ships 
new  ones  were  made,  which  took  part  in  the  memorable 
battle  of  Riachuelo  and  contributed  to  the  victory  which 
crashed  the  naval  force  of  Paraguay ;  the  ministry  determ- 
ined the  immediate  and  rapid  construction  of  the  first 
Brazilian  iron  clads  in  the  naval  arsenal  of  the  capital,  thus 
raising  the  navy  to  the  necessary  proportions  for  com- 
mencing the  war,  and  maintaining  the  superiority  of  the 
Brazilian  forces  in  the  waters  of  the  Parani. 

In  politics  and  in  the  home  administration,  Furtado 
worthily  developed  his  liberal  programme.  He  eflSciently 
guaranteed  the  liberty  of  free  Africans,  subject  to  the 
service  of  the  State  or  of  private  individuals ;  protected 
the  citizen  from  arbitrary  imprisonment,  and  performed 
many  other  important  services. 

Disagreements  among  members  of  the  party  caused  the 
fall  of  the  cabinet  of  the  31st  of  August  on  the  first 
day  of  the  session  of  the  chamber  in  May,  1865,  owing 
to  the  ministerial  candidate  to  the  presidency  of  the 
chamber  being  defeated  by  the  opposition  by  one  vote. 
If  any  member  of  the  cabinet  tried,  very  licitly, 
to  obtain  votes  in  parliament,  Furtado  strenuously  re- 
fused to  do  so. 

Having  asked  for,  and  obtained  their  dismissal^  the 
ex-ministers  were  applauded  by  the  population  of  the 

Leaving  the  ministry.  Senator  Furtado  took  the  place 
due  to  him  as  one  of  the  chiefs  of  the  liberal  party. 
From  1865  forward  he  was  a  moderate  but  stanch  opposer 
of  the  progressita  cabinets,  and  from  1868  to  1870  took 
and  maintained  the  same  position  against  the  conservative 
He   had  been  commercial  judge  of  the  capital,    and 


as  such,  in  the  intervals  of  the  legislative  sessions,  he 
enhanced  his  reputation  as  a  most  just  and  profoundly 
learned  magistrate.  In  1869,  however,  a  house  failed  in 
Maranhao,  which,  on  the  occasion  of  the  sickness  and  death 
of  his  first  wife,  and  of  his  removal  with  a  large  family 
to  the  capital,  had  lent  him  money,  which  amounted  to 
a  relatively  large  sum. 

Councilor  Senator  Furtado,  on  receiving  the  news, 
immediately  wrote  to  the  administrators  of  the  estate, 
assuring  them  that  he  would  make  every  effort  to  pay 
his  debit  in  the  shortest  possible  time.  With  this  object 
he  asked  for  and  obtained,  in  March,  1870,  his  superan- 
nuation as  commercial  judge,  with  the  honors  of  a  des- 
embargador  (judge  of  the  court  of  appeal),  and  opened 
an  office  as  an  advocate. 

His  clients  were  numerous,  but  grieving  and  extenuated 
by  work,  the  health  of  the  illustrious  councilor  Furtado 
commenced  to  give  way. 

In  April,  1870,  having  been  invited  to  take  charge  of  the 
celebrated  suit  discussed  before  the  court  of  appeal  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  gained  it  triumphantly,  proffering  an 
admirable  and  famous  defense ;  but  whilst  yet  in  court 
he  fainted,  and  being  taken  home  by  his  friends,  became 
worse,  and  on  the  23d  of  June,  1870  died  of  angina  pec- 

He  died  poor,  leaving  eight  children  (six  girls),  all  from 
his  first  marriage.  Some  faithful  and  devoted  friends 
opened  a  subscription  in  the  capital  and  in  the  provinces, 
which  produced  nearly  forty-seven  contos  de  reis,  and 
his  two  sons  received  a  good  education,  thanks  to  the 
pure  and  most  praiseworthy  friendship,  proved  beyond  the 

As  an  honorable  and  learned  judge,  Councilor  Francisco 


Josd  Furtado  may  have  had  his  equals,  but  he  had  no 

In  private  life  he  was  a  man  of  virtue,  delicate  in 
his  manners,  generous,  he  was  never  exceeded  in  points  of 
honor  or  probity,  and  he  to  a  friend  never  refused  a 
personal  sacrifice. 

In  politics,  he  was  a  distinguished  orator  in  parlia- 
ment, and  one  of  the  chiefs  of  the  liberal  party. 

As  a  liberal  doctrinal  orator  he  always  shone  more 
from  the  force  of  logic,  than  from  explosions  of  elo- 
quence. He  arrested  attention  and  swayed  his  audience 
by  the  exhibition  of  science  and  by  force  of  reasoning. 

His  speech  in  the  senate  defending  the  appeal  ^o  the 
crown  from  condemnation  by  the  bishops  ex  informata 
conscientia,  is  a  monument  in  the  annals  of  that  cham- 

In  the  last  years  of  his  life  none  of  the  liberal  chiefs 
enjoyed  more  prestige  than  he  in  his  political  party. 

The  constitutional  monarchy  of  Brazil,  still  more  than 
the  liberal  party,  suffered  a  great  loss  by  the  death  of 
Francisco  Josd  Furtado,  who  was  its  strongest  pillar, 
and  the  most  convinced  and  devoted  supporter  of  the 
representative  system. 

Councilor  Francisco  Jos6  Furtado  died  when  his  great 
political  influence  shone  with  the  splendors  of  a  midday 

VOL.   I 

Vm    or    JA.NTT-AJR-2* 


Born  in  Pemambuco  on  the  8th  of  September,  1796,  of 
unknown  parentage,  Jos^  da  Natividade  Saldanha,  enjoyed 
the  careful  protection,  probably  of  his  father;  for  the 
means  did  not  fail  him  for  studying  preparatories  and  for 
taking  a  degree  in  the  University  of  Coimbra. 

In  Pemambuco  he  left  the  fame  of  a  brilliant  intellect, 
and,  in  Coimbra,  he  in  a  short  time  gained  that  of  great 
ingenuity  and  of  a  fine  poetic  talent. 

He  was  yet  in  the  third  year  of  his  studies  in  Coimbra 
when  he  had  the  courage  to  publish  a  volume  of  136  pages 
with  the  title  poesias  offerecidas  aos  amaktes  do  brazil 
( Pieces  of  poetry  offered  to  the  lovers  of  Brazil ),  con- 
taining sonnets,  odes,  cantatas,  dithyrambs,  idyls,  etc. 
His  patriotism  found  vent  in  the  book  ;  in  some  of  his  odes 

he  exalts  celebrated  heroes  of  Pernambuco,  who  distin- 
guished themselves  in  the  war  against  the  Dutch. 

Like  many  others,  like  most  of  his  colleagues  of  the 
University  at  that  time,  he  was  an  ardent  republican 
and  an  enthusiast  of  the  independence  of  Brazil,  against 
which  provoking  voices  had  been  heard  in  the  Portuguese 
Chamber  since  1821. 

The  shout  of  Ypiranga  on  the  7th  of  September,  1822,  the 
proclamation  of  the  independence  and  of  the  Emperor,  ar- 
rived in  Portugal  on  the  12th  of  October  following,  and 
Jos6  da  Natividade  Saldanha,  then  in  the  third  year  of  his 
studios,  impelled  by  patriotic  ardor,  committed  the,  to 
himself,  fatal  error  of  deserting  from  the  University.  He 
left  it,  and  in  a  state  of  great  excitement  returned  to  his 
native  country. 

He  arrived  at  Pernambuco  with  republican  ideas.  It  is 
a  province  of  the  Brazilian  monarchy,  an-l  he  found  the 
liberals  of  the  Empire  enthusiasts  of  the  Emperor. 

The  young  republican  and  poet,  burning  in  the  lava  of 
two  volcanos,  had  not  long  to  wait  before  he  fell  a  victim 
to  the  eruption  of  one  of  them. 

In  November,  1823,  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  11,  injudi- 
ciouly  advised,  violently  dissolved  the  Brazilian  consti- 
tuinte  ( the  chamber  convoked  to  form  the  constitution  ), 
and  through  this  act  opened  a  deep  abyss  which  separated 
him  from  the  liberals. 

Pernambuco  gave  the  signal  for  revolutionary  resistance 
in  the  great  council  of  the  13th  of  December,  1823 ;  which 
created  an  abnormal  situation  and  a  provisional  government; 
repelling  the  authority  of  the  president  appointed  by  the 

Josd  da  Natividade  Saldanha  was  one  of  the  most  stren* 
uous  partisaxi^   of  this  revolt,  and  was,  by  the  Great 


Council,  elected  secretary  of  the  Council  of  the  temporary 
gorernment,  and  on  the  8th  of  January,  1824,  the  result  of 
the  elections  were  taken  for  president,  secretary  (to  which 
post  he  was  elected),  and  the  members  of  the  council  of  the 
provisional  government  of  the  province,  named  by  the 
electoral  college  of  the  districts  of  Olinda  and  Recife, 
convoked  by  that  of  the  13th  of  December,  1823. 

It  was  the  commencement,  then  scarcely  dissimulated, 
of  the  republican  revolt  of  Pernambuco  in  1824. 

On  the  2nd  of  July,  Manoel  de  Carvalho  Paes  de  An- 
drade  proclaimed  the  Federation  of  the  Equator ^  inviting 
the  northern  provinces  to  adhere  to  it.  The  support  on 
which  he  depended,  however,  failed,  and  he  was  even 
unable  to  overcome  the  reaction  of  Barra  Grande,  which 
had  already  appeared  in  Pernambuco. 

On  the  12th  of  September  General  Francisco  de  Lima  e 
Silva  entered,  with  the  government  troops,  one  of  the 
suburbs  of  Recife  and  occupied  it,  whilst  Manoel  Carvalho, 
who  had  gone  out  to  meet  the  republican  forces  which 
were  retreating  from  the  neighborhood  of  Barra  Orande, 
found  himself  intercepted,  and  being  unable  to  return  to 
the  city,  embarked  at  night  in  a  jangada  and  sought  refuge 
on  board  the  British  corvette  Tweed. 

The  revolution  was  crushed. 

As  soon  as  General  Lima  e  Silva  entered  Recife,  Josd  da 

Natividade  Saldanha  managed  to  emigrate  to  the  United 

States,  and  went  to  reside  in  Philadelphia  with  Colonel 

Jos6  de  Barros  FalcEo,  JosS  Tavares  Gomes  da  Fonseca, 

and  others  involved  in  the  revolution,  and  did  not  again 

return  to  Pernambuco,  leaving  it  as  a  farewell,  an  eulogy 
commencing  : 

«  Segunda  yez  te  deixo>  oh  patria  amada ; 
«  Lulando  bra^o  k  bra^o  com  a  desgra^  I . . . 

The  military  commissioners  created  in  Pernambuco 
condemned  him  to  death,  and  published  notices  authoriz- 
ing any  person  to  kill  him. 

From  the  United  States,  Josd  da  Natividade  Saldanha 
went  to  Venezuela,  where,  in  order  to  live,  he  enlisted 
as  a  soldier,  obtaining  the  protection  of  General  Abreu 
Lima,  who  was  then  serving  there  in  the  army  and  recom- 
mended him  to  General  Escalona. 

His  fortunes  afterwards  improved;  he  obtained  the 
credit  of  being  a  man  of  letters  and  became  a  professor  of 
humanities  in  Bogota. 

In  1830,  coming  home  late  one  stormy  and  rainy 
night,  Jos6  da  Natividade  Saldanha  was  carried  away  by 
the  water  and  fell  into  the  acequia,  or  ditch,  of  the  street 
along  which  he  was  passing  and  there  died. 

In  the  morning  he  was  found  drowned. 

The  information  respecting  the  life  of  this  unfortunate 
exile,  is  taken  from  brief  manuscript  notes  left  by  Gen- 
eral Abreu  Lima,  and  agree  perfectly  with  others  which 
Councilor  F.  Lopes  Netto,  when  Brazilian  minister  pleni- 
potentiary in  Bolivia,  received  in  1868  of  the  Consul- 
General  of  Venezuela,  who  had  been  a  pupil  of  Jos6  da 
Natividade  Saldanha.  He  spoke  of  his  professor  with  enthu- 
siasm, and  was  in  Bogota  in  1830  when  he  met  with 
his  disastrous  death. 

It  is  said  that  Josd  da  Natividade  Saldanha  had  a  man- 
uscript of  two  volumes  of  poetry  which    were  lost. 

I^     OF    JA.N-XJ-A.R.'Sr 

M  mm  DA  ROCHA 


Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha  was  born  on  the  19th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1777,  in  the  city  of  Marianna,  province  of  Minas 
Geraes.  He  there  commenced  his  studies,  and  his  pro- 
gress in  humanities  was  such,  that  when  only  sixteen 
years  old  he  was  chosen  by  his  school-master.  Father 
Pascoal  Bernardino  de  Mattos,  a  learned  and  famous  Pro- 
fessor of  Latin,  to  teach  the  respective  class  as  his  sub- 

As  he  married  on  the  25th  of  April,  1798,  he  did  not 
go  to  Coimbra  to  obtain  a  degree,  as  he  intended  doing. 
In  the  captaincy  of  Minas  Geraes  he  served  several  charges 
under  government  and  offices  of  justice,  with  pru- 
dence and  intelligent  zeal.  He  became  officer  of  the  mil- 
itia regiment  of  the  city  of  Marianna,  and  ordnance  cap- 
tain of  the  next  district,  and  was  promoted  to  the  post  of 

-40  - 
capitao  m6r  for  his  services  in  settling  the  quarrels  of 
many  of  the  owners  of  auriferous  lands,  an  object  which 
he   attained  by  conciliatory  means,  without  violence  or 

In  1808  he  removed  from  Minas  Geraes  to  the  city  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  opened  an  office  as  an  advocate, 
though  he  had  taken  no  degree  in  laws,  and  in  a  short 
time  acquired  great  reputation  at  the  bar,  owing  to  his 
great  intellect  and  probity. 

His  gains  as  a  lawyer  were  considerable,  but  he  always 
served  the  poor  and  the  unfortunate  gratuitously. 

In  1821  he  adhered  at  once  to  the  revolution  in  Portu- 
gal; became  a  district  and  provincial  elector,  and  was 
elected  substitute  deputy  to  the  cflrtes  of  Portugal. 

It  was,  however,  well  for  him  that  he  had  not  to  go  to 
Lisbon.  Capitao-m6r  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha  gained  his  great- 
est glory  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  the  years  1821  and  1822. 

The  name  of  the  modest,  but  learned  and  illustrious  pa- 
triot, capitao  m6r  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha,  is  connected  with 
the  great  9th  day  of  January,  1822.  If  he  was  not  the 
chief,  he  was,  at  least,,  one  of  the  most  active  and  decid- 
ed conspirators  of  the  majestic  and  electrical  revolution, 
then  embraced  by  the  prince  regent,  nine  months  later  Don 
Pedro  I,  Emperor  of  independent  Brazil. 

The  shout  of  Ypiranga  on  the  7th  of  September,  1822, 
unduly  usurps  from  Rio  de  Janeiro,  for  the  province  of 
S.  Paulo,  the  incontestable  glory,  based  on  positive  facts, 
of  the  dangerous  initiative  of  the  independence  of  Brazil, 
and  of  the  patriotic  conspiracy  to  realize  it. 

Jos6  Bonifacio  de  Andrade  e  Silva  was  the  minister  and 
the  great  directing  head  of  the  events  of  1822,  from  the  IBth 
of  January  forward,  for  the  proclamation  of  the  inde- 
pendence of  Brazil;  but  already  in  1821,  the  initiators 

—  41  — 

of  this  great  event,  its  champions,  its  devoted  conspira- 
tors in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  were  Nobrega,  Januario,  Ledo, 
father  Sampaio,  and  others,  but  the  most  influential  of 
all  and  the  man  who  gave  it  the  greatest  impulse  was 
capitSo  m6r  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha. 

Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha  was  one  of  the  first,  in  1821, 
to  entertain  the  idea  of  the  independence  of  Brazil,  and, 
from  the  first  decrees  of  the  Portuguese  cdrtes  decen- 
tralizing the  Brazilian  provinces,  to  conspire  to  realize 
it,  in  the  oltdf  to  which  also  belonged  Nobrega,  Paulo 
Barboza  da  Silva,  Pedro  Dias  Paes  Leme  (afterwards  Mar- 
quis of  Quixaramobim),  and  others. 

In  another  club.  Father  (afterwards  canon)  Januario,  Ledo, 
Friar  Sampaio,  and  various  other  patriots,  worked  for  the 
same  object. 

They  were  not  foreign  to  those  secret  counsels  and  ano- 
nymous proclamations,  which  in  some  days  of  the  month  of 
October,  1821,  appeared  stuck  at  the  corners  of  the  streets  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  inciting  the  people  to  declare  for  the  inde- 
pendence, with  the  prince  Don  Pedro  as  Emperor  of  Brazil. 

But  up  to  the  end  of  November  the  prince  regent  Don 
Pedro,  heir  presumptive  to  the  crown,  was  loyal  to  the  king 
Don  John  VI,  his  father.  The  Luzitanian  party  supported  by 
the  Portuguese  troops  of  the  garrison,  and  the  Brazilians 
themselves,  advanced  liberals  and  republicans,  who  were  de- 
voted to  the  cdrtes  that  represented  the  revolution  of  1820, 
and  with  it,  liberal  principles,  were  all  opposed  to  the  cause 
of  the  independence. 

The  decrees  of  the  cdrtes,  dated  the  29th  of  September, 
1821,  one  extinguishing  the  courts  which  the  king  had  cre- 
ated in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  the  other  ordering  the  prince 
Don  Pedro  to  leave  Brazil  and  to  travel  over  the  United  States 
of  North  America,  as  well  as  France  and  England,  appeared 

VOL.  1  6 

—  42- 
in  the  beginning  of  Dec  ember  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
irritating  all  Brazilians  and  exciting  the  resentment  of  the 

Rocha  immediately  called  a  meeting  of  his  club,  and 
from  it  Paula  Barboza  went  to  Minas,  and  Pedro  DiasPaes 
Leme  to  S.  Paulo,  in  order  to  promote  representations 
praying  the  prince  Don  Pedro  to  remain  in  Brazil. 

The  provincial  junta  of  S.  Paulo  was  the  first  to  represent 
on  the  24th  of  December. 

The  execution  of  these  designs  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro 
was  a  much  more  difficult  matter,  in  consequence  of  the  num- 
erous Portuguese  garrison  which  was  in  the  habit  of  sedi- 
tiously enforcing  its  will. 

The  representation  was  drawn  out,  however,  and  that  as 
many  signatures  as  possible  might  be  obtained,  some  young 
men,  members  of  the  principal  families  of  the  capital,  and 
among  these  two  sons  of  capitao  m6r  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha, 
undertook  to  stick  at  the  corners  of  the  streets  advertise- 
ments and  invitations,  naming  the  houses  in  which  that 
patriotic  document  could  be  signed. 

Jorge  de  Avilez,  commander  of  the  Portuguese  garrison, 
was  on  the  alert,  and  numerous  patrols  watched  the  streets 
of  the  city.  The  soldiers,  with  the  points  of  their  bayonets, 
tore  down  the  invitations  ;  but  it  was  in  vain  !  no  sooner 
had  they  turned  their  backs,  than  the  young  patriots  put 
up  new  advertisements. 

This  took  place  on  the  2d  and  3d  of  January,  and  on 
the  7th,  more  than  eight  thousand  signatures  (a  very 
large  number  for  that  time)  had  been  affixed  to  the  repre- 
sentation, which,  on  the  9th  of  January,  was  solemnly 
tendered  by  the  senate  to  the  prince  Don  Pedro,  who 
answered,  declaring  that  he  would  remain  in  Brazil. 
The  prince  Don  Pedro  being,  in  this  way,  placed  at   the 

head  of  the  revolution,  Josd  Joaquim  da  Rocha  falls  into 
the  shade ;  but,  though  modest,  he  works  so  hard  and  is  so 
devoted,  that  on  the  1st  of  December,  1822,  Don  Pedro,  after 
the  ceremony  of  his  coronation  as  Constitutional  Emperor 
of  Brazil  had  been  concluded,  on  entering  the  palace,  seeing 
^n  the  midst  of  the  crowd  one  of  the  sons  of  the  worthy 
Rocha,  asked  him  in  a  loud  voice  : 

«  Where  is  your  father,  I  have  not  seen  hiiji  today?  » 
«  He  is  sick.  Sire.  » 

«  Well,  go  and  tell  him,  that  he  has  this  day  been  named 
a  dignitary  of  the  Order  of  the  Cross.  » 

Having  been  elected  by  the  province  of  Minas  Geraes  a 
member  of  the  Brazilian  constituinte,  Rocha,  though  a 
moderate  liberal,  was,  on  the  12th  of  November,  1823,  after 
the  dissolution  of  that  assembly,  arrested  on  coming  out  of 
it,  and  exiled  with  the  three  Andradas,  Montezuma,  (after- 
wards Viscount  of  Jequitinhonha)  and  two  of  his  sons. 

In  1830  he  returned  from  exile,  and  again  commenced  to 
work  at  the  bar. 

On  the  12th  of  April,  1831,  the  provisional  regency 
appointed  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rosha  envoy  extraordinary  and 
minister  plenipotentiary  to  the  Court  of  Paris,  and  so  much 
solicitude  and  delicacy  did  he  display  in  this  important  mis- 
sion, that  when,  in  1834,  a  question  of  a  certain  gravity 
arose  in  consequence  of  the  nomination  of  Father  Dr.  An- 
tonio Maria  de  Moura  as  bishop  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  between 
the  Holy  See  and  the  Brazilian  Government,  capitao-m6r 
Josd  Joaquim  da  Rocha  was  appointed  to  the  Court  of  Rome 
in  the  same  character. 

In  his  new  mission  he  gave  proofs  of  great  tact  and 
moderation,  as  well  as  of  firmness,  maintaining  the  ideas 
and  the  instructions  of  his  government,  until,  having  mo- 

—  44- 

difled  their  politics,   they  gave  him  a  successor  in  thai 
high  diplomatic  charge. 

In  Paris  as  well  as  in  Rome,  capitao  mdr  Jos6  Joaquim 
da  Rocha,  was  always  the  protector  and  careful  friend 
of  all  the  Brazilian  students  and  travelers  who  sought 
the  intervention  and  the  assistance  of  the  Brazilian  min- 
ister, and  his  generosity  often  dissipated  apprehensions 
and  pecuniary  difficulties,  which  embarassed  them. 

On  returning  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  1838  he  found  himself 
poor,  rather  in  debt,  old  and  care-worn;  but  opening  once 
again  his  office,  he  worked  arduously,  he  worked  too 
much,  paid  his  liabilities,  and  maintained  his  family  in  a 
dignified  manner.  He,  however,  lost  his  health,  and  felt 
painfully  that  he  was  also  losing  his  sight. 

In  1841  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  II,  on  the  day  of  his 
coronation  remembered  and  distinguished  the  worthy 
Rocha,  by  conferring  on  him  the  title  of  councilor. 

Shortly  after,  however,  the  patriot  and  one  of  the 
patriarchs  of  the  independence,  became  totally  blind. 
Even  so  he  practised,  hearing  the  suits  read,  and  dictating 
to  his  clerks  all  that  was  needed  to  be  said  in  the  some- 
times long  and  important  cases  entrusted  to  his  care. 

At  last  he  could  no  longer  work ;  besides  being  com- 
pletely blind,  disease  prostrated  him  on  his  death-bed. 

He  was  then  seventy-one  years  of  age,  and  extremely 

Though  filial  love  and  devotedness  watched  at  his  bed- 
side, he  was  tormented  in  his  blindness,  in  his  old  age, 
in  his  poverty,  by  the  thought  of  the  sufferings  of  his 

Under  these  trying  circumstances  he  received  the  most 
grateful  consolation.  The  Brazilian  Historical  and  Geo- 
graphical Institute  presented  the  government  with  a  brief 

—  45  — 

but  eloquent  report  of  the  important  services  rendered  by 
the  learned  and  worthy  patriarch  of  the  independence, 
and  a  fevr  days  later  the  imperial  government  published 
a  decree  granting  councelor  capitao  mdr  Jos6  Joaquim  da 
Rocha  a  pension  of  twelve  hundred  mil  reis  a  year, 
to  pass  at  his  death  to  his  widow  and  children.     . 

The  venerable  Rocha,  worthy  blind  old  man,  at  death's 
door,  shed  copious  tears  when  he  heard  what  the  Institute 
had  done,  and  what  the  imperial  government  had  decreed. 

A  few  days  later,  on  the  16th  of  July,  1848,  councilor 
Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha  departed  this  life. 

When  the  Emperor  received  the  news  of  the  death  of 
the  modest  and  venerable  patriarch  of  the  independence, 
he  immediately  ordered  that  the  funeral  expenses  should 
be  paid  out  of  his  private  purse. 

A  commission  of  the  Historical  and  Geographical  Insti- 
tute of  Brazil  accompanied  the  mortal  remains  of  councilor 
Rocha  to  the  tomb  which  recrived  them,  and  saw  a  chaplet 
of  cizalpind  placed  in  front  of  the  corpse  by  the  respected 
and  eloquent  orator,  who  was  then  the  learned  M.  Manoel 
de  Araujo  Porto  Alegre,  now  Baron  of  Santo  Angelo,  who, 
in  the  funeral  ceremony  and  the  last  farewell,  closed  his 
impressive  discourse  with  the  following  monumental 
words  : 

<  When  I  was  in  Rome,  and  received  the  benefits  con- 
ferred by  councilor  Rocha,  I  heard  him  say  these  memorable 
words  to  the  greatest  Brazilian  poet:  «I  shall  not  grudge  the 
sacrifices  and  the  enormous  losses  which  I  sustained  from 
1822  to  1830,  if  when  I  am  laid  in  my  grave  a  voice  be 
raised  which  shall  pronounce  these  words — Independence 
OR  death!  for  these  words  contain  the  greatest  and  the 
happiest  days  of  my  life.  »  And  councilor  Rocha  shed  tears. 

«  Let,  therefore,   his  request  be  complied  with,  and  let 

—  46  — 
councilor  Rocha  receive  this  wreath  of  Brazil,  in  the 
name  of  his  country,  in  the  name  of  history.  It  is  offered 
by  the  Institute,  the  Historial  Institute,  which  will 
always  honor  the  grateful  memory  of  its  deceased  hon- 
orary member,  the  worthy  Josd  Joaquim  da  Rocha,  who 
gave  the  first  impulse  to  our  independence.  » 

X    OF    JA.Ti^rXJJLSrS' 


Joao  Fernandes  Vieira  died  on  the  10th  of  January, 
1861,  in  the  city  of  Olinda.  He  died  as  he  should 
have  died.  He  sleeps  the  sleep  of  death  in  the  capital 
of  Pemambuco,  where  he  had  risen  to  the  pinnacle  of 

He  was  bom  in  the  island  of  Madeira,  and  arrived  at 
Pemambuco,  a  poor  but  laborious  immigrant,  shortly  be- 
fore the  Dutch  invasion  in  1630. 

His  enthusiastic  panegyrist,  Father  Raphael  de  Jesus,  in 
his  Castrioto  Lusitano,  attributes  to  him  acts  of  phan- 
tastic  heroism  in  fort  S.  Josd,  in  the  same  year  1630, 
immediately  after  the  commencement  of  the  Dutch  war. 
Doubts  may  be  entertained  of  that  dawn  of  heroism,  pre- 
cursor of  that  splendid  sun  which  afterwards  shone  in 
a  cloudless  sky. 

-  48  — 

The    glory  of  JoSo  Fernandes  Vieira  requires  no  im- 
aginary or  unfounded  tales. 

Vieira  is  an  unknown  personage  in  the  first  and  sec- 
ond periods  of  the  Dutch  war. 

In  the  first,  he  either  did  not  serve,  or  passed  ignored 
and  unknown. 

In  the  second,  during  the  enlightened  and  intelligent 
administration  of  prince  Maurice  of  Nassau,  he,  like  many 
other  Portuguese  and  Brazilians,  submitted  to  the  Dutch 
power.  He  entered  into  business,  was  fortunate,  and  be- 
came rich  through  his  marriage  with  a  distinguished  and 
wealthy  lady  of  Pernambuco.  In  1644,  though  he 
had  before  him  a  most  happy  and  tranquil  future,  he 
did  not  hesitate  to  risk  his  all  on  a  very  doubtful 

It  was  in  this  game  that  his  glory  commenced  to  ra- 
diate :  for  Vieira  patriotically  risked  all  his  wealth  for 
the  love  of  his  country. 

When,  in  1644,  Andre  Vidal  de  Negreiros  was  or- 
dered to  go  to  Pernambuco  with  instructions  from  the 
governor-general  of  Brazil,  Telles  da  Silva,  to  implant  the 
gorms  of  the  conspiracy  against  the  Dutch  power,  he 
found  in  Joilo  Fernandes  Vieira  the  first  and  most  devot- 
ed conspirator. 

Though  the  object  of  the  suspicions  of  the  Dutch  chiefsr 
(having  been  formally  denounced  as  the  chief  of  an  immi- 
nent insurrection),  Vieira  did  not  retreat.  He  hastened  the 
patriotic  rebellion,  uttered  the  shout  of  independence  on 
the  13th  of  July,  1845,  and  on  the  3d  of  Augua*  of  the 
same  year,  having  collected  only  about  a  thousand  men, 
undisciplined  and  badly  armed,  with  Captain  Antonio  Bias 
Canlozo  who  had  seventy  soldiers,  awaited  on  Tabocas  Hill, 
Colonel  Hans,  who,  commanding  eight  hundred  men  of 

-  49  - 

regular  troops  was  pursuing  him,  and  who  Vieira  routed 
completely,  after  a  hot  fight. 

Immediately  after  this  victory,  all  Dutch  Brazil  took  up 
arms,  and  JoSo  Femandes  Vieira  distinguished  himself  in 
the  midst  of  that  brilliant  circle  of  men  called  Negreiros, 
Henrique  Dias,  GamarSo,  Soares  Moreno,  Gardozo  and 
others :  he  is  not  a  military  man,  he  does  not  take  the 
command  in  chief ;  but  he  is  an  improviso  general,  and 
equals  those  commanders  in  hability  and  bravery. 

On  the  7th  of  October,  1645,  he  is  proclaimed  by  the 
people  and  nobility,  by  the  clergy  and  the  military  of  Per- 
nambuco— sfOt?ernor  of  the  independence.  In  July  of  the 
following  year  he  received  three  treacherous  shots,  one  of 
the  balls  wounding  him  in  the  shoulder  ;  as  however  he  had 
reasons  to  believe  that  the  instigators  of  the  assassins  were 
rivals  envious  of  his  high  position,  he  was  generous  enough 
to  quash  the  affair  and  forget  the  crime  to  avoid  discord  in 
the  Brazilian  camp. 

The  war  continued,  and  Vieira,  always  active  and  ener- 
getic, never  spared  either  his  person  or  his  money.  It  would 
be  difficult  to  enumerate  all  the  combats  in  which  he  took 
part,  always  displaying  great  courage. 

In  1648  and  1649  he  distinguished  himself  remarkably  in 
the  two  battles  of  the  Guararapes,  under  the  command  in 
chief  of  General  Barreto  de  Menezes. 

In  these  two  sanguinary  and  memorable  battles,  gained 
by  the  army  of  Pernambuco,  the  Dutch  power  received  its 
deathblow.  The  Butch  army  no  longer  dared  to  leave  the 
city  of  Recife,  where,  closely  besieged,  it  continued  to 
resist  till  1654,  when  its  chief  signed,  on  the  26th  of 
January,  the  capitulation  of  campina  do  Taborda,  which 
closed  the  war,  with  the  complete  and  glorious  victory  of 
the  people  of  Pernambuco. 

VOL.   I  1 

—  50  - 

JoEo  Fernandes  Vieira  entered  Recife  on  the  27th  of 
January  at  the  head  of  the  vanguard  of  the  independent 

Don  John  IV,  amongst  other  recompenses,  gave  Vieira  the 
fdro  grande  (an  honorary  distinction  to  which  a  pension  is 
annexed),  named  him  a  commander  of  the  Order  of  Christ, 
also  with  a  pension,  and  promoted  him  to  the  govemorshid 
of  the  capitaincy  of  Parahyba,  until  that  of  Angola  became 
vacant ;  in  both  of  these  he  gave  proofs  of  great  adminis- 
trative capacity. 

Don  John  IV  was  well  able  to  appreciate  the  services  rend- 
ered by  the  heroes  of  the  rebellion  of  Pernambuco ;  be- 
cause they  carried  on  the  war,  limited,  almost  exclusively, 
to  their  own  resources,  and,  in  1646,  resisted  the  orders  to 
the  contrary,  which  had  been  wrested  from  that  king  as  a 
cruel  and  imperious  political  necessity. 

Joao  Fernandes  Vieira  has  every  right  to  the  title  of  a 
splendid  hero,  to  whom  a  place  of  honor  is  due  in  the 
gallery  of  the  most  illustrious  and  worthy  men  of  Brazil. 

^J:  of  J-A-nSTTJ-A-H^S- 


Though  one  of  the  worthies  of  the  independence,  and  a 
remarkable  politician  and  patriot  of  1822,  much  information 
is  wanting  respecting  the  life  of  the  devoted,  but  retiring 
Brazilian,  Luiz  Pereira  da  Nobrega. 

It  is  known  that  he  was  born  in  Angra  dos  Reis,  province 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  that  he  entered  the  army,  and  that  he 
was  a  captain  of  the  line  in  the  Moura  regiment  in  the  time 
of  Don  John,  the  prince  regent,  who  appointed  him  colonel 
of  the  militia  cavalry  regiment  of  the  district  of  Itapacord. 
He  was  succeeded  in  that  acting  command  by  Fernando 
Carneiro,  afterwards  Count  of  Villa  Nova.  As,  however,  the 
privileges  of  that  regiment  gave  its  superior  oflScers  the 
honors  of  officers  of  the  line,  he  entered  the  general  staff 
of  the  army,  with  the  same  rank  of  colonel,  and  remained 
under  orders  at  the  Palace. 

-52  — 

He  was  not  a  well-instructed  man ;  on  the  contrary,  his 
information  was  limited  ;  but  he  was  a  man  of  strong  will 
and  capable  of  acts  of  energy. 

In  1821  he  belonged  to,  and  was  an  assiduous  attendant 
at  the  club  of  capitao  mor  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Rocha.  He  was  an 
ardent  and  devoted  co-operator  in  the  work  which  prepared 
the  events  of  the  9th  of  January,  1822,  when  the  revolution 
for  the  independence  broke  out  with  the  declaration  of  the 
prince  regent,  Don  Pedro,  that  he  toould  remain  in  Brazil, 
disobeying  the  decrees  of  the  Lisbon  cfirtes,  and  of  his  father 
King  John  VI. 

Two  days  later,  on  the  11th  of  January,  General  Avi- 
lez  declared  himself,  and  the  auxilliary  division  which 
he  commanded,  and  which  was  composed  of  disciplined 
Portuguese  troops,  against  the  decision  of  the  prince 
regent,  and  occupied  the  Castle  Hill,  menacing  the  city. 
Nobrega  then  lived  in  Misericordia  Street,  on  the  slope 
of  the  hill.  His  patriotic  ideas  were  well-known,  and  so 
much  had  he  done  in  favor  of  the  representation  taken 
before  the  prince  on  the  9th  of  January,  that  the  Portu- 
guese soldiers  insulted  him,  throwing  large  stones  down 
on  his  house. 

Fearing  for  his  family,  he  took  them  to  the  house  of 
his  freind,  capitSo  m6r  Jos^  Joaquim  da  Rocha,  and  went 
immediately  to  Santa  Anna  field  where  the  native  sol- 
diers and  patriots  had  met. 

The  services  which  he  rendered  during  all  that  day 
and  the  night  of  the  11th  to  the  12th  of  January, 
aiding  in  preparing  the  resistance,  in  arming  the  people, 
and  in  performing  urgent  and  most  delicate  commis- 
sions, place  him  in  the  first  rank  of  the  worthies  of 
that  day  and  night  of  glorious  devotedness  to  civism. 
In  July,  1822,   he  was  named  minister  of  war,  ad  in- 

—  58  — 

terim,  and  on  the  1st  of  August  he  had  the  honor  of 
signing  the  decree  which  declared  that  any  troops 
sent  from  Portugal  or  any  other  nation  without  the 
previous  consent  of  the  prince  regent,  should  be  con- 
sidered as  enemies  and  treated  as  such. 

On  the  28th  of  October,  1822,  after  the  proclamation 
of  the  independence  of  Brazil  and  of  the  prince  Don 
Pedro  as  Constitutional  Emperor  and  Perpetual  Defender 
of  Brazil,  the  Andrada  ministry,  of  which  Nolrega  was 
still  minister  of  war,  ad  interim,  resigned.  But  the  two 
Andradas,  Jos6  Bonifacio  and  Martim  Francisco,  returned 
to  power  on  the  30th  of  the  same  month,  and  taking 
extraordinary  and  oppressive  measures  opened  an  inquiry 
respecting  a  conspiracy  which  was  never  proved.  Never- 
theless Jos6  Clemente,  Father  Januario  da  Cunha  Barbosa, 
and  the  ex-minister  of  war  were  exiled  to  France. 

Neither  of  these  patriots  of  the  independence,  nor  Joa- 
quim  Gongalves  Ledo,  who  in  November  also  fled  to 
Buenos  Ayres,  nor  Nobrega,  were  elected  deputies  to  the 
Brazilian  constituinte  assembly. 

When  he  returned  home  in  1824  he  did  not  influence 
political  aflfairs ;  but  in  1826  the  province  of  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro elected  him  a  deputy  to  the  general  assembly  of  the 
first  ordinary  legislature,  and  as  soon  as  the  chamber  was 
installed  he  had  the  honor  of  being  elected  its  president. 

Luiz  Pereira  da  Nobrega  was  no  orator,  neither  could 
he  distinguish  himself  in  parliament.  In  the  army  he  rose 
to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-general.  He  died  in  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Luiz  Pereira  da  Nobrega  de  Souza  Coutinho  was  one 
of  the  worthies  of  the  independence  of  Brazil,  and  rend- 
ered that  cause  such  relevant  services  in  1822  as  to 
deserve    an   honorable  place  in  the  history  of  Brazil. 

XH    or    JJ^l^TTJJ^Tl-^ 


The  back-woodsmen  of  S.  Paulo,  the  discoverers  of  the 
vast  territory  which  afterwards  formed  the  province  of 
Goyaz,  one  after  the  other  had  seen  a  century  pass  by, 
and  with  all  their  bravery  had  been  unable  to  conquer 
and  tame  the  savage  tribe  of  the  Cayapd  Indians,  who 
ruled  the  wild  district  of  Camapuan 

The  intrepid  and  revengeful  Cayapds,  in  their  incursions, 
dared  to  penetrate  to  the  north  of  the  capitania  of  S. 
Paulo.  They  fought  courageously  with  the  bandeiras 
(  companies  or  bands  of  S.  Paulo  back- woodsmen ),  and 
pillaged  their  caravans. 

Luiz  da  Cunha  Menezes,  governor  and  captain-general 
of  the  capitania  of  Goyaz  from  1778  to  1783,  resolved 
on  employing  gentle,   conciliatory,  and  humane  measures 

—  56- 
to  civilize  that  energetic  and  warlike  tribe,  and  in  1780 
sent  an  intelligent  common  soldier,  called  Louis,  at  the 
head  of  fifty  men  of  Goyaz  and  three  Indians,  in  friendly 
search  of  the  Cayapds. 

After  some  months  the  soldier  Louis  returned  with 
his  adventurers  to  Villa  Boa  ( afterwards  city  of  Goyaz), 
bringing  about  forty  Cayapds  with  the  chief  of  the  tribe, 
an  old  man  still  strong,  and  of  an  imposing  aspect. 

With  the  women,  a  daughter  of  the  chief  had  come, 
leading  a  boy  by  the  hand,  carrying  on  her  back,  in  a 
kind  of  net  made  of  llianes,  a  beautiful  little  girl  only 
a  few  months  old. 

The  old  man,  flattered  by  the  manner  in  which  he  was 
received,  and  by  the  favors  bestowed  on  him  by  the  great 
coptom  (the  governor),  resolved  on  remaining  with  the 
conquerors,  and  sent  back  his  warriors,  ordering  them 
to  bring  the  other  Cayapds. 

The  little  girl,  grand-daughter  of  the  chief,  was  baptized 
and  received  the  name  of  Damiana,  and  as  the  governor 
was  her  god-father  he  gave  her  his  surname  of  da 

The  Cayapds,  whose  numbers  were  increased  by  new 
arrivals,  were  settled  in  the  villages  of  Maria  and  S. 

Donna  Damiana  da  Cunha  grew  up  and  married  a 
Brazilian  in  the  village  of  S.  Jos6.  Auguste  de  Saint 
Hilaire,  who  went  to  see  her  when  in  Goyaz,  mentions 
her  with  interest  and  praise.  She  was  a  handsome 
woman,  amiable,  quick-twitted,  speaking  well  the  Por- 
tuguese language,  and,  which  is  more  important,  enjoying 
great  influence  with  the  Cayapds. 

Harmony  and  peace,  however,  did  not  last  long :  those 
savages  again  ret^r^ed  to  a  still  more  terrible  war.   For 

—  67- 

not  a  few  of  those  who  deserted  from  the  villages,  after 
learning  how  to  manage  flre-arms,  took  those  powerful 
instruments  to  their  brothers  in  the  woods. 

Then,  when  the  war  raged  most  furiously,  when  the 
Cayapds  attacked  and  burned  dwellings,  destroyed  plan- 
tations, killed  and  pillaged  the  settlers,  and  were  con- 
sequently pursued  with  equal  cruelty,  many  of  them 
dying  in  revengeful  and  horrible  massacres,  the  virtuous 
Donna  Damiana  da  Gunha,  a  poor  and  weak  lady,  com- 
menced the  task  of  Nobrega  and  Anchieta. 

A  heroine  of  fraternal  love,  an  angel  of  charity,  an 
apostle  of  faith,  a  tender  and  powerful  element  of  civil- 
ization. Donna  Damiana  da  Gunha  undertook  the  great 
and  glorious  task  of  going  into  the  woods  to  call  the 
Cayapds  to  social  life,  to  religion,  and  to  the  duties 
of  labor. 

This  admirable  and  worthy  lady,  four  times  astonished 
the  people  of  Goyaz  with  her  triumphs,  which  cost  her 
long  and  fatiguing  journeys,  exposing  her  life  to  the  attacks 
of  wild  beasts,  and  to  a  thousand  other  dangers,  and  months 
of  wearisome  perseverance,  which  exhausted  her  strength. 

She  neither  took  soldiers  or  warriors  with  her :  she 
only  took  a  heart  full  of  love,  a  soul  replete  with  faith, 
and  suspended  over  her  breast  the  cross  of  the  Redeemer. 

In  1808,  after  having  penetrated  to  the  South,  the 
solitudes  of  the  Araguaya,  Donna  Damiana  returned  to 
the  village  of  S.  Josd  with  more  than  seventy  Cayapds 
of  both  sexes,  who  were  baptized. 

A  short  time  before  1820,  she  was  preparing  for  a  second 
journey,  when  she  received  the  visit  of  the  learned  Saint 
Hilaire,  who  threw  out  some  doubts  with  regard  to  the 
result  of  the  undertaking.  Donna  Damiana  answered: 
«  The  Cayapds  respect  me  too  much  not  to  heed  what 
voi.  I  8 

-58  — 
t  say.  »  And  the  success  of  the  second  journey  equalled 
Ihat  of  the  first. 

In  1824  the  noble  lady-apostle  again  penetrated  into 
the  solitudes  of  Gamapuan,  and  after  seven  months  of 
toil  and  of  saintly  preaching,  she  conducted  to  the  bap- 
tismal fount  and  to  civilization  one  hundred  and  two 
Cayapds  of  both  sexes. 

She  had  done  a  great  deal;  she  was  wearied^  abated,  and 
weakened  with  ascending  mountains,  descending  immense 
valleys,  and  facing  dangers  and  death,  and  with  the  thous- 
and privations  she  suffered  in  the  deserts. 

But  ^towards  the  end  of  1829  the  Cayapds  appeared 
in  great  numbers  and  very  menacing,  spreading  destruc- 
tion and  death  along  their  path. 

The  president  of  Goyaz,  a  province  of  Brazil  since  1822, 
appealed  to  Donna  Damiana  da  Gunha. 

The  angel  dispelled  the  tempest:  at  her  voice  the  Caya- 
pds became  pacified,  and  the  self-denying  heroine,  forget- 
ting the  deep  alteration  in  her  health,  received  instruc- 
tions from  the  president  of  the  province,  and  went  again, 
accompanied  by  her  husband,  Manoel  Pereira  da  Cruz, 
and  two  Indians,  man  and  woman,  Jos6  and  Maria, 
who  were  her  constant  attendants,  as  a  herald  of  peace 
and  friendship,  to  the  civilizing  conquest  of  her  brother's 
untameable  tribe. 

On  the  24th  of  May,  1830,  for  the  fourth  and  last  time, 
did  she  dive  into  the  deserts,  and  at  the  end  of  eight 
months,  returned  to  her  village  on  the  12th  of  Jan- 
uary, 1831. 

It  is  a  glorious  but  a  sad  date:  the  heroine  of  charity, 
of  faith  and  of  civilization  returned  home  dying. 

Broken  down  and  sick,  it  was  only  through  a  heroic 
effort  that  she  had  resisted  during  eight  months  of  inces- 

-  59  -^ 

sant  work.  Under  these  circumstances  she  could  do  but 
little.  The  Cayapds  reclaimed  through  her  influence  were 
not  numerous ;  Damiana,  however,  had  completed  the  sac- 
rifice of  her  life. 

The  Indians  of  the  villag  went  out  to  meet  her  with 
dances  and  festive  demonstrations;  the  president  was  await- 
ing her  with  all  the  authorities  of  the  place. 

Vain  honors  of  this  world !  Donna  Damiana  da  Cunha 
entered  the  village  supported  by  the  arms  of  her  Indian 
brothers.  The  light  of  her  eyes  had  nearly  disappeared, 
and  like  to  the  seal  of  death  was  the  marble  pallor  of  her 

The  12th  of  January,  1831,  announced  the  death  pangs  of 
the  sainted  woman. 

The  12th  of  January,  1831,  is  the  white  and  glorious 
shroud  of  Donna  Damiana  da  Cunha. 

She  expired  a  few  days  later. 

The  last  resting-place  of  this  angelic  missionary  is 
now  no  longer  known. 

Let  Donna  Damiana  da  Cunha's  epitaph  in  history  be 
simply — Woman  apostle. 

TTTTT  o:p  j'A.T>Txyj^:R-^ 


Exactly  at  thd  same  time  that  Glaudio  Manoel  da  Costa, 
Alvarenga  Peixoto,  and  probably  Gonzaga  (condemned  with 
them),  commenced  to  weave  the  thread  of  the  unfortunate 
conspiracy  of  Minas  Geraes,  in  1788,  Vicente  Coelho  de 
Seabra  Silva  Telles,  whilst  yet  a  student  at  the  University 
of  Coimbra,  finished  writing  his  Elements  of  Chemistry,  in 
two  volumes,  of  which  he  published  the  first  in  that  same 
year  after  taking  his  scientific  degree. 

It  was  already  no  small  matter  that  a  mere  student 
should  have  had  the  courage  to  publish  a  work ;  but  more 
to  his  glory  is  the  fact  that  it  was  the  first  book  on  the 
subject  written  in  Portuguese  after  the  great  progress 
which  chemistry  owed  to  the  French  scholars  who  raised 
it  80  high  in  the  last  half  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

—  62  — 

But  the  student,  who  was  to  become  a  master,  did  not 
forget  "that  he  was  a  Brazilian.  He  dedicated  his  w^ork  to 
the  Rio  de  Janeiro  Literary  Society,  his  love  of  Brazil 
transpiring  in  the  dedication. 

The  second  volume  of  the  Elements  of  Chemistry  was 
published  in  1790.  The  part  which  treats  of  stones  and 
mining  works,  specially  of  the  gold  mines  of  Brazil,  with 
their  respective  nomenclature,  deserves  special  commen- 

In  April,  1789,  the  Academy  of  Science.^  of  Lisbon  pro- 
claimed Seabra  their  corresponding  member. 

The  illustrious  Brazilian  had  then  already  published 
two  more  dissertations,  one  on  J^er/zi^nte^f on  ingeneral^ 
and  the  other  on  Heat,  which  he  offered  to  the  learned 
Jos6  Bonifacio  de    Andrada  e  Silva,  his  countryman. 

Besides  these  works,  Vicente  Coelho  de  Seabra  wrote : 
Memoria  sobre  a  cultura  do  riccino  ou  da  mamona 
em  Portugal  (On  the  culture  of  the  castor-oil  plant,  or 
palma-christi,  in  Portugal)  with  observations  respecting 
the  practise  in  Minas  Geraes  ;  and  in  1801,  printed  in 
Lisbon,  the  Nomenclatura  chimica  Portugueza,  Franceza 
e  Latina  (Portuguese,  French  and  Latin  Nomenclature 
of  Chemistry),  a  work  of  great  merit,  the  desinences  pro- 
posed being  those  adopted  to  this  day,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  modifications  called  for  by  the  progress  of 

Towards  the  latter  end  of  last  century  the  University 
of  Coimbra  received  Seabra  as  assistant  professor  of  zo- 
ology, mineralogy,  botany  and  agriculture ;  but  shortly 
after,  in  March  1804,  before  completing  his  fortieth  year, 
this  distinguished  Brazilian  was  by  death  taken  away  from 

The  works  of  Vicente  Coelho  de  Seabra  are  now  almost 

—  63  — 
unknow.  This,  however's  is  not  surprining  when  neither 
the  date  of  his  birth  nor  the  day  of  his  death  are  known. 
His  illustrious  name  is  consigned  here  in  memory  of 
the  13th  of  January,  the  day  on  which  the  Royal  Aca- 
demy of  Sciences  of  Lisbon  conferred  on  him  the  diploma 
of  effective  member. 


XJ,V     OF    J--A.3SrUA.R"y 



A  native  of  the  town,  afterwards  the  city,  of  Olinda,  in 
Pernambuco,  where  he  was  born  in  the  last  quarter  of  the 
16th  century,  Paulo  de  Moura,  a  legitimate  son  of  Don  Fran- 
cisco de  Moura  and  of  Donna  Genebra  Gavalcanti,  was  of 
noble  descent,  both  on  the  father's  and  mother's  side  ;  for 
his  father  belonged  to  the  Portuguese  nobility,  and  his 
mother,  Donna  Genebra,  was  the  daughter  of  the  Florentine 
noble  Felippe  Cavalcanti  by  his  wife,  a  natural  but  lefiti 
mated  daughter  of  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  brother  in- 
law of  the  first  donee  of  Pernambuce,  Duarte  Coelho,  and 

▼OL.  1  9 

-  66  — 
of  the  Indian,  Maria  do  Espirito  Santo  Arco  Verde,  whose 
father  was  the  famous  Arco  Verde  (Green  Bow),  morubir 
xaha,  or  chief  of  the  tribe  of  the  Tabayares  or  Tabayaras. 
Don  Paulo  de  Moura,  therefore,  on  the  maternal  side, 
descended  from,  and  was  a^rand  son  of  the  Indian  Maria 
do  Espirito  Santo  Arco  Verde'^  and  a  nephew  of  the  Brazil- 
ian hero,  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  Maranhao,  brother  of 
Donna  Catharina  de  Albuquerque.  His  nobility,  therefore, 
had  no  flaw ;  for  his  Indian  grandmother,  being  the  daughter 
of  a  morubixaba,  was  a  princess  in  the  tribe  of  the  Tdbaya- 
res,  and  as  such  saved  the  life  of  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque 
with  whom  she  had  fallen  in  love. 

When  only  twenty  years  old  he  became  enamored,  and, 
his  love  being  requited,  he  married  Donna  Brites  de  Mello, 
his  cousin-german,  daughter  of  Joao  Gomes  de  Mello,  the 
younger,  and  of  Donna  Margarida  de  Albuquerque,  legiti- 
mate daughter  of  Donna  Genebra  Cavalcanti.  Donna  Maria 
de  Mello  was  the  issue  of  this  marriage.  D.  Brites  de  Mello 
dying  shortly  after,  left  the  impassioned  husband  in  afflic- 
tive widowhood. 

Wounded  in  his  most  tender  love,  sad  and  desponding, 
Don  Paulo  de  Moura  abandoned  the  world  and  retired  to 
the  monastery  of  Nossa  Senhora  das  Neves,  and  there  pro- 
fessed, taking  the  name  of  Friar  Paulo  de  Santa  Cath- 

Whilst  a  friar  in  the  seraphic  order,  he  was  always  dis- 
tinguished for  his  humility,  and  for  the  brotherly  love  with 
which  he  treated  his  companions.  On  the  14th  of  January, 
1717,  in  the  chapter  held  at  Santo  Antonio  of  Lisbon  he 
was  elected  custodian  of  Brazil,  and  performed  th^  duties 
of  the  charge  with  as  much  zeal  as  prudence.  His  memory 
is  revered  by  all. 
Donna  Maria  de  Mello,  the  daughter  of  Don  Paulo  de 

—  67  — 

Moura,  married  Francisco  de  Mendonga  Furtado,  grand  al- 
caide of  MourSo,  knight  commander  of  Villa  Franca  do 
Hira,  and  governor  of  Mazagao.  From  this  marriage  was 
bom  D.  Mayor  Luiza  de  Mendonga,  who  married  JoSo  de 
Almada  de  Mello,  commissary-general  of  the  Beira  cavalry, 
grand  alcaide  of  Palmella,  and  owner  of  the  entail  of 
Olivaes  and  Souto  d'El-Rei :  they  had  issue  Donna  Thereza 
Luiza  de  Mendonga  who  married  Manoel  de  Carvalho  de 
Athayde,  a  gentleman  of  the  royal  household,  commander 
of  the  order  of  Christ,  and  captain  of  cavalry  in  the  war  of 
succession  in  Spain.  Of  this  marriage  was  born  Sebastiao 
Jos6  de  Carvalho  e  Mello,  afterwards  Count  of  Oeiras,  and 
Marquis  of  Pombal,  the  ffreat  minister  of  Don  Jos6 1. 

Don  Paulo  de  Moura^^grandson  of  the  Indian  Maria  do 
Espirito  Santo  Arco  Verde,  was,  therefore,  third  grand- 
father of  the  Marquis  of  Pombal,  who  was,  therefore,  sixth 
grandson  of  that  Indian  of  the  Tdbayara  tribe. 

This  information  is  found  in  the  Novo  Orbe  Seraphico,  of 
Friar  Antonio  de  Santo  Maria  Jaboatao.  From  Donna  Maria 
de  Mello  forward,  it  accords  perfectly  with  the  Portuguese 
Nobiliarchy,  From  Donna  Maria  Mello  backward  to  Maria 
do  Espirito  Santo  Arco  Verde,  there  can  be  no  doubt ;  for, 
besides  the  valuable  testimony  of  Jaboatao,  who  was  a  con- 
temporary and  companion  of  Friar  Paulo  de  Santa  Catharina, 
the  marriage  of  the  Florentine  Felippe  de  Cavalcanti  with 
Donna  Catharina  de  Albuquerque,  legitimate  daughter  of 
Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  and  of  the  Indian  Maria  do 
Espirito  Santo  Arco  Verde,  is  a  positive  and  well-known 

:sL'^   OF  J-A.l^TXJ-A.I^,•Y 


Bartholomeu  Antouio  Cordovil  was  born  in  1746  in  Rio 
de  Janeiro.  He  saw  the  light  of  day  on  the  eve  of  the  sec- 
ond half  of  the  18th  century,  in  which  poets  and  artists 
of  the  great  Portuguese  colony  in  America  without  com- 
pact, and  naturally,  commenced  to  shew  in  their  works 
the  character,  subjects,  ornaments  and  the  inspired  im- 
petus of  Brazilianism. 

Bartholomeu  Cordovil  obtained  what  education  he  could 
in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  with  but  little  instruction  he 
flourished  and  shone  as  a  poet  of  vivid  talent  and  consum- 
mate taste.  His  verses  were  much  applauded,  and  they 
attained  celebrity. 

The  greater  part  of  the  poetical  compositions  of  Cordo- 
vil are  lost;  but,  thanks  to  canon  Januario  da  Cunha  Bar- 
boza  and  other  devoted  preservers  of  literary  treasures 

-  70  — 
likely  to  be  forgotten  through  careless  negligence  of  valua- 
ble manuscripts,  several  pieces  of  his  poetry  were  print- 
ed in  the  Pamaso  Brazileiro,  now  rather  rare.  In  these, 
and  specially,  as  authorized  critics  aver,  in  the  dittyramn 
ho  ds  nimphas  goy annas  (Dithyramb  to  the  Nymphs  of 
Goyaz),  the  splendid  talent,  and  the  charming  and  fertile 
fancy  of  the  poet  are  manifest.  He  died  on  the  15th  of 
January^  1810. 

SZVI     OF     J-A.NXrAIi^5r 


In  the  city  of  Laguna,  province  of  Santa  Gatharina, 
Jeronymo  Francisco  Goelho  was  bom  on  the  30th  of  Sep- 
tember, 1806.  He  was  the  legitimate  son  of  Major  Antonio 
Francisco  Goelho,  and  of  Donna  Francisca  Lena  doEspirito 
Santo  Goelho. 

When  three  years  old  he  came  with  his  parents  to  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  and  on  attaining  his  seventh  year  accompanied 
his  father,  who  had  been  appointed  to  the  command  of  a 
battalion  of  infantry  and  inspector  of  the  troops  in  the 
province  of  Gear&.  He  there  enlisted,  as  a  cadet,  in  the 
artillery  company  on  the  17th  of  December,  1813. 

In  1815  he  returned  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  was  dis- 
charged from  the  service.  As,  when  only  nine  years  old, 
he  revealed  remarkable  intelligence,  his  uncle,  Dr.  JoSo 
Francisco  Goelho,  adopted  him  that  he  might  enter  a  lit- 

—  72  — 
erary  career.   In  that  same  year,  however,  the  hopeful 
boy  lost  both  his  father  and  his  uncle,  and  was  left  in  ex- 
treme poverty  under  the  sole  protection  of  his  mother,  who 
spared  no  sacrifice  on  his  behalf. 

On  the  18th  of  Feburary,  1818,  he  again  enlisted  in 
a  regiment  of  artillery,  and  ardently  studied  Latin, 
French,  English,  and  rational  and  moral  philosophy  in 
the  military  academy.  He  became  a  distinguished  stu- 
dent ;  gained  the  first  prize  two  years,  and  finally  took 
his  degrees  in  mathematics  and  engineering. 

By  competitive  and  public  examinations  he  rose  in  rank, 
so  that,  in  1824,  when  only  eighteen  years  old,  he  became 

The  prohibition  of  promotions  in  the  army,  and  its  dis- 
organization in  1831,  delayed  his  military  career. 
||[In  1834,  he  was  transferred  to  the  corps  of  engineers, 
and  only  in  1837  was  he  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major. 
Thenceforward,  however,  new  promotions  raised  him  to 
the  rank  of  a  brigadier-general  on  the  14th  of  March,  1855. 

The  high  capacity  of  Jeronymo  Coelho,  however,  was 
availed  of  in  politics  and  in  the  administration.  The  prov- 
ince of  Santa  Gatharina  gave  him  a  seat  in  the  pro- 
vincial assembly  from  1835  to  1837,  and  in  the  chamber 
of  deputies  from  1838  to  1847,  and  also  in  the  legis- 
lature which  commenced  in  1857,  of  which  he  did  not  see 
the  end. 

In  parliament  he  was  always  a  liberal;  but  never  re- 
fused his  vote  to  measures  indispensable  to  the  regular 
course  of  government,  even  when  his  adversaries  were 
in  power. 

As  an  orator  he  was  fluent,  clear,  logical,  and  sometimes 
energetic,  but  he  was  never  intemperate. 

On  the  2nd  of  February,  1844,  he  entered  the  cabine 

-73  — 

organized  by  the  Viscount  of  Macahe,  as  minister  of  war.  He 
debated  brilliantly  with  the  conservative  opposition  in 
the  chamber  until  its  dissolution. 

In  that  ministry  he  had  the  glory  of  drawing  up  the 
instructions  of  the  18th  of  December,  1844,  which  put 
an  end  to  the  rebellion  of  the  province  of  Rio  Grande  do 
Sal,  which  had  been  raging  since  1835. 

In  1848  Jeronymo  Goelho  was  appointed  president  of 
the  province  of  Pari,  where  he  acquired  fame  through 
his  tolerant,  economical,  and  wise  administration.  He 
did  not  interfere  in  the  election  for  deputies,  which  then 
took  place,  except  to  maintain  the  liberty  of  the  vote. 
He  also  opposed  with  patriotic  energy  the  occupation  of 
Amapd,  for  the  second  time  resolved  on  by  the  French  of 

In  1850  he  left  the  presidency  of  Pari,  and,  in  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  he  served  successively  as  director  of  the  gun- 
powder manufactory,  as  director  of  the  war  arsenal,  and 
as  director  of  the  army  school  of  practise. 

In  March,  1856,  he  was  appointed  president  of  the  prov- 
ince of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  where  he  ren- 
dered relevant  services,  the  most  important  of  which 
was  systematizing  and  giving  an  impulse  to  public  works, 
and  to  roads  which  he  ordered  to  be  opened. 

An  arduous  task  which  he  undertook  must  not  be 
forgotten :  he  was  appointed  chief  of  the  corps  of  engineers 
charged  with  measuring  and  making  out  the  twenty-five 
leagues  of  land  which  formed  the  complement  of  the 
dowry  of  the  Most  Serene  Princess  of  Joinville.  These 
lands  are  in  the  solitudes  of  S.  Francisco,  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Santa  Gatharina.  After  five  months  of  most  fa- 
tiguing toil  Jeronymo  Goelho  renounced  his  ordinary  pay 

▼OL.  I  10 

-  74  - 
and  valuable  extraordinary  gratifications  granted  to  the 
other  members  of  the  commission. 

In  1857  having  been  again  elected  by  his  province, 
he  took  his  seat  as  deputy,  and  on  the  4th  of  March, 
as  minister  of  war,  entered  the  cabinet  of  which  the 
Marquis  of  Olinda  was  chief. 

Though  his  strength  was  failing,  and  though  already 
suflfering  from  a  painful  disease  which  was  mining  his 
life,  Jeronymo  Coelho,  during  the  sessions,  unflinchingly 
faced  the  numerous  and  vehement  conservative  opposi- 

With  this  effort  he  became  extenuated.  In  the  follow- 
ing year  he  ventured  to  continue  the  debate ;  but  shortly 
found  it  impossible  to  keep  in  the  field,  and  he  retired 
from  the  ministry.  During  six  months  medical  science 
made  every  eflfort  to  save  him,  but  at  last  despaired. 

As  a  last  resource,  Jeronymo  Coelho  went  to  breathe 
the  pure  and  healthy  air  of  Nova  Friburgo.  It  was  too 
late;  after  much  suffering  he  died  serene  and  resigned 
on  the  16th  of  January,  1860. 

His  intelligence  was  as  brilliant  as  his  heart  was  good ; 
frank,  faithful,  honorable  and  disinterested.  He  died,  as 
he  always  lived,  irf  poverty. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  council  of  H.  M.  the  Emperor, 
a  chamberlain  in  the  Imperial  Household,  commander 
of  the  order  of  S.  Bento  de  Aviz,  and  of  the  Imperial 
order  of  the  Rose;  a  brigadier-general  in  the  army,  member 
of  the  supreme  military  council,  and  deputy  to  the  general 
legislative  assembly. 


mm  mm  RntEiRo 

JoSo  Gaetano  dos  Santos,  the  prodigious  Brazilian  dra- 
matic actor,  was  not  a  great  artist,  but  he  was  a  great 
genius,  and,  without  doubt,  for  this  reason  he  died  with- 
out leaving  a  school ;  the  art  necesoary  to  create  it  was 

Nevertheless,  the  splendor  of  his  triumphs  served  as  an 
incentive  which  led  many  young  Brazilians  to  the  boards 
flushed  with  the  proud  aspiration  of  having  him  for  a 
master.  Unfortunately,  however,  JoEo  Caetano  could  not 
transmit  to  them  the  flame  of  his  genius,  nor  initiate 
them  in  the  delicate  and  profound  secrets  or  precepts 
of  dramatic  art  which  he  guessed  when  acting.  He  could 
not  however  teach  them  in  school,  not  having  himself 
sufficient  instruction  nor  the  necessary  studies  of  its 
principles  and  rules. 

—  76  — 

Nearly  all  the  pupils  of  Joao  Caetano  remained  in 
most  obscure  mediocrity,  and  from  this  sad  condition, 
only  the  few,  the  very  few,  escaped  who,  through  the 
efforts  of  their  own  intelligence,  advanced  beyond  the 
close  precincts  of  the  most  limited  instruction  in  the 
trivial  and  practical  notions  of  acting.  JoSo  Caetano  could 
not  impart  that  which  he  had  not  to  give :  severe  and 
instructed  art;  he  could  not  transmit  to  others  the 
riches  of  the  treasure  in  which  he  abounded,  his  genius, 
which  achieved  wonders. 

Among  the  young  enthusiasts  of  the  great  dramatic 
actor,  who  entered  his  company  of  the  theatre  of  S.  Pe- 
dro de  Alcantara,  was  Joaquim  Augusto  Ribeiro. 

Born  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  6th  of  June, 
1825,  Joaquim  Augusto  was  the  son  of  Joao  Thiago  de 
Souza,  an  adoptive  Brazilian,  and  of  Donna  Marianna  Joa- 
quina  de  Jesus. 

Poor,  and  having  but  very  little  more  than  a  primary 
education;  but  talented,  and  given  to  reading  poetry 
and  drama  in  the  Portuguese  language.  Being  an  admirer 
of  Joao  Caetano,  he  took  a  fancy  to  the  theatre  ;  he 
wished  to  be  an  actor  and  to  appear  on  the  boards.  The 
Brazilian  Talma  received  him  with  but  doubtful  hopes, 
and  almost  through  mere  condescension. 

Joaquim  Augusto  in  reality  did  offer  himself  in  very 
unfavorable  physical  conditions  for  an  actor.  It  is  true 
that  he  had  an  agreeable  and  handsome  lace,  an  elegant 
figure,  fine  and  eloquent  eyes ;  but  he  was  rather  deaf, 
spoke  with  difficulty  almost  bordering  on  stammering, 
and  had  an  ungracious  walk,  which  made  him  appear, 
if  he  in  reality  was  not,  a  little  lame. 

Nature,  indeed,  appeared  to  have  closed  the  doors  of 

—  77  - 

the  theatre  to  Joaquim  Augusto,  but  JoSo  Gaetano,  who 
was  not  exacting,  opened  them  for  him. 

Joaquim  Augusto  was  a  mam  of  strong  will,  remark- 
ably intelligent,  and  indefatigable  at  his  work. 

He  took  dramatic  art  seriously  to  heart;  he  studied  it 
and  taught  himself.  Conscious  of  the  physical  defects  which 
thwarted  his  aspirations  to  distinction  in  the  pro- 
fession which  he  had  adopted,  he  toiled  with  admirable 
patience  and  perseverance  to  correct  them,  and  gradually 
he  gained  applause  and  the  name  of  —  artist. 

He  appeared  on  the  boards  before  he  was  twenty  years 
old.  In  1851  he  created  the  role  of  Josd,  in  the  comedy 
Fantasma  Branco  —  and  later  on  others  followed,  much 
applauded  by  the  press. 

Leaving  JoSo  Gaetano,  he  acted  in  the  capital  and  in 
different  provinces  of  the  Empire.  When  he  had  gained 
considerable  instruction  in  his  profession,  and  when  he 
had,  in  a  great  measure,  overcome  or  dissimulated  his  phy- 
sical deficiences,  he  went  to  Portugal.  He  acted  in  the 
cities  of  Oporto  and  Lisbon,  gaining  applause,  and  euphon- 
ical critcism,  and  honorable  appreciation  of  his  artistic 
merit  from  literary  men  and  authorized  judges,  and  re- 
turned to  his  country,    to  attain  new  triumphs. 

In  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  he  was  the  chief  of  the  Oym- 
niosio  Dramatico  theatre,  the  most  legitimate,  though,  at 
the  end  of  a  few  months  of  splendor,  the  unfortunate  re- 
presentive,  of  dramatic  art. 

Almost  simultaneously  with  Joao  Gaetano,  who  had 
returned  from  Europe,  having  in  Paris  been  present  at 
the  representation  of  the  drama — Prestigiateur,  Joaquim 
Augusto,  who  was  lessee  of  the  Gymnasia,  announced  the 
representation  of  the  same  drama  translated  into  Portu- 

—  78- 

It  was  like  a  duel  between  two  paladins,  on  the  same 
field,  and  with  arms  supposed  to  be  equal. 

The  two  men  exhibited  themselves  in  the  contest  as 
they  were.  They  courageously  and  nobly  submitted  to 
comparison,  and  to  the  judgment  of  the  more  enlightened 
public  of  the  capital  of  the  Empire. 

JoEo  Gaetano  showed  eruptions  of  genius  which  Joa- 
quim  Augusto  was  far  from  attaining. 

Joaquim  Augusto,  on  the  other  hand,  displayed  so  much 
art  as  to  have  often  exceeded  JoSo  Gaetano. 

This  was,  undoubtedly,the  most  brilliant  and  the  proud- 
est triumph  of  Joaquim  Augusto. 

To  contend  with  JoSo  Gaetano  and  not  be  vanquished , 
was  a  glory  to  which,  until  then,  no  other  dramatic  actor 
had  aspired  in  the  Brazilian  theatres. 

Joaquim  Augusto  Ribeiro  again  returned  to  the  prin- 
cipal provinces  of  the  Empire,  conspicuous  everywhere 
for  his  remarkable  talent  and  deep  study  of  art. 

On  returning  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  had  the  great 
displeasure  of  witnessing  the  shameful  decadence  of  the 
national  dramatic  theatre  in  the  capital  of  the  Empire. 

Joaquim  Augusto  Ribeiro  died  on  the  17th  of  January, 
1873,  at  Engenho-Novo,  in  the  district  of  the  capital. 

After  Joao  Gaetano  dos  Santos,  he  was  a  dramatic 
actor  of  the  highest  and  most  justly  acquired  reputation 
of  his  time,  and  his  is  the  glory  of  having  been  one 
of  the  first   interpreters   of  the  school  called  realistic. 

High  comedy  and  the  drama  were  the  fields  in  which 
he  culled  his  best  flowers. 

As  lessee  or  as  partner  in  undertakings  of  this  nat- 
ure,  Joaquim  Augusto  Ribeiro  always   encouraged  na- 

-  79  ~ 
tive  dramatic  literature,  giving  preference  to  the  dramas 
and  comedies  of  Brazilian  authors. 

A  distinguished  and  patriotic  artist,  he  honored  himself 
^with  two  titles,  which  recommend  his  memory  to  the 
latitude  of  Brazil:— a  patriot  and  an  artist. 

OF    JA.NTTA.H'^ 


Angelo  Moniz  da  Silva  Ferraz  died  suddenly  on  the 
18th  of  January,  1867,  in  the  beautiful  and  picturesque  city 
of  Petropolis,  shortly  after  his  fiftieth  birthday.  A  few 
days  before  he  had  been  created  Baron  of  Uruguayana, 
and  had  not  had  time  even  to  avail  himself  legally  of 
the  honorable  distinction  conferred  on  him. 

Having  distinguished  himself  in  parliament,  his  name 
as  a  paladin  of  debate  was  simply --Ferraz  -:  it  ought  to 
be  preserved. 

Having  taken  his  degree  in  the  faculty  of  law  of  Olin- 
da,  Ferraz,  a  talented  and  diligent  native  of  Bahia,  was 
elected  a  deputy  by  the  province,  which  had  already 
tried  and  applauded  him  in  the  provincial  assembly. 

Ferraz  took  his  seat  in  the  chamber  of  deputies  in  the 

TOL.  I  11 

-88  — 
legislature  which  commenced  in  1843.  He  distingoished 
himself  as  a  speaker  for  his  close  logic,  and  sometimes 
for  his  impetuous  eloquence.  In  a  political  assembly,  in 
which  there  was  no  opposition,  being  unanimously  min- 
isterial, he  must  have  toiled  hard  to  have  attained  dis- 
tinction,   being  then  a  young  and  new  member. 

That  chamber  being  dissolved,  he  was  again  returned 
by  his  province  in  1845.  He  led  the  opposition  con- 
sisting only  of  three  or  four  deputies,  received  the  cele- 
brated name  of  chief  of  the  patrol,  and  confirmed  his 
reputation  as  a  most  able  parliamentary  speaker. 

In  the  following  legislature  he  abandoned  the  conserv- 
ative party  to  which  he  had  belonged,  to  support  the 
liberal  cabinet  of  the  wise  and  virtuous  Paula  e  Souza, 
a  profound  idealist,  and  a  weak  and  discouraged  states- 
man, who  allowed  his  opponents  to  snatch  power 
from  him. 

In  that  catastrophe  of  the  liberal  party,  Ferraz  made 
a  remarkable  speech,  closing  with  a  strain  of  false  judg- 
ment, which,  nevertheless,  aroused  the  enthusiasm  of 
the  vanquished  now  in  the  opposition.  Before  sitting  down 
he  exclaimed:  «Some  suicides  are  glorious !»  and  the  cheers 
drowned  the  voice  of  the  glorifier  of  the  least  justifiable 
of  political  suicides. 

Ferraz  was  then  inspector  of  the  custom-house  of  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  the  first  of  the  Empire,  and  there  left  the 
name  of  a  very  intelligent,  active  and  enlightened  admin- 

Seeing  the  confusion  into  which  political  parties  had 
fallen ,  he  became,  as  it  were,  independent  of  political 
leagues.  He  was  appointed  president  of  the  province  of 
Rio  Orande  do  Sul,  and  being  again  sent  to  parliament, 
he  voted  at  first  with  the   conservative  ministry,   and 

immediately  afterwards,  nearly  alone^or  rather  abandoned 
by  pusillanimous  and  unfaithful  companions  who  had 
combined  an  alliance,  he  energetically  opposed  the  cab- 
inet of  the  Marquis  of  Parani,  the  man  of  strong  will, 
and  who  then  commanded  almost  irresistibly. 

During  these  contests  Ferraz,  who  had  been  elected  in 
the  triple  list  by  the  province  of  Bahia,  was  by  the  Emper- 
or chosen  senator  in  1856. 

Three  years  later,  during  the  heat  of  parliamentary  de- 
bates on  systems  of  political  economy,  being  called  upon  to 
form  a  ministry,  he  became  president  of  the  council  and 
minister  of  finance. 

In  1865  he  became  minister  of  war  in  the  cabinet  organ- 
ized by  the  Marquis  of  Olinda,  and  during  the  war  with 
Paraguay  displayed  great  activity. 

A  Paraguayan  army  having  in  that  year  invaded  the 
province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Ferraz,  as  minis- 
ter of  war,  had  the  honor  of  accompanying  H.  M.  the  Em- 
peror Don  Pedro  II,  who,  leaving  the  capital  of  the  Empire, 
went  to  the  field  of  battle  in  the  invaded  province  to  exult 
with  the  country  over  the  victory  of  Uruguayana,  where 
the  Paraguayan  General  Estigarribia  surrendered  a  pris- 
oner with  all  the  forces  under  his  command . 

So  diligent,  solicitous,  and  energetic  was  Ferraz  as  min- 
ister of  war,  that  when,  in  August,  1866,  a  new  ministry 
was  formed,  in  which  councilor  Zacharias  de  Goes  e  Yascon- 
cellos  was  president  of  the  council  and  minister  of  finance, 
he  had  to  continue  in  the  cabinet,  with  the  same  port-folio 
until  a  few  months  later,  when  being  much  abated  by  a 
disease  of  the  heart  which  so  much  arduous  toil  had  aggra- 
vated, he  left  the  ministry  and  went  to  Petropolis  to  die. 



The  mind  of  Trajano  GalvSo  de  Canralho  was  full  of 
inspirations,  he  however  had  no  aspirings  of  ambition.  He 
had  a  fine  talent  bnt  it  was  impaired  by  listlessness;  it  was 
like  beautiful  music  played  in  solitude.  Nature  made  him 
a  poet,  but  he  left  only  one  book,  or  a  limited  collection 
of  pieces  of  poetry,  many  of  incontestable  merit  and 
which  promised  more  brilliant  and  masterly  compositions, 
when  death  overtook  him  at  the  age  of  thirty-four. 

Trajano  was  bom  on  the  12th  of  January,  1830,  in  Bar- 
cellos,  near  the  town  of  Nossa  Senhora  de  Nazareth,  on  the 
banks  of  the  river  Mearim,  in  the  province  of  MaranhSo. 
His  parents  were  Francisco  Joaquim  de  Garvalho  e  Donna 
Lourenga  Virginia  GalvSo. 

Losing  his  father  when  still  an  infant,  he  was  adopted 

—  88  — 

by  his  godfather  and  paternal  uncle  Raymundo  Alexandre 
de  Carvalho,  whose  wife,  his  godmother,  Donna  Maria 
Cecilia  Bayma  de  Carvalho,  lavished  upon  him  the  cares 
of  a  loving  mother  until  he  was  eight  years  old,  when  his 
step-father  and  his  mother,  took  him  to  Portugal. 

When  fourteen  years  old  Trajano  had  finished  the  pre- 
paratory studies  necessary  to  matriculate  in  the  faculties 
of  law  of  BrazU,  and  his  step-father  sent  him,  in  1845,  to 
S.  Paulo  to  graduate  in  laws. 

Not  arriving  in  time  to  matriculate  in  the  Academy,  he 
delayed  passing  the  examinations  and  continued  to  study 
the  preparatory  subjects.  As,  however,  he  was  an  excellent 
flute-player,  he,  poor  freshman,  was  constantly  figuring 
in  the  serenades  of  the  veterans,  hence  the  undeserved 
name  of  a  lazy  student  which  he  acquired  and  which 
terrified  him  so  much  that  three  years  passed  without  his 
being  able  to  muster  suflScient  courage  to  go  up  for  his 

In  1849,  owing  to  the  persistent  advice  of  the  distinguished 
Dr.  Antonio  Henrique  Leal,  also  a  native  of  MaranhSo, 
who  was  then  studying  medicine  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Trajano 
went  to  Pemambuco,  where  he  passed  the  preparatory 
examinations  and  matriculated  in  the  faculty  of  laws  of 
Olinda.  He  passed  the  first  and  second  years  with  very  good 
notes ;  but  in  his  third  year,  an  epigram,  a  poetic  trick, 
applauded  by  the  students,  cost  him  a  bad  note  in  his 
examination.  This  stain  so  hurt  his  feelings,  that,  going  to 
pass  the  vacation  in  MaranhSo,  he  went  to  his  god-father's 
estate  on  the  Upper  Mearim,  and  there  remained.  He,  how- 
ever, continued  to  read  and  to  study,  until^  in  1854,  his 
cousin,  Raymundo  de  Carvalho,  who  was  studying  in  Per- 
nambuco,  prevailed  on  him  to  return. 

Trajano  at  last  took  his  degree  of  Batchelor  of  Law 

—  87  - 
returned  to  the  Upper  Mearim  and  married  his  cousin  and 
companion  from  childhood,  Donna  Maria  Gertrudes  de 
Garvalho  ;  and  having  a  great  inclination  for  a  rural  life, 
he  refused  to  enter  into  competition  for  a  chair  in  the 
Lyceum  of  the  capital  of  Maranhao,  declined  the  appoint- 
ment of  public  prosecutor  in  the  circuit  of  the  Upper 
Mearim,  and  did  not  even  accept  the  place  of  his  step-father's 
attorney  which  was  offered  him,  not  only  with  the  usual 
commission,  but  with  a  house  and  domestic  service  free. 

Trajano,  however,  was  not  losing  his  time  ;  the  hours 
^w^hich  he  could  spare  from  the  administration  of  the  estate 
he  employed  in  the  study  of  good  books,  and  in  the  culture 
of  poetry.  In  1863  his  friends  obtained  his  consent  to  the 
publication  of  nearly  all  his  poetic  productions  in  a  volume 
i0crith  the  title  :  As  tres  Lyras  (The  Three  Lyres). 

Trajano  GalvSo  de  Garvalho  died  in  the  midst  of  his 
cherished  solitude  on  the  14th  of  July,  1864. 

Besides  his  book  —  As  trbs  Ltras  —  Trajano  wrote  in 
prose  the  critical  opinion  which  is  found  in  the  first  edi- 
tion of  the  PosTiLLAS  DE  Grammatica  of  F.  Sotero  dosReis' 
and  two  humoristic  articles  published  in  the  Diario  do 
Maranhdo  and  the  Progresso. 

In  his  poetical  works  he  displays  the  spirit  of  a  close  and 
subtle  observer  of  scenes  and  customs,  which  he  paints  with 
the  true  local  colors.  His  language  is  correct  without  aflfec- 
tation ;  his  metre  is  natural.  He  was  a  witty  critic,  and 
an  inspired  patriot. 

"XX.    OF    J-A^3SrU-A.II.7Z- 

NIN  DE  Si 

Though  a  Portuguese  by  birth  and  of  noble  descent, 
Mem  de  S&  was  a  Brazilian,  or  belongs  principally  to  the  his- 
tory of  Brazil  in  consequence  of  the  services  he  rendered, 
of  the  tomb  in  which  his  mortal  remains  were  laid,  and 
of  the  branch  of  his  family  which  became  Brazilian. 

Having  been  appointed  governor-general  of  Brazil  (he 
was  the  third),  Mem  de  Sk  arrived  at  the  city  of  S.  Sal- 
vador da  Bahia,  and,  in  1558,  succeeded  Duarte  da  Costa 
in  that  charge,  which  he  exercised  uninterruptedly  till 
1572,  when  he  delivered  it  to  his  successor,  dying  short- 
ly after,  being  buried  in  the  Jesuit  church  in  the  city 
of  S.    Salvador,    as  is   seen  by  the  epitaph  on  his  tomb. 

In  his  long  administration  of  nearly  15  year,  Mem  de 
S&  had  to  overcome  immense  difficulties  of  different  kinds : 

VOL.  I  12 

-  90  - 
the  war  against  the  Indians  in  the  capitanias  of  Porto  Segu- 
ro  andllhdos,  where  his  son  Fernando  de  Sk  died,  the 
terrible  conjuration  of  the  Tamoyos  in  the  capitania  of  S. 
Vicente,  in  which  his  principal  auxiliaries  and  negotiators 
of  peace  were  the  enlightened  Jesuits  Nobregaand  Anchie- 
ta ;  the  plague  and  the  famine  which  devastated  the  capi- 
tania of  Bahia,  and  unpeopled  the  settlements  of  the 
friendly  Indians,  who  died  of  small  pox  or  fled  in  terror  to 
the  woods.  Colonists,  however,  continued  to  arrive,  o  rder 
was  preserved  in  the  administration,  and  the  empire  of  the 
law,  still  more  difiScult  to  maintain  in  sparse  colonies,  and 
in  numerous  distant  villages  inhabited  by  numbers  of 
criminals  and  men  of  dissolute  habits. 

The  governor-general  did  a  great  deal  towards  the  peace- 
ful and  humane  conquest  of  the  Indians  who  settled  in 
villages,  being  their  eflBcient  and  official  protector  ;  justly 
confiding  in  the  miracles  of  the  Cross  which  the  Jesuits  with 
apostolic  faith  carried  into  the  midst  of  the  savages  in  the 
depths  of  their  forests. 

But,  in  this  continuous,  severe  and  arduous  toil  of  nearly 
fifteen  years,  the  most  conspicuous  labor  of  Mem  de  SA  was 
the  military  undertaking  which  he  commenced,  and  which 
he  had  the  glory  of  bringing  to  a  brilliant  close  on  the  20th 
of  January,  1567. 

It  is  necessary  to  summarize  in  dates  a  long  history  : 

In  1555  Nicolas  Durand  Villegaignon,  a  vice-admiral  of 
Britany  and  a  Knight  of  Malta,  under  the  protection  of 
Admiral  Coligny,  arrived  in  the  bay  of  Riode  Janeiro,  with 
an  expedition  of  French  Calvinists,  and  occupied  and  forti- 
fied a  small  island,  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  his  pro- 
tector, but  which  perpetuates  and  preserves  to  this  day 
his  own — Villegaignon. 

The  king  of  France,  who  persecuted  the  Calvinists  in  his 

-91  - 

European  kingdom,  applauded  the  French  occupation  of  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  despite  its  Calvinism,  and  assisted  an  important 
auxiliary  force  which  was  sent  from  France  in  1556,  under 
the  command  of  Boisle  Conte,  and  which  arrived  at  its  des- 
tination in  the  following  year. 

In  1558,  Villegaignon,  having  oppressed  his  companions, 
lost  their  confidence,  and  after  many  disputes  and  disagree- 
ments he  returned  to  France,  repudiated  Calvinism  and  en- 
listed in  the  party  of  the  Duke  of  Guise.  But  the  French 
colony  remained  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  such  was  their  con- 
fidence that  they  had  already  determined  on  the  names  of 
Antarctic  France  and  HenrivUle  for  the  lands  of  the  ap- 
proaching conquest,  and  for  the  capital  which  they  intended 

In  1560  Mem  de  SA  received  orders  from  Lisbon  to  expel 
the  French  from  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and,  on  embarking  to  exe- 
cute them,  he  answered  the  Queen  regent  Donna  Ca* 
tharina : 

«  I  immediately  prepared  in  the  best  way  I  could, 
which  was  the  worst  in  which  a  governor  could  do  it.  » 

In  truth,  his  army  consisted  of  120  Portuguese  and  140 
auxiliary  Indians.  With  these  few  men,  however,  he  took 
the  island  defended  by  150  French  and  a  thousand  Ta- 

Being  routed,  the  French  and  Indians  fled  to  the  near 
continent.  The  forces  of  Mem  de  Sk  being  insufficient  to 
occupy  the  island  permanently,  he  destroyed  the  fort  and 

The  French  returned  to  the  island,  fortified  it  in  a  more 
efficient  manner,  and,  on  the  continent  nearly  in  front, 
they  established  their  camp  and  the  defenses  of  Urt4gu- 

In  1564,  Estacio  de  SA,  a  nephew  of  thegoyernor,  arrived 

in  Bahia  commanding  two  galleons,  and  bringing  orders  to 
his  uncle  to  assist  him  with  all  the  forces  of  the  colony  to 
expel  the  French  from  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  to  found  there 
a  city. 

It  was  almost  impossible  to  follow  the  orders  of  the  Por- 
tuguese government,  as  the  colony  had  no  force.  Memde  Si, 
however,  gave  what  aid  he  could  to  his  nephew,  who  receiv- 
ing, at  the  capitania  of  Espirito  Santo  the  heroic  morufti- 
xaba  Ararygboia,  with  his  herds,  and  some  auxiliaries 
from  S.  Vicente,  enters  the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  March, 
1566,  lands  near  the  Sugar  Loaf  and,  between  this  moun- 
tain and  the  hill  of  S.  Joao,  fortifies  a  position  and  lays  the 
foundation  of  the  future  city  to  which  he  gives  the  name 
of  S.  Sebastido ;  because  Sebastiao  was  the  name  of  the 
king  of  Portugal. 

The  year  1566  passed  in  repeated  and  fruitless  skirmishes 
between  the  Portuguese  and  the  French,  who,  though 
such  enemies,  were  very  near  each  other.  In  November, 
however,  Mem  de  Si  being  informed  by  Anchieta,  who  had 
gone  to  Bahia  to  take  holy  orders,  of  the  perilous  position 
of  Estacio  de  Si,  called  out  volunteers,  took  up  arms, 
went  for  more  combatants  to  Espirito  Santo  and  S.  Vicente, 
and  arriving  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  18th  of  January,  1567, 
encouraged  the  Portuguese  who  were  on  the  verge  of  de- 
spair for  want  of  ammunition  and  provisions. 

Mem  de  Si  could  not  submit  to  remaining  on  the  defen- 
sive ;  but  consented  to  wait  one  day,  for  the  20th  of  January 
was  the  day  of  the  feast  of  S.  Sebastian,  the  tutelary  saint 
of  the  newly  founded  city. 

On  the  20th  of  January  Mem  de  Si  celebrated  the  feast 
of  S.  Sebastian  by  attacking  the  French.  The  flght  was  ter- 
rible ;  UrtiQu^mirim  was  the  first  and  most  difiScult  camp 
to  assault  and  take ;  then  Villegaignon  and  some  other  for- 

tifled  points  were  taken  through  the  bravery  of  the  men 
commanded  by  the  governor-general. 

The  greater  part  of  the  French  fell  in  the  flght;  the  rest 
were  terrified,  and  fled  into  the  forest  at  the  mercy  of  the 
Tamoyos.  Not  a  single  Frenchman  remained  on  the  island, 
or  on  the  continent  of  the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Estacio  de  S&,  wounded  in  the  face  by  an  arrow,  died  a 
few  days  later. 

In  the  service  of  Brazil,  in  that  of  the  colony  and  domin- 
ions of  Portugal,  Mem  de  Sk  lost  a  nephew,  having  pre- 
viously lost  a  son. 

He  adopted  Brazil  for  his  country,  the  land  on  which  the 
blood  of  those  he  loved  had  been  spilt. 

Mem  de  S4  then  founded  the  city  of  S.  Sebasti^lo  do  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  changing  the  seat  from  the  place  which  Estacio 
de  S4  had  chosen,  between  the  Sugar  Loaf  and  the  hill  of 
S.  Joao,  to  the  hill  then  called  S.  Januario  and  now  Cos- 
tello,  from  which  it  descended  and  gradually  increased, 
until  it  attained  the  size  which  now  allows  fancy  to 
picture  its  future  greatness. 

As  soon  as  the  city  was  founded  and  regularity  had  been 
introduced  in  the  administration,  Mem  de  S&  left  as  gover- 
nor of  the  place  another  of  his  nephews,  Salvador  Corrfia 
de  Si,  who  proved  himself  worthy  of  his  uncle. 

Mem  de  Si,  having  distinguished  himself  by  so  many 
and  such  important  services  rendered  to  the  colonization 
and  to  the  nascent  civilization  of  Brazil,  being  also  the 
glorious  founder  of  the  city  which  is  the  capital  of  the 
Empire  of  Brazil,  can  never  be  forgotten  without  the  most 
culpable  ingratitude  of  Brazilians  who  owe  veneration  and 
homage  to  his  illustrious  name. 


-x"sn  OF    J-AlTCTAIlTr  METER  BELLEfiM 

When  the  royal  family  of  Portugal  transmigrated  to 
Brazil,  the  ship  that  conveyed  the  prince  regent,  afterwards 
King  John  YI,  brought  also  the  captain  of  marine  artillery 
Gandido  Roberto  Jorge  Bellegarde  and  his  wife  Donna  Maria 
de  Niemeyer  Bellegarde  and  their  two  sons,  then  yery 
young,  who  were  to  become  distinguished^  and  serviceable 

The  younger,  Henrique  Luiz  de  Niemeyer  Bellegarde, 
then  five  years  old,  was  born  in  Lisbon,  on  the  12th  of 
October,  1802. 

Henrique  Bellegarde  having  been  carefully  educated,en- 
listed  when  yet  exceedingly  young  in  the  corps  of  artillery 

—  96  — 
volunteers,  and  entered  as  a  student  of  mathematics  in  the 
military  school  created  in  Rio  de  Janeiro.  When  fifteen 
years  old  he  was  promoted  to  be  an  officer ;  in  1820  he  was 
a  first-lieutenant,  and  in  the  following  year  became  adju- 
tant-captain to  the  governor  and  captain-general  of  Mo- 
zambique, Lieutenant-General  Jofto  Manoel  da  Silva. 

On  returning  to  Brazil  in  1822  he  adhered  to  the  cause  of 
the  independence  and  finished  in  a  brilliant  manner  his  stud- 
ies at  the  military  school.  Being  then  an  engineer,  he  im- 
mediately served  his  adopted  country  in  a  professional 
capacity,  being  employed  on  the  fortifications  which  were 
then  being  constructed  to  proctect  the  capital  from  the 
expected  Portuguese  invasion. 

In  1825  he  went  to  study  in  Europe,  by  order  of  the 
government,  and  in  the  three  years  which  he  remained  in 
France,  he  graduated  as  bachelor  of  belles-lettres,  and 
received  the  diploma  of  geographical  engineer,  and  obtained 
besides  very  honorable  certificates  from  the  school  of 
Fonts  et  chaussis  which  he  also  attended. 

In  1828  Henrique  Bellegarde  was  charged  with  differ- 
ent commissions  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  was  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  major  of  engineers,  and  in  1831  he  obtained 
just  praise  on  publishing  his  Rbsumo  da  Historia  do  Brazil, 
of  which  he  published  a  second  edition  in  1834. 

From  1831  to  1838  the  enlightened  intelligence  and 
admirable  activity  of  Henrique  Bellegarde  were  displayed 
in  important  works.  He  dropped  the  author's  pen,  and 
went  in  his  professional  capacity  to  erect  the  Cabo  Frio 
light-house,  improving  the  entrance  of  the  bay  at  the  same 
cape,  and  placing  on  the  points  of  the  rocks  thick  iron 
rings,  both  of  which  works  recommend  his  memory  to 

—  97  — 

The  bridges  in  the  city  of  Campos  and  at  Itajuru ;  the 
canals  of  Ururahy  and  Maric4  and  other  works  com- 
menced or  projected  are  sufficient  to  attest  the  capacity  of 
the  engineer,  and  his  activity  and  diligence  after  his  labors 
in  Cabo  Frio. 

Such  severe  work  can  not  be  done  with  impunity. 

Henrique  Luiz  de  Niemeyer  Bellegarde  died  of  pernicious 
fever  in  Cabo  Frio  on  the  21st  of  January,  1839. 

Death  overtook  him  in  his  thirty-seventh  year,  when 
the  most  brilliant  future  awaited  him. 

VOL.  I  VS 

•y^TTT  OF  JA.3SrXJ-A.H"2' 


The  22nd  of  January,  1532,  is  the  famous  date  of  the 
first,  though  rude,  attempt  at  civilization  on  the  soil 
of,  till  then  wild,  Brazil. 

To  Don  Manoel,  King  of  Portugal,  Brazil  only  owed 
unprofitable  explorations.  Having  been  discovered  in  1500, 
Brazil  was  at  first  considered  (one  can  hardly  believe 
it)  a  sterile  and  umproductive  country,  serving  only  as 
a  calling  place  for  vessels  on  their  voyage  to  Asia.  Later 
on  the  country  was  better  appreciated,  but  the  East  Indies 
absorbed  the  ambition  and  the  glory  of  the  Portuguese. 

The  rivalry  and  the  distrust  of  the  Spaniards  who 
frequented  the  River  Plate,  apprehensions  of  the  ambi- 
tious projects  of  France,  from  whose  ports  vessels  came  to 
the  coast  of  Brazil  to  load  the  precious  wood  that  gave 
its  name  to  the  country,  cementing  by  this  means  their 

—  100  - 
friendship  with  the  tribes  of  savages,  were  the  reasons 
which  induced  the  king,  Don   JoSo   III,  to  turn  his  at- 
tention to  this  large  portion   of  South  America. 

After  an  unimportant  expedition  from  1526  to  1527, 
under  the  direction  of  Christovao  Jacques,  Don  Joao  III, 
in  December,  1530,  despatched  from  Lisbon  Martin  Af- 
fonso  de  Souza,  a  member  of  his  council,  as  commander- 
in-chief  of  the  fleet  composed  of  five  sail  and  four  hun- 
dred men,  to  guard  the  coast  of  Brazil.  Martin  Aflfonso 
de  Souza,  who  signed  documents  with  the  title  of  Gov-- 
ernor  of  New  Liizitania,  was  empowered  to  give  and  dis- 
tribulo  Icinds  to  those  who  might  desire  them,  and  to 
pass  the  respective  title  deeds,  and  also  to  create  notaries 
public  and  other  offices  of  justice. 

Martin  AfFonso  de  Souza,    came  therefore  also  charged 
with  establishing  a  colonial  nucleus  in  Brazil. 

The  difierent  episodes  of  his  interesting  and  rather  adven- 
turous expedition  can  not  be  related  here. 

With  regard  to  the  seat  of  the  colonial  nucleus,  it 
is  surprising,  and  not  easily  explained,  why  he  should 
not  have    chosen  Bahia  de  Todos  os   Santos,   where  he 
met  Diogo  Alvares,   a  shipwrecked  Portuguese,  and  the 
celebrated  Caramuru,  and  which  offered  him  all  the  ad- 
vantages of  an  excellent  seaport,  as  well  as  the  sincere 
aid  of  the  TupinambA  Indians,  who   obeyed   Caramuru; 
nor  the  reason  why  he   should   have  undervalued   the 
magnificent  situation,  the   grandeur,   and   the  excellent 
conditions  of  the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  where,  however, 
he  remained    three   months   and  built   two   brigantines^ 
entertained  friendly  relations  with  the  Indian  chief  who 
governed  the  land,  and    obtained  the  provisions   which 
the  place  could  furnish  for  one  year  for  four  hundred 

-  101  — 

Whatever  might  have  been  his  reasons  for  underrating 
Bahia  de  Todos  os  Santos,  which  later  became  the  seat 
of  the  first  capital  of  Brazil-colony,  and  for  abandoning 
the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  whose  calm  waters  now  reflect 
the  capital  of  the  Empire  of  Brazil,  it  is  certain  that 
Martin  Aflfonso  de  Souza,  on  the  22d  of  January,  1532, 
founded  the  first  Portuguese  colony  in  Brazil,  on  the 
island  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  the  saint  venerated 
on  that  day,  5.  Vicente. 

The  warlike  Indians  of  the  locality  had  commenced 
serious  hostilities  against  Martin  Afibnso,  when,  fortune 
favoring  him,  he  received  the  unexpected  and  providential 
assistance  of  JoEo  Ramalho,  who,  twenty  years  before 
had  been  shipwrecked  on  the  coast,  in  a  lost  and  unknown 
vessel,  and  who,  in  his  greatest  distress  had  received  aid 
and  protection  from  the  savages  who  afterwards  respected 
him,  the  civilized  man. 

JoSo  Ramalho,  who  lived  in  the  interior  and  had  taken 
as  companion,  or  illegitimate  wife,  the  daughter  of  Ty- 
birigi,  the  chief  of  the  Indians  who  ruled  that  part  of 
the  country,  on  hearing  the  news  of  the  arrival  of  the 
Portuguese,  descended  the  sea  range  of  mountains,  ar- 
rived with  Tybirigd  at  S.  Vicente,  disarmed  the  hostile 
Indians,  and  placed  himself  under  the  orders  of  Martin 
Affonso,  who  thenceforward  always  received  assistance 
and  support  from  the  savages  who  at  the  outset  had  been 
his  enemies. 

The  appearance  of  Joao  Ramalho  in  that  part  of  Brazil 
is  by  som.e  said  to  have  been  due  to  other  causes  and 
not  to  a  shipwreck,  as  will  be  mentioned  in  the  re- 
spective biographical  article.  What,  however,  is  certain  is 
the  great  assistance  rendered  by  him  to  Martin  Afibnso 
de   Souza. 

—  102  — 

Besides  the  colony  of  S.  Vicente,  Martin  AflFonso  de 
Souza,  guided  by  JoSo  Ramalho,  founded  that  of  Pira- 
tininga  on  the  banks  of  the  river  of  that  name,  nine 
leagues  into  the  interior,  on  a  beautiful  and  fertile  plain 
beyond  the  sea  range,  which  at  that  place  was  afterwards 
named  Gubat^U)  range. 

After  distributing  lands  among  the  colonists,  and  having 
named  officers  of  justice  in  the  two  villages  of  S.  Vi- 
cente and  Piratininga,  he  named  Jo9lo  Ramalho  guarda 
mdr  of  the  latter,  and  Gon^alo  Monteiro  of  the  former. 
Having  in  this  way  fulfilled  his  mission  he  returned  to 
Portugal  in  1533. 

Whilst  in  S.  Vicente  this  enlighened  governor,  who 
introduced  colonization  into  Brazil,  established  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  colony  or  village  of  that  name  the 
first  sugar-mill  seen  in  the  country,  having  sent  for 
sugar-cane  plants  from  the  island  of  Madeira. 

When  in  1533  Don  Joao  III  resolved  to  divide  Brazil 
into  hereditary  capitanias,  in  order  more  easily  to  advance 
its  colonization,  he  bestowed  on  Martin  Afi'onso  de  Souza 
the  capitania  of  S.  Vicente,  which  comprised  one  hundred 
leagues  of  coast,  as  is  declared  in  the  letter  which  the 
king  wrote  to  him. 

Martin  Afibnso  de  Souza  did  not  again  return  to  Brazil ; 
his  name  however  is  perpetuated  in  history,  and  two 
Brazilian  heroes,  two  Indians,  also  adopted  it  at  the  bap- 
tismal font: 

Martin  Aflfonso  de  Mello — Tybirigd, 

Martin  Afibnso  de  Souza — Ararygboia. 


OF    j-.A.X\rxj.A.R"sr 



This  eminent  man  who,  in  the  opinion  of  every  one, 
possessed  an  enlightened  intelligence  and  vast  learning, 
was  yet  greater  than  it  was  generally  supposed. 

He  was  the  legitimate  son  of  capitao  m6r  Manoel  de 
Araujo  da  Cunha  and  Donna  Marianna  Clara  da  Cunha, 
both  natives  of  Minas  Geraes.  He  was  born  on  the  15th  of 
September,  1793,  in  Congonhas  de  Sabari,  and  up  to  his 
thirteenth  year  was  named  Candido  Cardozo  Canuto  da 
Cunha ;  from  that  age  forward  he  was,  with  his  father's 
consent,  called  Candido  Jos6  de  Araujo  Vianna. 

He  received  preparatory  instruction  in  his  native  province 

—  104  — 
under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Jos6  Teixeira  da  Fonseca  Vascon- 
cellos,  afterwards  Viscount  of  Caeth6,  and  of  the  excellent 
preacher,  poet,  and  latinist.  Father  Joaquim  Machado  Ri- 
beiro,  who  foretold  his  brilliant  future,  due  to  his  great 
intelligence  and  application. 

Araujo  Vianna  was  then  already,  what  he  continued  to 
be  all  his  life,  a  model  of  excessive  modesty,  which  im- 
pressed his  character  with  exaggerated  timidity. 

On  the  9tji  of  February,  1815,  the  prince  regent,  shortly 
after  King  Don  Joao  VI,  appointed  him  adjuant  of  the 
militia  of  the  circuit  of  Sabari ;  but  in  1816  he  went  to 
Portugal,  and  on  the  15th  of  October  he  matriculated  in 
the  University  of  Coimbra,  in  the  course  of  law. 

On  the  9th  of  June,  1821,  he  took  his  degree  as  Bachelor 
of  Laws.  In  Coimbra  he  earned  the  best  academical  repu- 
tation ;  in  the  yearly  examinations  he  always  passed 
with  distinction.  Besides  the  course  of  laws  which  he 
studied,  he  attended  lectures  on  medicine,  and  cultivated 
literature  and  poetry  with  ardor.  He  belonged  to  the 
enlightened  circle  of  Manoel  Alves  Branco,  Odorico  Men- 
des,  and,  besides  others,  of  Almeida  Garret,  who  often 
after  spoke  of  him  with  enthusiasm. 

On  returning  to  Brazil  with  the  intention  of  entering  the 
bar,  he  had  to  abandon  the  idea,  having  being  appointed 
judge  of  the  probate  court  of  the  circuit  of  Sabari,  but 
before  taking  possession  of  his  charge  he  was  appointed 
district  judge  of  Marianna  by  decree  of  the  18th  of  Decem- 
ber of  the  same  year,  and  by  a  ministerial  order  of  the  23d 
of  April,  1822,  he  had  to  exercise  the  functions  of  judge  of 
treassury  suits,  of  absentees  and  of  the  probate  court. 

Then  come  fifty-three  years  and  more  than  a  month 
of  relevant  services  during  which  Araujo  Vianna,  after 
wards  Viscount  and  later,    Marquis    of  Sapucahy,   was 

-  105  — 
disputed    by  magistrature,  by  politics,  by  the  high  admin- 
istration, and  by  functions  as  high  and  honorable  as  they 
were  arduous  and  delicate. 

In  the  magistrature  some  dates  summarize  his  brilliant 
career.  On  the  10th  of  November,  1825,  he  was  reintegrated 
in  the  charge  of  district  judge,  and  before  concluding 
the  three  years  of  the  commission,  he  was,  by  decree  of 
the  17th  of  May,  1827,  appointed  a  member  of  the  court 
of  appeal  of  Pernambuco,  when  by  decree  of  the  13th 
of  December,  1832,  he  was  removed  to  that  of  Bahia,  and 
afterwards  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  serving  several  times  as 
audit  judge  in  the  junta  of  commerce  of  the  capital.  From 
the  court  of  appeal  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  he  was  raised  to 
the  pinnacle  of  the  magistrature  as  minister  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Justice,  obtaining  his  superannuation  by  decree 
of  the  12th  of  September,  1860,  after  serving  some  years. 
In  the  exercise  of  the  magistrature  his  judgments 
were  always  enlightened  by  his  profound  knowledge  of 
the  law,  and  were  guaranteed  by  his  sense  of  justice. 
It  is  not  easy  to  judge  him  separately  in  p«)litics  and 
in  the  high  administration. 

In  1823  he  was  elected  a  deputy  to  the  Brazilian  con- 
stituinte  by  the  province  of  Minas  Geraes,  and  so  highly 
was  he  considered  then,  that  the  delicate  and  important 
task  of  editing  the  Diario  of  that  assembly  was  confided 
to  him. 

In  1826  he  took  his  seat  in  the  first  legistature  of 
the  Empire,  as  a  deputy  elected  by  his  province,  who 
always  re-elected  him  until  the  fourth  legislature ;  send- 
ing his  name  twice  in  triple  lists  for  senators.  Araujo 
Yianaa  being  chosen  senator  the  second  time  by  the 
regent,  in  the  name  of  the  emperor,  on  the  29th  of 
October,  1839. 

VOL.   1  14 

-  106  — 
On  the  13th  of  November,  1826,  Araujo  Vianna  was. 
by  imperial  letter,  named  president  of  the  province  of 
Alagoas.  His  connection  had  always  been  with  the  liberal 
deputies  of  his  province.  In  1826,  however,  the  liberal 
opposition  appeared  straggling  and  with  no  parliamentary 
combinations,  barely  using  their  right  to  examine  and 
censure;  besides  which  Araujo  Vianna,  being  very  moderate 
and  doctrinal  in  politics,  could  not  belong  to  the  op- 
position, afterwards  formed,  which  adopted  the  principle 
of  refusing   to  take  a  part  in  the  government. 

Whilst  president  of  Alagoas,  Araujo  Vianna  in  a  few 
months  allayed  the  political  exaltation  of  parties,  and  if 
he  did  not  harmonize  them,  which  it  was  impossible  to 
do,  he  at  least  subdued  them  by  the  justice  and  in- 
telligence which  characterized  his  administration. 

Having  been  named  president  of  Maranhao  on  the  17th 
of  September,  1828,  he  took  charge  of  his  appointment 
on  the  13th  of  January  of  the  following  year,  and 
found  that  province  in  a  lamentable  state  of  administra- 
tive disorder  and  dangerous  and  threatening  political  ef- 
fervescence. The  government  there  had  been  anti-liberal, 
oppressive,  and  violent ;  the  liberal  opposition  was  highly 
irritated  and  enraged  against  the  executive  power,  or,  as 
was  generally  said,  against   the  emperor. 

Araujo  Vianna,  at  the  end  of  a  few  days,  of  which  he 
ably  took  advantage  to  compensate,  by  acts  of  justice  and 
generosity,  oflFenses  to  the  constitutional  rights  of  oppressed 
citizens  and  to  regenerate  and  moralize  the  administration^ 
extinguished  the  flames  of  resistance,  established  his 
authority  based  on  the  confidence  of  those  he  governed,  and 
was  applauded  with  the  name  of  regenerator  of  the  adminis- 
tration, and  of  a  president  who  faithfully  observed  the 
precepts  of  the  constitution,   when  the  news  arrived  in 

—  107  — 
Maranhao  of  the  proclamation  of  the  people  and  of  the 
troops  on  the  6th  of  April  and  of  the  abdication  of  the  em- 
peror, Don  Pedro  I,  on  the  early  morning  of  the  following 
day  in  the  capital  of  the  empire. 

The  excitement  of  the  liberals  attained  serious  proportions 
and  in  the  impulses  of  the  reaction  against  the  opposite 
party  and  against  the  Portuguese,  who  had  intrusively 
and  provofeingly  involved  themselves  in  the  politics  of 
the  country,  some  unreflecting  patriots  declared  them- 
selves in  a  menacing  revolt,  the  military  being  in  their 
favor.  Then  Araujo  Vianna  had  the  glory  of  re-establishing 
order,  and  the  empire  of  the  law,  without  conflicts  or 
contests,  merely  by  employing  gentle  means,  by  making 
some  concessions  which  circumstances  had  rendered 
necessary,  and  by  the  power  of  his  influence  he  was  able 
to  dispel  and  prevent  a  new  conspiracy. 

On  the  29th  of  November,  1832,  he  made  over  the  presi- 
dency of  the  province  to  his  successor,  leaving  in  Mar- 
anhao  a  name  generally  revered. 

On  the  14th  of  December,  1832,  he  entered  the  cabinet  as 
minister  of  finance,  and  in  1833  was  also  minister  of  justice, 
ad  interim.  He  retired  from  government  on  the  2d  of  June, 
1834,  having  rendered  great  services  to  the  financial 
administration  of  the  empire. 

He  afterwards  served  several  times  as  fiscal  attorney  of 
the  court  of  the  public  national  treasury. 

On  the  27th  of  March,  1841,  he  again  entered  as  minister 
of  the  empire  the  cabinet,  organized  on  that  day.  He  con- 
tributed to  the  passing  in  the  chambers  of  the  bill  which 
created  the  new  council  of  state,  and  he  was  the  minister 
who  put  that  law  into  execution,  and  who  drew  up  the 
regulations  for  the  same  council. 

The  liberal  revolts  of  S.  Paulo  and  MinasGeraes,  and  the 

—  lOB- 
parliamentarycontestwhich  preceded  them,  absorbed  the 
attention  of  everyone  till  September,  1842.  The  ministry 
that  sabdned  these  reyoltsleft  power  on  the  23d  ol  Janu- 
ary, 1843,  owing  to  disagreements  among  its  members ;  but 
Araojo  Vianna  had  had  time  to  improve  public  education,  to 
reform  the  scientific  administration  of  the  National  Museum, 
and  to  instill  into  other  branches  of  the  public  service  his 
progressive  spirit. 

By  decre  of  the  14th  of  September,  1850,  Araujo  Vianna 
was  appointed  an  extraordinary  member  of  the  council  of 
state,  and  on  the  20th  of  August,  1859,  he  became  an  ordinary 
member,  belonging  to  the  section  of  the  affairs  of  the  em- 
pire, and  of  agriculture,  commerce,  and  public  works.  He 
served  as  secretary  to  the  council  of  State  from  1851  until 
his  death. 

On  the  12th  of  December,  1854,  the  enlightened  and 
worthy  Araujo  Vianna  was  created  Viscount  of  Sapu- 
caby,  being  raised  to  a  Marquis  by  decree  of  the  15th  of 
October,  1872. 

In  the  chamber  of  deputies  he  was  aW'ays  in  important 
committees,  and,  after  serving  as  vice-president,  was  elected 
president,  serving  iu  1838  and  1839.  In  the  senate  he 
was  always  chosen  a  member  of  the  committee  of  the  consti- 
tution of  that  for  drawing  up  laws,  except  during  his  sec- 
ond ministry,  and  while  occupying  the  presidency  of  the 
senate,  which  he  resigned. 

In  the  government  of  the  provinces,  and  as  secretary  of 
State  he  was  always  distinguished  for  his  moderation,  for  his 
tolerance,  and  for  his  zealous  efforts  towards  the  encourage- 
ment and  development  of  the  moral  progress  of  the  nation. 
In  politics,  he  joined  the  moderate  liberals  after  the  7th  of 
April,  1831,  and  from  1837  forward  he  adhered  to  the  con- 

—  109  — 
servative  party  which  Bernardo  Pereira  de  Vasconcellos 
created.  But  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy  was  always  want- 
ing in  that  energy  of  will  which  characterizes  eminent 
tatcsmen  in  extraordinary  times  and  circumstances ;  never- 
theless it  is  a  curious  fact  that,  from  1832  to  1834  and 
from  1841  to  1843,  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy  belonged  to 
ministries  which  dispelled  tremendous  crises  by  taking 
strong  and  oppressive  measures,  the  legality  of  some  of 
which  is  more  than  questionable.  But  he,  though  obedient 
and  faithfully  adhering  to  the  principle  of  collective  re- 
sponsibility, was  never  the  instigator  of  those  bold  expe- 
dients and  of  that  energy,  which,  in  acts  of  violence,  shield 
themselves  with  the  plea  of  scUus  populu 

It  may  be  said  that  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy  was  not  of 
the  the  conservative  party,  but  simply  of  the  conservative 
school,  so  sincere  and  truly  tolerant,  so  mild,  condescend- 
ing and  obliging  was  he  towards  his  political  adversaries. 

In  the  Brazilian  constituinte,  in  the  chamber  of  deputies, 
and  in  the  senate,  of  which  he  was  a  serviceable  and  hard- 
working member  during  fifty-two  years,  the  Marquis  of 
Sapucahy  never  shone  and  never  had  a  triumph  as  an  orator. 
He  was  not,  and  could  no  be  a  speaker.  He  had  not  the  gift 
of  speech,  and  found  it  difficult  sometimes  to  express  him- 
self. Either  he  had  a  defect  in  some  vocal  organ,  or  timidity 
and  shyness,  incredible  in  a  man  of  so  much  learning, 
made  him  hesitate  and  falter  at  the  enunciation  of  every 
thought.  Even  in  reading  in  formal  assemblies,  he  seemed  to 
do  violence  to  himself,  wavering,  confused  and  perplexed 
in  an  extraordinary  manner.  It  was  however  natural  and 
invincible.  But  away  from  the  tribune,  from  ostentation, 
from  formality,  and  from  a  large  audience,  in  his  chair  in 
the  senate,  in  the  committee  rooms,  in  his  study  he  was  easy, 
gentle  and  charming  —  a  book  to  be  consulted,— a  fount  of 

—  110  — 
erudition,  which  he  alone  ignored,  a  monument  of  science 
hidden  in  an  immense  abyss  of  modesty. 

In  the  council  of  State  there  was  no  more  enlightened, 
nor  a  more  profound  and  fertile  toiler  than  he.  He  rivalled 
the  Marquis  of  Olinda  and  the  Viscount  of  Souza  Franco  in 
the  almost  daily  exposition  of  enlightened  consultations. 

Not  only  in  the  magistrature,  in  the  high  administration 
of  the  country,  in  parliament,  and  in  the  council  of  State, 
did  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy  render  important  services. 
He  exercised  other  functions  which,  alone,  would  have 
sufficed  for  his  glory  on  earth. 

In  the  imperial  school  of  Don  Pedro  I  he  was  for  many 
years  government  commissioner  at  the  examination  of  the 
respective  students,  a  commission  in  which  he  was  also 
several  times  employed  at  the  Commercial  Institute,  and  at 
the  general  public  examinations  of  the  district  of  the  capital, 
being  always  regarded  with  respect  and  veneration  by  the 
multitude  of  thoughtless  students. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  examining  committee  of  the 
candidates  to  the  diplomatic  career. 

These  commissions  might  have  been  confided,  by  the  sym- 
pathy and  the  distinguished  favor  of  government,  to  any 
other  citizen,  especially  as,  not  being  remunerated,  they 
may  rather  be  considered  as  a  burthen  than  as  a  present. 
Others  however  there  are  which  highly  exalt  the  confi- 
dence reposed  in  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy. 

On  the  11th  of  January,  1839,  he  was  named  professor  of 
literature  and  positive  sciences  of  the  Emperor  and  his 
august  sisters,  and  the  strong  and  distinguished  friendship 
of  the  Emperor,  and  the  no  less  eloquent  fact  of  H.  M. 
appointing  him  professor  of  his  august  daughters,  indicate 
how  well  he  fulfilled  the  high  and  honorable  mission. 

On  the  12tb  of  December,  1864,  he  had  the  distinguished 

—  Ill  — 

honor  of  being  appointed  to  serve  as  a  witness,  on  behalf  of 
the  Emperor,  to  the  marriage  of  the  most  serene  princess 
Donna  Leopoldina  with  the  Duke  of  Saxe. 

From  the  15th  of  September,  1874,  the  illustrious  and 
venerable  marquis  commenced  to  suffer  and  to  break  down. 
The  medical  assistants  discovered  a  deep  lesion  of  the  heart 
in  the  laborious  and  indefatigable  octogenarian.  On  the 
14th  of  January,  1875,  his  sufferings  increased. 

He  was  tfien  in  Petropolis,  serving  his  week  as  chamber- 
lain to  the  Emperor,  and,  wishing  to  retire  to  the  bosom  of 
his  family.  His  Majesty  ordered  for  him  a  special  train  to 
the  port  of  Maud,  thence  to  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  he 
was  conveyed  in  the  imperial  yacht,  and  in  the  city  he  was 
taken  to  his  own  house  in  one  of  the  Emperor's  carriages. 

The  Marquis  rose  no  more  from  his  bed.  Always 
calm  and,  mild  he  attempted  to  console  his  family. 
His  enlightened  intelligence  remained  unaltered  and  up 
to  the  end  of  January  he  examined  and  despatched  papers 
of  the  council  of  State. 

On  the  23rd,  at  10  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the  Emperor, 
accompanied  by  the  ofScers  of  his  household,  went  to 
visit  his  old  professor  and  friend,  who  felt  deeply  gra- 
tified, and  said  : 

«  Your  Majesty  is  truly  great.  > 

The  Marquis  expired  at  twelve  o'clock,  quietly,  and 
surrounded  by  his  family.  An  hour  before  he  had  appeared 
a  little  better. 

The  Emperor,  who  was  then  at  the  Fine  Arts  Academy 
distributing  prizes  to  the  pupils  who  had  distinguished 
themselves,  retired  immediately,  much  moved,  on  receiving 
the  news  of  the  death  of  the  Marquis. 

Brazil  had  lost  a  great  man. 

From  1826  to  1875  always  toiling  and  employed  in  so  ma- 

-  112  — 
ny  important  labors:  as  magistrate,  member  of  the  chamber 
of  deputies,  and  afterwards  of  the  senate,  twice  president 
of  provinces  up  to  1831,  later,  twice  minister  for  some  years; 
councilor  of  State,  professor  of  the  Emperor  jind  of  his 
august  sister,  and  afterwards  of  his  august  daughters  ; 
occupied  in  several  commissions,  he  nevertheless  found  time 
to  study  hard.  He  was  profoundly  learned,  and  was  perfectly 
conversant  with  some  living  languages;  a  was  a  remarkable 
latinist,  and  knew  Greek.  The  Portuguese  classics  were 
familiar  to  him,  and  he  wrote  the  Portuguese  language 
with  notable  purity.  He  found  time  to  follow  the  progress 
of,  and  knew  all  the  works  on,  the  science  of  law  and  the 
modern  literature  of  the  Old  World,  as  also  to  read  all  the 
works  published  in  Brazil,  whose  authors  always  found  in 
the  learned  old  marquis  a  juvenile  ardor  to  encourage 

More :  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy  was  a  hidden  poet, 
and,  if  he  had  wished  it ,  would  have  been  a  first-class 
poet.  Some  sonnets  and  odes,  some  light  compositions 
which  escaped  the  secrecy  of  his  exaggerated  modesty, 
are  masterpieces  of  consummate  art,  of  good  taste  and 

The  Marquis  of  Sapucahy,  even  in  literature,  through 
his  invincible  modesty,  always  humbled  himself.  To  the 
end  of  his  life  the  learned  old  man  admired  the  intelligence 
of  others  and  doubted  his  own. 

The  learning  of  the  Marquis  of  Sapucahy  was  obscured 
by  his  exaggerated  diffidence  and  timidity.  If  he  had  pos- 
sessed energy,  and  had  been  conscious  of  his  high  merit, 
he  would  have  exercised  an  extraordinary  influence  in  the 
distinies  of  Brazil. 

He  was  a  great  man  who  never  had  a  mirror  in  the 
reflection  of  which  he  could  appreciate  his  own  greatness. 

-  113- 
Candido  J096  de  Araujo  Vianna,  Viscount  and  Marquis 
of  Sapucahy,  senator  and  councilor  of  State,  member  of 
the  Supreme  Court  of  Justice,  chevalier  of  the  orders  of 
Christ,  and  the  Rose,  dignitary  of  the  imperial  order  of  the 
Cross,  Grand  Cross  of  the  order  of  Saint  January  of  Naples, 
and  ofthat  of  Ernes tina,  of  the  Ducal  House  of  Saxe-Cob  rg 
G  'tha,  was  also  honorary  grand-master  of  the  Lavradio 
lodge  of  Free  Masons,  and  was  for  more  than  thirty  years 
president  and  afterwards  honorary  member  of  the  Bra- 
zilian Historical  and  Geographical  Institute,  and  of  many 
other  foreign  and  Brazilian  scientific  and  literary  so- 

fOL.   I  ^^ 



JosA  DurSo  was  born  at  Cata  Preta,  hamlet  of  Nossa 
Senhora  de  Nazareth  do  Inficcionado,  four  leagues  to  the 
north  of  the  city  of  Marianna,  in  the  capitania  afterwards 
province,  of  Minas  Geraes,  between  1718  and  1720.  His 
parents  were  capitao  m6r  Paulo  Rodrigues  DurSo,  and 
Donna  Anna  Garcez  de  Moraes,  both  natives  of  Minas. 

Councilor  J.  M.  Pereira  da  Silva  says  that  Jos6  DurSo 
pursued  his  primary  and  preparatory  studies  in  the  Jesuit 
classes  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro;  that  immediately  after 
completing  these  he  went  to  Portugal,  and  on  the  24th  of 
December,  1756,  graduated  in  the  University  of  Coimbra 
as  Doctor  of  Theology,  that  in  the  year  1758  he  pro- 
fessed in  the  religious  order  of  the  hermits  of  Saint  Augus- 
tine, and  immediately  after  began  to  be  spoken  of  as  an 

-  116  — 
orator,  preaching  at  Leiria  in   the  thanksgiving  for  the 
escape  of  Don  Josd  I  from  the  mysterious  outrage  of  the  3d 
of  September. 

Questionsof  self  lore,  which  however  have  not  been  well 
verified,  prejudiced  the  bishop  of  Leiria,  Don  Joao  Gomes 
da  Gunha,  against  the  Friar  Jos^  de  Santa  Rita  DurSo,  who, 
fearing  him,  passed  into  Spain,  intending  thence  to  go  to 
Italy.  War,  however,  having  broken  out  between  the  two 
kingdoms  of  the  peninsula,  the  traveling  friar  was  arrested 
on  suspicion  of  being  a  spy,  and  imprisoned  in  the  castle 
of  Segovia,  which  he  left  after  the  treaty  of  the  10th  of 
February,  1763,  which  re-established  peace  in  Europo. 

On  being  set  at  liberty,  Santa  Rita  Durao  went  to  Italy. 
In  Rome  he  met  Jos6  Basilic  da  Gama,  with  whom  he  be- 
came intimately  connected. 

After  remaining  some  years  in  Italy,  he  resolved  to  return 
to  Portugal,  when  he  heard  in  1772  of  the  reform  of  the 
University  of  Coimbra,  of  which  his  compatriot  and  friend, 
Bishop  Don  Francisco  de  Lemos,  was  principal.  On  arriving 
in  Coimbra  and  in  combination  with  the  bishop  he  entered 
in  the  competition  for  the  chair  of  assistant  professor  of 
theology.  He  surpassed  the  other  competitors  and  in  1778, 
at  the  opening  of  the  courses,  he  was  charged  with  the 
recital  of  the  sapientia  oration,  written  in  Latin,  as  was 
then  the  custom.  This  discourse  obtained  great  applause, 
and  is  still  remembered  with  praise. 

The  date  on  which  DurSo  commenced  to  compose  his 
poem— Caramuru'— is  unknown;  it  is  supposed  that  he 
began  in  that  same  year  or  in  the  next.  The  Viscount  of 
Porto  Seguro  alledges,  that  tradition  says  the  poem  was 
written  in  a  very  short  time,  and  that  Jos6  Agostinho  de 
Macedo  attests  the  facility  with  which  DurSo  ordinarily 
composed,  sitting  on  a  stone  seat  near  the  Cozelhas  stream 

-  117  - 
which  passed  near  the  fence  of  his  convent.  There  he  would 
dictate  to  a  liberated  mulato,  called  Bernard,   whom  he 
had  taken  with  him  from  Brazil. 

When  the  work  was  finished,  DurSo  went  to  Lisbon  to 
have  it  printed,  and  the  poem  Garamuru*  was  published  in 
that  city  in  1781. 

Unfortunately  Caramuru'  was  not  received  by  the  con- 
temporaries as  the  poet  expected.  Deeply  hurt,  Santa  Rita 
Durao  became  so  disheartened  that  (according  to  councilor 
Pereira  da  Silva)  he  destroyed  all  the  poetry  which  he  had 

This  Brazilian  epic  poet  survived  but  a  short  time  his 
disenchantment.  He  died  at  the  college  of  Santo  Agostinho 
on  the  24th  of  January,  1784. 

To  the  laborious  investigations  of  the  indefatigable  and 
enlightened  Mr.  Innocencio  Francisco  da  Silva,  author  of 
the  Dice.  Bibliog.  Portuguez,  are  due  the  knowledge  of 
this  last  date,  and  of  that  of  his  professing  in  the  order  of 
Saint  Augustine  in  the  convent  of  Grag  \,  in  Lisbon,  on  the 
12th  of  October,  1758. 

The  epic  poem  of  the  discovery  of  Brazil-^G arauvrv' — 
which  had  been  inspired  by  the  love  of  his  native  country, 
had  the  fate  of  Milton's  Paradise  Lost.  Only  after  the 
author's  death  did  it  commence  to  be  appreciated. 

In  the  present  century,  the  best  authorities  in  Portu- 
guese literature  avenged  DurSo  of  the  injustice  of  his  con- 
temporaries. Viscount  Castilho  praises  him  ;  Garrett  exalts 
his  merit ;  Jos6  Maria  da  Costa  says  that  Durao  ought  to 
be  considered  the  founder  of  Brazilian  poetry ;  Jos6  Agos- 
tinho de  Macedo  calls  Durao  the  « man  who  only 
wanted  antiquity  to  be  called  great !  »  Ferdinand  Diniz 
thinks  that  Caramuru  is  a  Brazilian  national  epopee 
which  interests  and  delights  the  reader. 

—  118  - 

MoBglave  (Eugene  Paray  de)  translated  the  poem  Gara- 
MURu'  into  the  French  language. 

This  is  not  the  place  for  a  critical  opinion.  But  the  best 
and  at  the  same  time  the  most  complete  and  just  apprecia. 
tion  is  summarized  in  the  following  words,  written  by  the 
already  mentioned  Jos^  Maria  da  Costa  e  Silva  when  in  his 
Ensaio  Biographico-Gritigo  he  speaks  of  Santa  Rita  DurSo: 
♦  He  was  the  first  who  had  the  good  sense  to  discard  the 
European  ideas  which  he  had  imbibed  in  the  schools,  to 
compose  an  epopee,  Brazilian  in  the  action,  in  the  habits, 
in  the  sentiments  and  ideas,  and  in  the  local  coloring.  » 

To  this  opinion  the  only  objection  that  can  be  raised  is 
to  the  words  4:he  was  the  firsU  which  might  raise  doubts  as 
to  the  good  sense  which  Josd  Basilic  da  Gama,  just  as  much 
a  Braziliany  had  shown  in  his  poem  Araquat,  published 
some  years  before  Caramuru'. 

OF  j-A.isrcrA.R,"2- 


Paulo,  afterwards  called  da  Trindade,  was  born  in  Ma- 
cah^y  in  the  then  capitania  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  He  professed 
in  the  convent  of  S.  Thom6  da  Ordem  Seraphica,  and  stu- 
died theology  with  the  friar-professor,  Manoel  do  Monte 
Olivete,  sent  from  Lisbon  to  direct  education  in  that  con- 

He  applied  himself  fervently  to  the  study  of  theology, 
of  canonic  law,  and  of  the  holy  scriptures. 

He  devoted  himself  zealously  to  the  conversion  of  the 
idolatrous  Africans,  having  taught  Latin  to  some  and  pre- 
pared them  for  a  sacerdotal  life. 

Such  was  the  reputation  he  enjoyed  as  a  man  of  virtue 
and  learning,  that  he  was  frequently  consulted. 

He  was  appointed  commissioner-general,  by  the  general 
vicar,  Friar  FranciscoHe  nrique,  who  was  afterwards  bishop. 

-  120  - 

In  1634  he  presided  over  the  third  chapter  held  in  the  con- 
vent of  Madre  de  Deos  of  Goa. 

He  died  in  Goa  in  the  eightieth  year  of  his  age  on  the  25th 
of  January,  1651. 

He  composed  the  Conquista  Espiritical  do  OrientCy  re- 
lating the  remarkable  labors  of  the  priests  in  the  con- 
version of  the  infidels,  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  to 
the  remotest  islands  of  Japan :  three  books  in  manuscript. 

He  also  composed  a  Treatise  on  Moral  Theology,  a  man- 
uscript still  existing  in  the  convent  of  S.   Thom6. 


OF    J-A.N'XJ-AJR'y 


Prom  the  midst  of  poetic  fictions  and  of  romantic  tra- 
ditions, some  of  which  are  due  to  the  inyeniiye  genius 
which,  to  the  detriment  of  history,  was  not  wanting  in 
the  old  chroniclers,  arises  the  rnde  but  pleasing  figure  of 
the  legendary  Paragiuiissii,  daughter  of  the  virgin  forests 
of  Brazil. 

In  the  biographical  article  of  the  5th  of  October,  in 
which  mention  is  made  of  Diogo  Alvares  —  the  Cara- 
murn,  it  will  be  seen  how  the  young  Tupinambi  In- 
dian, taken  for  wife  by  the  shipwrecked  seaman  who  was 
saved  in  the  bay  of  Todos  os  Santos,  has  a  place  in  the 
chronicles  of  Brazil. 

ParaguassA  was  the  daughter  of  one  of  the  chiefs 
(muribiasabas)  of  the  Tupinamb&  Indians,  and  it  is  very 
probable  that,  besides  the  prestige  acquired  wiih  the  mus- 

TOL.  I  16  ^ 

—  122  — 
ket  that  killed  with  a  loud  report  the  historical  bird,  his 
union  with  that  Indian  contributed  not  a  little   to  Ga- 
ramurtis  great  influence. 

The  father  of  Paraguassu,  naturally  proud  of  the  hus- 
band which  he  had  chosen  for  his  daughter,  protected  him 
with  all  the  power  of  his  tribe  ;  and  the  chosen  compan- 
ion of  Dio^o  Alvares  was,  undesignedly,  and  without  pre- 
meditation, but  owing  to  her  father's  importance  and  by 
her  own  daily  increasing  influence,  the  primitive,  gentle, 
but  strong  lever  of  civilization  on  the  soil  of  Bahia. 

The  Indians  had  no  idea  of  the  duty  and  of  the  virtue 
of  chastity  in  woman ;  but  Paraguassu,  either  instinc^ 
tively  or  from  ardent  love,  was  the  honest  companion  of 
Caramuru,  and  as  she  was  as  devoted  to  him,  as  she  was 
the  vigilant  protectress  of  her  Indian  brothers  she  became 
the  idol  of  the  Tupinamb&s,  and  the  arbitress  of  their 

It  is  not  known  when  she  was  baptized  and,  at  the 
font,  took  the  name  ofCatharina  Alvares.  The  tradi- 
tion of  her  voyage  to  France  with  Diogo  Alvares,  and 
of  her  baptism  there,  taking  for  her  godmother  Catha- 
rine of  Medicis,  who  gave  the  Indian  her  name,  is,  from 
just  motives,  now  rejected. 

>  She  was  called  Catharina  Alvares,  an  indication  that 
her  baptism  was  almost  immediatety  followed  by  her  mar- 
riage, which  was  her  husband's  family  name.  The  choice  of 
the  name  of  Catharina  may  be  well  explained  in  many 
other  ways:  the  memory  of  a  loved  relation  of  Caramuru, 
that  of  the  Saint  venerated  on  the  day  on  which  she  was 
baptized,  or  any  other  motive  ;  or  if  any  princess  of  that 
time  influenced  the  fact,  there  was  queen  Catharine  of 
Austria,  in  Portugal. 

It  is  certain  that  Diogo  Alvares  married  Paraguassil 

erther  shortly  after  she  was  baptized  in  1531,  when 
Martin  Affonso  de  Souza  was  in  Bahia  for  a  few  days,  or 
when  Francisco  Pereira  Goutinho  founded  there  his  ca- 
pitania  in  1539,  or  in  1549  under  Thomd  de  Souza,  who 
arrived  in  Brazil  in  that  year,  as  first  governor-general 
of  the  Portuguese-American  colony. 

Gatharina  Alvares,  the  Paraguassu  of  the  Tupinambi, 
was  always  more  than  the  companion  and  afterwards 
the  wife  of  Garamuru.  She  had  through  her  generous  and 
sisterly  love^  acquired  such  influence  over  the  savages  as 
to  be  of  great  assistance  to  her  husband. 

The  Tupinambis  consented  in,  and  contributed  to,  the 
foundation  of  the  colonial  establishment  of  the  donee 
Francisco  Pereira  Goutinho.  Some  writers  say  that  after 
these  important  services,  war  broke  out  between  the 
Portuguese  and  Indians,  who  had  revolted,  and  the  colo- 
nists, faithful  to  the  donee,  who  imprisoned  Diogo  Alva- 
res, on  which  Paraguassu  armed  and  brought  into  the 
field  a  large  force  of  Tupinambis.  If  this  controverted 
tale  be  true,  it  only  proves  the  powerful  influence  of 
the  devoted  wife;  for  Goutinho  was  beaten  and  expelled 
from  the  capitania,  dying  some  time  after  on  the  isle  of  Ita- 
parica,  where  he  had  been  shipwrecked,  by  the  hands 
of  the   savages  who  hated  him. 

In  1549  Thom6  de  Souza,  the  founder  of  the  general 
government  of  Brazil  in  Bahia,  found  in  Diogo  Alvares  and 
in  Gatharina  Alvares  faithful,  sure,  and  most  useful  guar- 
antees of  the  support  and  co-operation  of  the  TupinambdSi 
who  became  their  best  allies  in  their  first  and  arduous  labors. 

From  her  union,  at  first  natural  but  afterwards  con- 
secrated, with  Diogo  Alvares,  Gatharina  Alvares — Para- 
guassu, had  four  daughters,  who  all  married,  becoming 

-  124- 
the  progenitors  of  illnstrioiis  descendants,  some  of  whom 
became  titularies. 

Their  descent  is  of  the  noblest  in  the  old  capitania' 
now  province  of  Bahia,  and  the  Bahia  house  of  Torre, 
so  celebrated  for  their  opulence  and  civic  services,  descends 
from  Paraguass^  and  Diogo  Alvares. 

Diogo  Alvares— the  Carawuni— died  on  the  5th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1557,  and  his  wife  Catharina  Alvares,  the  legendary^ 
Paraguassii,  more  than  eighty  years  old,  nearly  a  cen- 
tenarian, died  on  the  26th  of  January,  1583. 

Her  mortal  remains  were  laid  in  the  church  of  the 
monastery  of  Nossa  Senhora  da  Graga  (in  the  city  of 
Bahia),  where  the  following  epitaph  is  inscribed : 

«  Sepulchre  of  Donna  Catharina  Alvares  Paraguassu, 
owner  that  was  of  the  capitania  of  Bahia,  which  she 
and  her  husband  Diogo  Alvares  Corrfia,  a  native  of  Vianna, 
gave  to  the  kings  of  Portugal:  built  this  chapel  of  Nossa 
Senhora  da  Graga  and  gave  it  with  the  lands  annexed 
to  the  patriarch  of  S.  Bento  in  the  year  1582.  » 

zsr^m  or  JA.N"CJJLRTsr 


Jacob  de  Andrade  Vellosino,  a  Doctor  of  Medicine 
and  a  naturalist  who  became  celebrated  in  Holland,  was 
bom  in  Pemambuco  in  1639,  at  the  time  when  the  Dutch 
dominion  flourished  most  under  the  government  of  Prince 
Maurice  of  Nassau. 

He  was  the  son  of  a  Dutchman,  and,  as  his  surname 
of  Andrade  would  lead  to  believe,  of  a  Pemambuco  or 
Portuguese  lady;  for  it  is  well  known  that  many  mar- 
riages took  place  between  the  Dutch  and  the  natives  of 
Pemambuco,  despite  the  national  repulsion  then  ob- 

When  in  1654  those  invaders  capitulated  in  Recife, 
the  families  of  the  Dutch  who  had  married  in  the  capi- 
tania  where  they  ruled  were  allowed  freely  to  retire. 

Jacob  de  Andrade  Yellosino,  accompanied  his  parents 

to  Holland,  where  he  completed  his  studies,  commenced 
in  Recife,  graduated  in  medicine,  established  in  Amster- 
dam, obtained  a  good  name,  and  attained  a  well-merit- 
ed reputation  as  an  able  physician  and  naturalist.  He 
published  scientific  works  and  memoirs  in  the  language  of 
his  adopted  country,  which  deserved  the  praise  of  learned 
Dutch  witers. 

He  died  in  1712,  at  the  age  of  seventy-three. 

In  the  absence  of  more  precise  dates  in  the  life  of 
Jacob  de  Andrade  Vellosino,  his  name  is  remembered  on 
the  27th  of  January,  the  day  on  which,  in  the  year 
1654,  owing  to  the  capitulation  of  Taborda,  he,  fol- 
lowing his  parents;  left  the  land  on  which  he  was 

or    J-A.2SrXJ-A.Il"5r 


Antonio  Joaquim  Franco  de  S&  was  born  on  the  16th 
of  July,  1836,  in  the  city  of  Alcantara,  province  ofMaran- 
hao.  He  was  the  legitimate  son  of  Joaquim  Franco  de 
Si,,  a  senator  of  the  Empire,  and  Donna  Lucrecia  Rosa 
da  Costa  Ferreira,  daughter  of,  also  senator,  Antonio 
Pedro  da  Costa  Ferreira  (afterwards  Baron  of  Pindar*). 

Haviug  always  accompanied  his  father,  either  to  Rio 
de  Janeiro  when  he  came  to  take  his  seat  in  the  cham- 
ber of  deputies,  or  to  other  places  where  he  was  obliged 
to  reside  in  consequence  of  political  changes,  Antonio 
Joaquim  Franco  de  Si  followed  no  regular  course  of 
study  until  1846,  but  he  already  then  gave  proofs 
of  a  brilliant  and  hopeful  talent.  From  that  year  to 
1349,  in  Maranhao  and  in   Rio  de  Janeiro,  at  Marinh&s 

—  138  — 
boarding-school,   to  the  end  of  1851,  he  completed  his 
preparatory  studies. 

He  was  only  fifteen  years  and  a  few  months  old  when 
he  composed  some  sweet  and  melancholy  pieces  of  po- 
etry, precursors  of  future  and  grand  transports. 

He  was  an  inspired  boy,  but  his  heart  had  already 
been  drowned  in  tears.  In  1850  he  had  lost  his  mother, 
and  on  the  10th  of  November,  1851,  he  received,  in  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  the  news  of  his  father's  death. 

The  orphan  left  for  Olinda  where  he  matriculated  in 
the  faculty  of  law  in  1852. 

Franco  de  S4  studied  law,  philosophy  and  literature, 
and  cultivated  poetry  until  the  year  1856,  when  on  the 
Istjof  January,  leaving  a  ball  in  a  state  of  perspiration 
and  excitement  he  caught  a  cold  and  was  attacked  with 
a  fever  which  never  left  him  until  he  died  on  the  28th 
of  the  same  month  when  he  had  nearly  finished  his 

After  his  death  his  brother.  Dr.  Felippe  Franco  de 
S4,  published  in  a  volume  of  one  hundred  and  forty- 
five  pages  the  spring  flowers  of  the  poet  who  had  died 
when  only  twenty  years  old.  The  title  of  the  book  is: 
PoESiAs  DE  Antonio  Joaquim  Franco  dk  Sa'. 

The  compositions  produced,  as  it  were  spontaneously, 
by  his  muse  when  only  between  eighteen  and  twenty 
years  of  age,  please  by  their  freshness  and  delight  by 
their  purity  of  form,  the  brightness  of  the  images,  and 
above  all  by  his  good  taste  in  avoiding  the  contagion 
of  exaggeration  and  extravagance,  which  were  shielded 
with  the  name  of  Byron. 

The  little  piece  Idalina  may  serve  as  a  proof  of  the 
good  sense  of  the  young  poet.  The  two  sonnets  -Sabba- 
tina  and  Esbelta — have  real  merit. 

—  129  - 

In  the  piece — Amor  e  namoro — Franco  de  Si  shows 
the  wit  of  a  thorough^bred  student. 

The  distinguished  Portuguese  poet  Mr.  ThomazRibeiro, 
the  author  of  Don  Jayme,  in  a  letter  which  he  wrote 
to  Dr.  Felippe  Franco  de  S4,  highly  praised  the  poetry 
of  young  Antonio  Franco  de  S4,  and  especially  the  lines 
written  in  the  album  of  his  friend  and  colleague  (also  a 
poet)  Mr.  Pedro  de  Gallazans,  of  which  the  folio  wing  are 
an  extract.  Here  the  enthusiasm  of  the  poet  defies  the 
torments  which  await  the  future  of  poets,  and  enlightens 
the  crowd,   despite  all  resistance : 

Entao  surjamos  altivos 

£  lancemos  ao  redor 

Do  olhar— lampejos  mais  Tiros, 

Da  lyra — canto  melhor. 

Embora  a  turba  resista, 
Ganbemos  nosso  lugar; 
Generosos  dando  Tida  ; 
A'  quern  nos  quizer  cegar. 

Fagamos  nectar  divine 
Dessas  gottas  de  amargor! 
De  cada  gemido— urn  bymno ! 
De  cada  espinbo-^uma  flor ! 

Then  proud  let  us  rise  and  around  us  throw  from  the  eye^ 
brighter  glances,  from  the  lyre  —  a  better  song.  Though  the  crowd 
resist,  let  us  attain  our  place  ;  generously  giving  light ;  to  those 
who  wish  to  blind  us.  Let  us  divine  nectar  make  of  these  drops 
of  bitterness  I  and  of  each  sigh— a  hymn  !  of  each  thorn— a  flower. 

VOL.  I  n 

•yyry  OF^sr 


The  fine  arts,  like  belles-lettres,  only  commenced  to 
appear  and  to  have  their  own  history  in  Brazil  in  the  18th 
century,  though  some  Brazilian  notabilities  had  already 
shone  in  the  horizon  of  the  European  world. 

Until  then  letters  and  arts  were  almost  exclusively 
cultivated  in  silence  and  in  the  gloom  of  the  convents  of 
religious  orders,  which  were  the  only  source  of  some 
instruction  in  humanities,  and  which  had  their  friars,  arcih- 
tects  and  painters  of  merit. 

In  the  18th  century  those  who  cultivated  letters  began 
to  meet  timidly,  and  finished  by  being  persecuted.  The 
arts  less  subject  to  suspicion,  less  capable  of  immediatety 
influencing  and  vibrating  on  the  spirit  of  the  people  were 
tolerated,  with  the  exception  of  the  barbarous  condem- 
nation   of  Brazilian  jewelry,  whicli  un4er  the  impulse 

—  132  — 
of  the  designs  and  elegant  models  of  Master  Valentim, 
had  excluded  all  those  ornaments  imported  from  Lisbon. 

With  the  exception  of  the  monopoly  decreed  in  favor  of 
the  jewelry  from  the  metropolis,  no  other  measure  opposed 
the  progress  of  fine  arts  in  the  colony  of  Brazil. 

Artists  commenced  to  appear  spontaneously  and  natur- 

Manoel  Dias  was  bom  in  the  middle  of  the  last  century, 
in  the,  then  flourishing,  but  afterwards  devastated  by  a 
terrible  plague,  and  now  extinct,  townof  Macacu.  Not  only 
the  day,  but  the  year  in  which  he  was  born  are  doubtful, 
though  some  old  people  of  that  town,  proud  of  the  glory 
of  their  compatriot,  said  that  he  came  into  the  world  in 
the  parish  of  Santo  Antonio  de  S&,  that  of  the  town,  on 
the  29th  of  January,  of  the  year  controverted  and  disputed 
among  them. 

Manoel  Dias  descended  the  river  Macacu,  and  came  to 
the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  to  learn  the  trade  of  a  goldsmith, 
in  which  he  distinguished  himself.  But  the  handiwork  of 
Leandro  Joaquim,  and  of  Master  Valentim  delighted  him, 
and  he  began  to  draw  and  to  dream  of  painting,  aspiring 
to  study  in  Lisbon. 

Manoel  Dias  had  not  a  real  of  his  own.  But  that  did  not 
matter !  a  merchant,  who  had  been  pleased  with  some 
jewelry  which  he  had  juade  for  him,  took  him  to  the  city 
of  Oporto  ;  but  dying  soon  after  left  the  unfortunate 
young  man  in  such  a  state  of  penury,  that  he  considered  it 
a  piece  of  good  luck  to  obtain  a  place  as  the  servant  of 
another  merchant  who  had  been  in  Brazil. 

On  going  to  Lisbon  with  his  master  Manoel  Dias  found  a 
protector  who  sent  him  to  study  in  the.Casa  Pia,  and  after- 
wards entered  him  in  the  Academia  do  Castello. 

It  was  a  life  of  privation,   of  torments,  and  of  sad  mor- 

tiflcations,  butit  was  the  life  of  one  who  felt  the  irresistible 
vocation  of  an  artist. 

Manoel  Dias  distinguished  himself  so  much  that  he  was 
sent  to  Rome,  where  he  became  a  pupil  of  the  celebrated 
Pompey  Battoni,  one  of  those  who  contributed  most  to  the 
artistical  revolution  of  wliich  Winkelmann  and  Raphael 
Mengs  were  the  chiefs. 

When  the  French  army  invaded  Portugal  the  poor  Bra- 
zilian artist  went  to  Crenoa  where  he  experienced  all  the 
hardships  of  misery  and  hunger. 

On  returning  to  Portugal,  thanks  to  some  fame  which 
he  carried  with  him,  he  obtained  the  appointment  of  royal 
professor  of  drawing  and  painting  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  where 
he  established,  in  his  own  house,  the  class  of  naked  models, 
having  among  other  pupils  Manoel  Josd  Gentil  and  Fran- 
cisco Pedro  do  Amaral,  who  will  be  mentioned. 

Manoel  Dias  obtained  the  surname  of  Roman  from  his 
residence  and  studies  in  Rome. 

He  left  several  paintings :  that  of  Saint  Anne,  which 
was  in  the  old  mint ;  tha,t  of  Our  Lady  of  the  Conception,  of 
beautiful  coloring  and  kept  in  the  Fine  Arts  Academy  ; 
others  which  were  lost,  and  several  portraits  and  land- 
scapes ;  but  especially  a  head  of  S.  Paul,  executed  on  ivory, 
of  admirable  design  and  expression,  and  beautifully  dotted^ 
wliich  would  suffice  for  his  greatest  glory,  if  his  greatest 
glory  were  not  his  having  been,  with  regard  to  painting, 
the  king  of  the  fine  arts,  one  of  the  first  or  oldest,  and 
most  proficient  elements  that  nourished  art  in  Brazil. 

Manoel  Dias,  a  great  master  of  drawing,  an  honorable 
man,  the  excellent  father  of  a  numerous  family,  after  1831, 
old  and  disheartened,  retired  to  the  town,  afterwards  city 
of  Campos,  and  there  died,  probably  mortified  because  the 
ixiilifference  of  ungrateful  contemporaries  had  wounded  his 

—  134  — 

heart  with  forgetfulness,  which  was  the  barbarous  assassin 
of  the  artist. 

Manoel  Dias,  the  Roman,  though  not  a  genius,  was  at 
least,  and  this  is  a  great  deal,  a  considerable  and  efficient 
element  of  civilization  in  Brazil,  as  an  able  drawing  and 
painting  master. 

"trsr    OF    JA.^TXJA.:E<rZ' 


—       *-X'^- 

bescended  from  one  of  the  noblest  Portuguese  families, 
and  worthy  of  his  illustrious  ancestors,  Gomes  Freire  de 
Andrade,  afterwards  Count  of  Bobadella,  came  to  govern 
the  capitania  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  1733,  and  extended  his 
government  to  those  of  Minas  Geraes  and  S.  Paulo  ;  he  left 
a  name  glorified  by  relevant  services  and  considerable  ben- 

In  Minas,  he  established  a  capital  in  1735,  and  created 
a  hospital  in  1738.  In  Rio  de  Janeiro  he  built  the  gover- 
nor's house,  which  afterwards  became  the  royal  and  the 
imperial  palace ;  he  finished  the  arches  of  the  Garioca  aque- 
duct and  made  the  washing  tanks ;  repaired  and  increased 
the  fortifications;  constructed  the  Concei^ao  fort;  ordered  the 
erection  of  the  first  fountain  in  the  Largo  do  Pa^o  and  saw 
it  finished.  This  the  viceroy,  Luiz  de  Vasconcellos,  had 

—  136  — 
replaced  by  another  designed  by  Master  Yalentim.  Gomes 
Freire  de  Andrade  was  the  veritable  founder  of  the  con- 
vent of  Santa  Thereza,  and  was  buried  in  the  church. 

In  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  he  made  war  against  the  Indians, 
who  had  been  armed  and  were  commanded  by  the  Jesuits, 
when  he,  following  the  orders  received  from  the  metropolis, 
had  occupied  and  was  marking  out  the  limits,  in  accor- 
dance with  the  unfortunate  treaty  of  Madrid. 

More  than  that,  as  governor  he  gave  the  example  of 
religious  zeal,  of  disinterestedness  and  unblemished  honor ; 
he  was  wise  and  loved  the  people.  Strong  and  energetic,  he 
sometimes  went  a  step  too  far,  imposing  his  despotic  will. 
It  was,  however,  always  done  with  the  best  intentions,  be- 
sides which  the  customs  ofthe  time  raised  above  everything 
the  duty  of  obedience  to  authority. 

Don  Josd  I  created  him  Count  of  Bobadella,  and  ordered 
that  his  portrait  should  be  placed  in  the  senate  ofthe  cham- 
ber of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  that  it  should  be  kept  there 
perpetually  as  a  stimulus  and  example  for  future  gover- 

The  Count  of  Bobadella  died  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  1st 
of  January,  1763. 

But  the  date  which  is  here  remembered^  the  30th  of  Jan- 
uary, 1854,  marks  a  noble  eflfort  which  should  not  be  for- 

Until  the  seventeenth  century  no  care  had  been  bestowed, 
nor  any  encouragement  had  been  given  to  civilization  in 
Brazil,  though  the  country  was  rich,  and,  owing  to  the  great 
exploits  of  Brazilians,  had  become  a  glorious  colony  of 
Portugal.  The  convents  were  almost  exclusively  the  only 
places  where  Brazilians  could  obtain  any  instruction ;  nev- 
ertheless some  brilliant  intellects  existed  in  the  land  of 


There  was  no  press,  and  everyone  feared  being  suspected 
of  thinking  freely. 

But  on  the  7th  of  March,  1724,  the  viceroy,  Vasco  Fer- 
nandes  Cezar  de  Menezes  (afterwards  Count  of  Sabugosa), 
did  not  fear  to  light  the  first  lamp  of  the  public  and  author- 
ized dawning  light  of  Brazilian  intelligence  in  a  literary 
society,  which,  according  to  the  ideas  of  the  times, 
was  called  Academia  do$  Esqueddos  (Academy  of  the 
Forgotten),  inaugurated  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia, 
and  which  realized  its  name,  for  it  fell  into  oblivion  for 
more  than  a  century. 

Gomes  Freire  de  Andrade  had  the  glory  of  encouraging 
the  second  impetus  of  the  poor  civilization  of  Brazil,  which 
so  ardently  desired  an  opportunity  of  exhibiting  some  in- 
fluence, and  the  first  irradiations  of  intellect  in  the  bosom 
of  the  country.  Far  away,  beyond  the  Atlantic,  distin- 
guished Brazilians  were  already  known,  but  only  to  the 
honor  and  profit  of  Portugal. 

On  the  30th  of  January,  1752,  in  the  governor's  house, 
was  founded  the  Academia  dos  Selectos  (Academy  of  the 
Select),  which  lasted  but  a  very  short  time.  The  founders, 
through  easily  explained  interest  and  absolute  dependence, 
were  not  parsimonious  of  their  poetic  flatteries.  Latin, 
Spanish,  and  Portuguese  poetry  was  read,  of  bad  taste,  but 
influenced  by  the  spirit  of  the  times  and  the  Jesuitic,  Be- 
nedictine, Seraphic  and  Carmelite  muse. 

In  the  midst  of  the  poets  Gomes  Freire  de  Andrade  drank 
large  draughts  of  the  flattery  offered  by  intellect  begging 
for  encouragement  and  fearing  the  suspicion  of  that  civilizing 
influence,  which  they  did  not  even  calculate. 

Gomes  Freire  honored  the  installation  of  the  Academia 
dos  Selectos  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  with  all  the  brilliancy  of 
his  court  of  captain-general  and  governor,  surrounded  by 

VOL.  I  18 

—  138  — 

his  aides-de-camp  and  by  the  principal  authorities  of  the 

Even  so  the  Academia  dos  Selectos  had  no  duration. 

Civilization  in  Brazil  was  still  struggling  in  its  infancy. 

The  carelessness,  the  indifference,  and  the  egotism  of 
the  metropolis  imposed  an  infancy  of  two  centuries  on  the 
immensely  rich  colony. 

The  Academia  dos  Selectos,  lived,  like  roses,  buta  very 
short  time. 

But  the  march  of  the  civilization  of  a  people  is  studied 
from  its  first  doubtful  and  tottering  steps,  from  the  essay 
of  the  unfledged  wings  of  the  eagle,  which  can  with  diffi- 
culty leave  the  nest,  and  can  not  yet  proudly  soar  over 
the  Andes  in  search  of  the  sun. 

The  Academia  dos  Selectos  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  has  a 
right  to  exact  and  a  duty  to  fulfill  in  the  history  of  Brazil. 

A  duty  of  gratitude  towards  Gomes  Freire  de  Andrade 
who  showed  his  readiness  and  solicitude  to  honor  and  pro- 
tect the  culture  of  letters. 

A  right  to  be  honorably  remembered  as  endeavoring  to 
cultivate  and  develop  civilization  in  Brazil,  the  rich  col- 
ony, abundantly  explored  and  drained  ;  but  like  a  miser- 
able slave,  forgotten  with  indifference  and  egotism  by  the 
avaricious  and  unloving  metropolis. 

X2:XX    OF    J*A.ITXJAJ^-^ 


Antonio  Jos6  Duarte  de  Araujo  Gondim  was  born  in 
1782,  in  the  capitania  of  Pernambuco.  He  studied  human- 
ities, and  immediately  after  went  to  Portugal ,  and 
took  his  degree  in  law  in  the  University  of  Coimbra. 

Returning  to  Brazil  in  1808  he  entered  the  magistra- 
ture  and  became  distinguished  for  his  enlightened  intelli- 
gence and  for  his  zeal  in  the  distribution  of  justice. 

After  serving  as  juiz  de  f6ra  of  Marianna,  in  Minas 
Geraes,  he  was  appointed  ouvidor  of  Villa  Rica,  afterwards 
city  of  Ouro  Preto,  where,  in  the  absence  of  the  governor, 
D.  Manoel  Jos^  de  Portugal,  he  exercised  the  charge  of 
member  of  the  prov  sional  government. 

In  1820  he  passed  to  the  province  of  Bahia  as  ouvidor. 
Four  years  later  he  was  appointed  dezembargador  of  the 

—  140  — 
casa  de  Supplicagao  (judge  of  the  court  of  appeal)  of  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  where  he  also  served  the  charges  of  ouvidor 
do  crime,  of  juiz  do  crime,  of  juiz  da  corfia,  of  corregedor 
do  civil,  and  of  fiscal  da  junta  dos  arsenaes. 

Having  attained  considerable  reputation  for  talent  and 
for  honorable  conduct,  his  native  province,  Pernambuco, 
in  1823,  elected  him  a  deputy  to  the  Brazilian  constituinte, 
and  in  that  august  assembly,  though  he  seldom  spoke, 
owing  to  his  shyness,  he  was  an  active  and  working 
member  in  committees  and  became  known  as  a  politician 
of  moderate  opinions,  which,  after  the  dissolution  of  the 
constituinte,  induced  him  to  abandon  the  liberal  party,  in 
opposition  to  the  government  of  the  first  emperor  since 
that  imprudent  act. 

In  1826  Araujo  Gondim  was  elected  by  his  province  in 
the  triple  list  and  was  by  the  emperor  chosen  senator 
on  the  22d  of  January  of  the  same  year.  He,  however, 
did  not  take  his  seat  in  the  senate,  for  he  died  on  the 
31st  of  January,  eight  days  after  the  honorable  choice 
had  fallen  on  him. 

An  enlightened  toiler,  Antonio  Josd  Duarte  de  Gondim 
had  an  auspicious  political  future  in  Brazil,  when  death 
arrested  his  career  at  the  age  of  forty-four. 

He  was  a  chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Christ,  and  a  dig- 
nitary of  the  Imperial  Order  of  the  Cross. 



Friar  Don  Francisco  de  Lima  was  appointed  bishop  of 
Pernambuco  ( the  fourth  in  chronological  order )  and  con- 
firmed on  the  22d  of  August,  1695.  He  entered  on  the 
duties  of  his  diocese  on  the  1st  of  February  of  the 
following  year. 

He  was  more  than  sixty  years  old  when  he  commenced 
to  govern  the  diocese,  which  must  have  been  one  of  the 
richest  in  Brazil,  as  the  capitania  of  Pernambuco,  alone 
had  su£Scient  population  and  wealth  to  rival  the  capital 
of  the  great  colony. 

Friar  Don  Francisco  de  Lima  was  so  simple  in  his  habits, 
so  humble  and  so  abstemious  that  wiht  himself  he  spen 
but  very  little. 

But  the  old  and  venerable  bishop  created  thirty  settle-- 

-  142  — 
ments  of  Indians  whom  he  collected  from  distant  points 
in  the  interior,  and  burning  with  zeal,  he  spared  no 
cares,  no  extraordinary  personal  fatigue,  to  encourage 
them  and  direct  them  in  the  service  of  God,  and  to  the 
profit  of  the  country.  When  over  seventy  years  of  age, 
he  still  visited  his  thirty  families,  penetrating  into  the 
interior  of  the  country  and  traveling  over  at  least  two 
hundred  leagues. 

Besides  his  Indian  children,  he  had  others,  the  poor, 
who  never  appealed  to  him  vain. 

At  the  end  of  nine  years  of  service  in  the  diocese 
D.  Francisco  de  Lima  died  on  the  29th  of  April,  1704,  and 
did  not  leave  money  enough  for  his  burial. 

In  his  bishop's  chest  forty  reis  in  money  were  found. 

Charity  had  been  unable  to  keep  the  secret,  which  was 
known  to  all ;  but  displayed  the  majesty  of  that  apostolic 

The  remains  of  Friar  Don  Francisco  de  Lima  rest  in  the 
Carmelite  convent  of  Olinda. 



The  hero  who  immortalized  his  name  on  this  day  of 
February,  was  born  on  the  28th  of  September,  1829,  in 
the  city  of  Recife,  capital  of  Pernambuco.  He  was  the 
legitimate  son  of  Antonio  Vital  de  Oliveira  and  of  Donna 
Joanna  Florinda  de  GusmSo  Lobo  Vital. 

When  fourteen  years  of  age,  having  studied  humanities, 
Vital  de  Oliveira  came  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  matriculated 
in  the  naval  school  on  the  1st  of  March,  1843.  He  became 
noted  for  his  intelligence  and  application.  In  1845  he  was 
made  a  midshipman,  and  on  the  2d  of  December,  1849,  ho 
was  promoted  to  a  sub-lieutenancy. 

In  transatlantic  voyages  he  soon  accustomed  himself  to 
a  life  at  sea.  On  returning  from  one  of  these,  under  the 
command  of   the  present  Viscount   of  TamandarS,  who 

was  bringing  out  from  England  the  war  steamer  Don 
Affonso,  he  took  part  in  the  fight  of  the  2A  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1849,  in  the  city  of  Recife,  which  the  praieiro 
rebels  had  attacked,  but  from  which  they  were  repulsed. 

But  it  is  the  2d  of  February  which  immortalized  the 
hero.  In  1849  Vital  de  Oliveira  did  his  duty ;  but  in  civil 
war  the  vanquished  are  brothers,  and  the  conquerors  shed 
tears  over  their  laurels. 

In  that  same  year  he  was  decorated  with  the  medal  of 
a  chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Christ.  In  1854  he  was*  pro- 
moted to  be  a  lieutenant,  and,  in  command  of  the  sloop 
of  war  Parahybano  he  drew  up  the  chart  of  the  coast  of 
Brazil,  between  Petimbu  and  S.  Bento,  annexing  to  the 
chart  a  very  lucid  report.  He  also  made  the  plan  of  the 
shallows  das  Rosas,  which  lie  near  the  island  of  Fernando 
de  Noronha,  and  those  of  the  two  lakes,  one  in  the  north 
and  the  other  in  the  south  of  the  province  of  Alagoas, 
and  made  the  necessary  surveys  for  establishing  steam 
navigation.  In  1862  he  published  five  hydrographic  charts 
raised  from  the  river  Mossoro,  in  the  province  of  Rio 
Grande  do  Norte,  to  the  river  S.  Francisco.  He  examined 
and  studied  certain  points  on  the  coast  to  the  south  of 
Santa  Martha,  in  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande 
do  Sul.  In  1863  he  examined  and  sounded  the  river  Merity, 
in  the  district  of  the  capital,  and  presented  a  plan  of  the 
river  and  a  report. 

In  the  same  year  he  was  president  of  the  committee 
named  to  ascertain  and  estimate  the  amount  of  the  losses 
suffered  by  the  owners  of  the  vessels  and  cargos  taken  by 
the  British  admiral,  Warren,  under  the  title  of  reprisals. 
The  committee  had  also  to  determine  the  place  where  the 
prizes  had  been  taken,  in  order  to  verify  if  they  had  been 
taken  in  the  waters  of  Brazilian  dominion. 


After  this,  Vital  do  Olireira  commenced  to  raise  the 
general  chart  of  the  coast  of  Brazil,  and  for  urpwards  of 
two  years  he,  with  scrupulous  and  active  labor  continued 
this  most  important  work,  which,  unfortunately,  he  did  not 

The  surveys  and  studies  made  by  Vital  de  Oliveira  of 
the  coast  of  Brazil,  were,  as  the  French  hydrographer 
Mouohez  confesses,  the  bases  for  his  work.  The  young 
Brazilian  hydrographer,  being  then  well  known  in  Europe, 
was  by  the  Portuguese  government  made  a  commmander 
of  the  Order  of  Christ ;  by  the  French  government  a 
chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  ;  and  by  the  Italian  a 
chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Saint  Maurice  and  Saint  Lazare. 

H.  M.  the  Emperor  of  Brazil  had  already  made  him  an 
Officer  of  the  Imperial  Order  of  the  Rose  ;  and  he  had  been 
promoted  to  be  a  commander  on  the  2d  of  December,  1862. 

The  Paraguayan  war  broke  out. 

In  1866  Vital  de  Oliveira  goes  to  France  to  receive  and 
bring  out  to  Brazil  the  iron-clad  Nemesis  built  there.  He 
brings  her  out  in  very  rough  weather.  In  the  latitude  of 
Pernambuco  he  meets  with  ar  terrible  tempest,  which  dis- 
couraged and  terrified  his  companions.  His  hability  and 
energy,  however,  saved  the  iron-clad,  which  he  brought 
into  Rio  de  Janeiro,  where  the  American  admiral  compli- 
mented him  and  said  :  <  The  fact  of  crossing  the  Atlantic 
in  such  a  ship  as  the  Nemesis,  is  a  triumph  of  naviga- 
tion. » 

The  Emperor  changed  the  name  of  Nemesis  for  that 
of  SilvadOf  a  name  already  heroic.  Vital  de  Oliveira  went 
to  the  seat  of  war  commanding  the  Silvado,  and  on  the  21st 
of  January,  1867,  was  promoted  for  his  merit  to  the 
rank  of  post-captain. 

VOL.  I  19 

—  146» 

Twelve  days  after  came  the  day  of  Vital  de  Oliveira's 

On  the  2d  of  February,  1867,  at  daybreak,  the  Brazil- 
ian fleet,  in  three  divisions,  attacked  the  tremendous  for- 
tress of  Curupaity  and  the  Paraguayan  trenches,  and 
penetrated  into  lake  Pires. 

Ten  steamers  opened  their  fire  against  Curupaity,  one  of 
them,  the  foremost,  is  the  Silvado,  and  Vital  de  Oliveira, 
her  commander,  under  the  impulse  of  bravery  and  patri- 
otic pride,  despised  the  shield  of  the  iron  armor,  and,  on 
the  bridge,  he  became  the  target  for  the  enemy*s  shots, 
whilst  he  directed  the  fire  of  his  ship. 

That  hero  of  astounding  intrepidity  appeared  to  the 
enemy,  not  as  a  gallant  warrior,  but  as  a  menacing  bul- 
wark. T  he  Paraguayans  honored  him  ;  pointing  at  him  a 
portion  of  their  artillery,  with  two  projectiles,  at  the  same 
time,   they  overthrew  the  colossus. 

Manoel  Antonio  Vital  de  Oliveira  did  not  fall  on  the 
deck  ;  he  was  received  in  the  arms  of  his  companions  who, 
at  his  side,  also  challenged  death. 

The  2d  of  February,  1867,  was  the  date  of  his  death 
but  also  that  which  immortalized  Manoel  Antonio  Vital 
de  Oliveira. 

axe  OF  rEBHTJ-A.if'sr 



Joao  Pereira  Ramos  de  Azeredo  Coutinho,  the  eldest 
son  of  Manoel  Pereira  Ramos  de  Lemos  e  Faria  and  of  his 
wife  Donna  Hellena  de  Andrade  Souto  Maior  Coutinho,  was 
born  on  the  estate  Marapicu,  disrictofthe  town  of  Iguassti, 
in  1722,  and,  like  his  brother,  Don  Francisco  de  Lemos, 
after  attending  the  Jesuit's  classes  in  the  city  of  S.  Sebas- 
tiao  do  Rio]  de  Janeiro,  went  to  Portugal  and  took  his 
degree  in  law  in  the  University  of  Coimbra. 

Having  entered  he  career  of  the  magistrature  in  Por- 
tugal, and  being  distinguished  for  his  intelligence  and  en- 
lightenment, he  occupied  high  and  important  charges,  and 
gained  the  confidence  of  the  Marquis  of  Pombal,  whose 
intimate  friend  he  became,  and  by  whom  he  was  appoint- 

-148  — 
ed  crown  attorney,  dezembargador  do  Pago,  member  of 
the  junta  for  examining  the  state  of,  and  improring,  the  re- 
ligious orders,  and  chief  chronicler  of  the  Torre  do  Tombo. 

When  the  Marquis  of  Pombal,  in  1770,  created  the  junta 
called  <(Providencia  Litteraria*  to  carry  out  the  great  re- 
form of  the  University  of  Coimbra,  Joao  Pereira  was  one 
of  the  members  of  that  junta,  which  was  composed  of  the 
ablest  men,  whose  high  capacity  had  been  proved  and 

When  D.  Jos6  I  died,  and  the  Marquis  of  Pombal  was 
dismissed,  the  illustrious  and  honorable  Jo^o  Pereira  Ramos 
did  not  forget  him  in  his  misfortune,  but  went  to  visit  him 
in  his  retirement,  as  a  good  and  faithful  friend.  For  a  similar 
and  laudable  demonstration  of  esteem  and  friendship,  the 
bishop  of  Coimbra,  Don  Francisco  de  Lemos,  was  punished 
by  being  dismissed  from  the  charge  of  rector  of  the  Uni- 
versity; but  this  unjust  and  censurable  act  of  the  govern- 
ment of  Donna  Maria  I  did  not  discourage  the  generous 
and  noble  brother  of  the  bishop. 

When  that  government  had  resolved  on  commencing 
the  prosecution  of  the  Marquis  of  Pombal,  in  order  to 
bring  before  the  court  which  was  to  try,  or  rather  to  con- 
demn him,  for  his  acts  during  his  ministry  of  twenty-seven 
years,  JoSo  Pereira  Ramos  appeared  courageously  in  the 
defence  of  the  great  minister,  and,  as  crown  attorney^ 
exalted  the  services  of  the  Marquis,  and  opposed  the  vin- 
dictive persecution  which  would  have  been  a  reproach  and 
a  stain  on  the  reign  of  Donna  Maria  I,  as  he  was  bold 
enough  to  say  in  a  written  opinion  which  he  presented  to 
the  queen. 

In  consequence  of  this  honorable  conduct  he  was,  by  the 
new  ministers,  relieved  of  several  commissions  with  which 
he  shortly  before  had  been  charged,  and  he  and  his  brother. 

—  149  — 
the  bishop  of  Coimbra,  fell  under  the  displeasure  of  the 
court.  But,  some  years  after,  by  decree  of  M  of  February, 
1789,  the  queen  made  reparation  for  the  injustice  with 
which  he  had  been  treated,  giving  him  a  seat  in  the  council 
of  ministers;  and  he  recovered,  to  the  profit  of  government 
and  of  the  country,  all  his  former  influence. 

Jo5o  Pereira  Ramos  de  Azeredo  Coutinho  died  in  Lisbon 
in  the  year  1789. 

This  enlightened  Brazilian  enjoyed  the  reputation  of  an 
able  politician,  and  of  a  consummate  jurist.  He  passed  for  a 
man  well  versed  in  letters,  and,  like  his  brother  the  bishop, 
was  one  of  the  most  assiduous  colaboreis  of  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Sciences  of  Lisbon. 

IV    01P    IPEBHTT^Il^Sr 


Francisco  de  Souza  wasbornin  Bahia  in  1628.  He  entered 
the  Company  of  Jesus,  and  having  acquired  great  learning, 
became  very  celebrated  as  a  profound  theologian  and  as  a 
most  able  chronicler. 

Much  more  than  by  this  information,  his  memory  is 
perpetuated  by  the  work  which  he  left,  and  which  was 
published  in  1710,  with  the  title — Oriente  conquistado — 
m  which  he  displays  his  remarkable  talent  and  varied  in- 
struction, and  gives,  like  a  good  patriot,  curious  information 
respecting  his  mother  country. 

Father  Francisco  de  Souza  died  at  G6a  in  the  year  1713. 

No  precise  day,  month,  or  year  of  his  life  is  known 
which  could  serve  to  register  his  name  in  this  an- 
nuary,  it  is  therefore  here  arbitrarily  memoralized  on  the 
4th  of  February. 


-^    OF    PEBR.TTA.RTr 


Of  all  the  remarkable  men  who  figured  in  Brazilian  pol- 
itics up  to  the  year  1843,  Father  Diogo  Antonio  Feijd  is  the 
most  distinguished. 

He  was  bom  in  the  citj  of  S.  Paulo,  in  the  month  of 
August,  1784,  where,  owing  to  his  talent  and  severe  appli- 
cation, he  obtained  that  limited  literary  education  which 
could  then  be  imparted  by  the  priests,  and  in  1807  he  took 
orders  of  presbyter  and  applied  himself  to  the  education  of 
youth,  teaching  Latin,  rhetoric,  and  rational  and  moral 
philosophy,  in  the  town  of  Parahyba,  in  Campinas  and 

Father  Feijd  in  a  very  short  time  became,  in  those  places, 
the  object  of  every  ones  veneration.  He  led  an  austere  life ; 
his  habits  and  manners  were  simple,  his  character  pure  and 
TOL.  I  ao 

—  154  - 
his  virtues  were  exemplary.  His  zeal  in  doing  his  duty 
was  equal  to  his  disinterestedness ;  prompt  and  decisive  in 
deliberation,  energetic  in  executing,  firm  and  tenacious,  it 
was  later  said  of  him,  that  he  might  be  broken,  buJt  cotdd 
not  be  bent.  To  these  last  qualities,  which  sometimes 
touched  the  verge  of  the  corresponding  defects,  must  be 
added  unexcelled  patriotism  and  civic  courage. 

The  constitutional  revolution  of  1820  triumphed  in  the 
kingdom  of  Portugal. 

In  1821  Father  Feij6  was  one  of  the  deputies  sent  by  the 
province  of  S.  Paulo  to  the  Lisbon  cdrtes,  in  which  he  took 
his  seat  on  the  11th  of  February,  1822,  and  on  the  25th  of 
April  following  he  made  a  powerful  and  remarkable  speech, 
defending  the  rights  of  Brazil,  menaced  by  the  large  Por- 
tuguese majority  of  the  constituinte. 

The  efforts  of  the  Brazilian  deputies  were  in  vain,  and 
five  of  them,  Father  Feij6  being  of  the  number,  retired  fur- 
tively from  Lisbon,  and  on  arriving  at  Falmouth  they  pub- 
lished, on  the  22d  of  October  of  the  same  year,  1822,  the 
famous  manifest  in  which  they  exposed  the  motives  of 
their  conduct. 

On  returning  to  the  mother  country  Feijd  immediatly 
re  ired  to  Itu. 

In  the  beginning  of  1824  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  I  offered 
the  project  of  the  constitution  of  the  empire,  and  convoked 
the  municipal  council  to  pronounce  upon  it.  It  was  accepted 
almost  unanimously.  But  in  Itu  Father  Feijd  drew  up 
some  amendments,  which  were  offered  by  the  municipal 
councils ,  ot  proposing  direct  elections,  the  abolition  of 
decorations,  and  others  reforms. 

The  province  of  S.  Paulo  elected  him  a  deputy  to  the  first 
(1826—1829)  and  the  following  (1830—1833)  ordinary  leg- 
islatures, and  Father  Feij6,  a  free  and  vigorous  liberal, 

—  155  — 

took  his  seat  among  the  opposition,  and  exercised  consider- 
able influence. 

In  the  session  of  1827  he,  the  priest  of  virtuous  and  aus 
tare  habits,  proposed  the  abolition  of  clerical  celibacy.  In 
that  of  1828  he  presented  his  project  of  municipal  reform. 

In  1831  he  received  in  S.  Paulo  the  news  of  the  events 
which  had  occurred  in  the  capital  of  the  Empire  in  March 
and  April,  and  of  the  abdication  of  the  Emperor  Don  Pe- 
dro I. 

The  revolution  of  the  7th  of  April  shook  the  empire.  In 
many  provinces,  and  principally  in  the  capital  of  the  em- 
pire, the  absence  of  discipline  in  the  military  corps,  the 
excitement  of  many  liberals,  the  frenzy  of  the  factions, 
and  the  weakness  of  the  government,  deprived  of  the  ma- 
terial elements  of  action,  terrified  and  engrossed  the  mind 
of  the  public. 

Father  Feij6  was  at  his  post  in  the  chamber,  which  on  the 
ithofivly,  1831,  he  was  called  upon  by  the  permanent 
regency  to  take  charge  of  theporf-/bKo  of  justice,  on  which 
depended  the  defense  and  guarantee  of  order  and  tranquil- 
ity in  the  empire.  Feij6  was  chosen  for  his  well  known 
patriotism  and  energy,  for  his  impassible  courage  in  danger, 
his  iron  will,  his  prompt  action,  and  his  unhesitating  de- 

Father  Feijo  obeyed  as  a  duty,  and  entered  the  ca- 

The  eyes  of  the  country  were  fixed  on  him,  and,  whilst 
trembling,  hoped  and  waited... 

The  priest  minister  of  justice  dissolved  the  undisciplined 
and  turbulent  military  corps ;  crushed  the  isle  of  Cobras 
revolt  of  the  7th  of  October,  and  created  on  the  10th  of  the 
same  month  the  municipal  permanent  corps.  In   183!$  h^ 

—  156- 
subdued  the  revolt  of  the  eooaltados  on  the  3d  and  quaahed 
that  of  the  restauradores  on  the  17th  of  April. 

In  the  legislative  session  of  1832  he  presented  a  candid, 
severe,  and  vehement  report.  When  he  had  finished  reading 
it,  a  deputy  who  was  sitting  near,  asked  him  : 

«  Has  Y.  E.  forty  thousand  men  to  support  the  opinions 
emitted  in  your  report  ?...  » 

Feijd  immediately  answered : 

«  No ;  but  I  have  four  thousand  national  guards.  » 

He  would  not  submit  to  contemporize ;  he  was  a  man  of 
yes  or  no,  exacting  the  fullest  confidence.  Therefore,  when 
the  bill  suspending  Josd  Bonifacio  from  his  functions  as 
tutor  of  the  Emperor,  fell  in  the  senate.  Father  Feij6  gave 
in  his  dismissal  as  minister  of  justice,  on  the  26th  of  July. 

Was  this  act  of  Father  Feijd  premeditated  in  combination 
with  the  club  which  conspired  for  the  coup  d'etat  of  the 
30th  of  July,  which  four  days  later  was  proposed  and 
failed?...  many  believe  it.  But  it  does  not  appear  probable. 
F6ij6  never  dissimulated  his  intentions,  he  was  incapable 
of  conspiring  in  the  dark,  and  would  have  remained  in  the 
ministry  to  propose,  under  his  own  responsibility  as  min- 
ister, the  most  daring  and  violent  projects  if  he  had  con- 
scientiously considered  them  necessary  to  the  security  of 
the  country. 

In  the  one  year  and  twenty-two  days  which  he  remained 
in  the  ministry  he  wrote  the  brilliant  epopee  of  his  political 
life.  Being  the  object  of  the  deeply-rooted  hatred,  and  of 
the  infamous  calumnies  of  the  delirant  party  press  and  of 
factions  crushed,  but  thirsting  for  revenge,  there  was  no 
insult,  no  insolent  or  outrageous  invective  which  was  not 
thrown  at  the  honest  man,  at  the  austere  priest,  at  the  en 
lightened  patriot,  who  preserved  order,  maintained  the 
integrity  of  the  empire,  and  saved  the  monarchy  of  Brazil. 


In  his  ministry  of  1831  to  1832  Feij6  built  the  highest 
pyramid  of  his  glory,  and  it  is  but  just  to  record  in  his 
life  the  4th  of  July,  the  day  on  which  he  accepted  the  post 
of  minister  of  justice. 

Having  been  elected  in  the  triple  list  for  the  province  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  chosen  senator  on  the  5th  of  February, 
1833,  that  election  was  annulled  by  the  senate.  He,  how- 
ever, was  again  elected  and  being  again  chosen  senator  in 
the  same  year,  he  took  his  seat  in  that  chamber  on  the  15th 
of  July,  1833. 

In  the  following  year,  when  the  Acto  Addicional  was 
put  into  execution,  the  electors  of  the  empire  raised  the 
minister  of  justice  of  1831-1832  to  the  supreme  charge  of 
regent  of  Brazil. 

Father  Feij6  took  the  oath  as  regent  on  the  12th  of 
October,  1835 ;  but  on  the  previous  day  he  had  been  elected 
bishop  of  Marianna,  an  honorable  mission,  which  he  refused 
either  from  modesty,  or  through  being,  politically  speaking, 
well  inspired. 

Being  raised  to  the  highest  pitch  of  greatness  to  which  a 
Brazilian  citizen  could  aspire,  the  regent  Feijd  published  a 
short  proclamation  full  of  sound  and  patriotic  ideas. 

But  Don  Pedro  I,  the  man  of  the  restauradores,  who 
had  obliged  the  dominant  liberal  party  to  keep  together, 
died  in  September,  1834.  A  terrible  and  menacing  rebellion 
broke  out  in  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do 
Sul,  and  immediately  after  Bernardo  Pereira  de  Vascon- 
cellos,  the  great  prescient  statesman,  always  ready  to 
take  advantage  of  the  natural  reaction  of  political  opinions, 
deserting  from  the  liberals,  proclaimed  regress,  and,  in  the 
opposition,  called  to  his  flag  the  vanquished  of  the  7th  of 
April,  the  dissatisfied  of  the  following  period,  and  formed 

-  158- 
and  disciplined  the  conservative  party,  and  directed  Ms 
able  attacks  against  the  regent,  Feijd,  and  his  ministers. 

The  contest  in  parliament,  and  in  the  press,  lasted  for 
nearly  two  years.  Father  Feijd  would  accept  no  compro- 
mise, he  refused  to  govern  with  the  conservative  party, 
and  being  vexed  and  hotly  pressed  by  a  numerous  and 
most  able  parliamentary  opposition  he  suddenly  resolved 
to  resign  the  regency  of  the  empire,  and  immediately 
carried  his  resolution  into  effect  on  the  18th  of  September! 
1837,  and  delivered  the  reins  of  government  to  his  polit- 
ical adversaries. 

His  Manifest  to  the  Brazilians, -which  he  then  published, 
is  a  historical  document  of  the  greatest  importance,  and 
reveals  great  elevation  of  sentiments. 

On  retiring  from  the  regency  Father  Feij6  had  barely 
means  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  journey  to  his  native 

In  the  regency  he  continued  his  simple  and  modest 
habits  ;  but  a  great  part  of  his  yearly  subsidy  of  twenty 
contos  de  reis  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  poor. 

Being  sick  and  dejected  in  S.  Paulo,  he  did  not  appear  in 
the  senate  during  the  session  of  1838  ;  but  in  that  year  he 
gave  a  fine  example  of  christian  humility. 

In  1828,  in  support  of  the  opinions  emitted  in  his  project 
of  1827,  Father  Feij6  published  a  pamphlet  entitled  «  J3e- 
monstragdo  da  necessidade  da  aboligdo  do  celibato  cle- 
rical pela  assemblea  geral  do  Brazil,  edasica  verdaieirae 
legitima  competencia  nesta  materia.  Pelo  deputado  Diogo 
Antonio  Feijd.  »  (Demonstration  of  the  necessity  of  the 
abolition  of  clerical  celibacy,  by  the  general  assembly  of 
Brazil  and  of  its  true  and  legitimate  competency  in  this 
matter.  By  the  deputy  Diogo  Antonio  Feij6.) 

In  the  year  1838,  through  the  press  in  S,  Paulo,  he  made 

-  159  — 

a  declaration  that  he  revoked  and  unsaid  everything 
which,  in  his  speeches  in  the  chamber  of  deputies  or  in  his 
writings  could  directly  or  indirectly  oflFend  ecclesiastical 
discipline,  or  any  one  personally,  adding  that  the  declar- 
ation was  spontaneous  and  due  only  to  his  fear  of  having 
erred,  despite  his  good  intentions. 

In  S.  Paulo  he  still  wrote  a  political  paper  —  0  Jt^stp- 

Father  Feij6,  weakened  and  prostrated  by  disease, 
nearly  a  sexagenarian,  and  appearing  still  older  owing  to 
a  ruined  constitution  and  to  the  ravages  of  time,  was  in 
Campinas,  when  hearing  in  1842,  the  noise  of  the  revolt 
which  had  broken  out  in  Sorocaba  in  the  name  of  liberal 
principles,  the  oldandinvalid  veteran  had  himself  conveyed 
to  Sorocaba,  and  took  upon  himself  the  chief  responsibility 
of  the  revolutionary  movement.  He  was  arrested  there, 
and,  by  order  of  the  government,  taken  to  Santos  and 
there  thrown  on  board  a  vessel  of  war  which  brought  him 
to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  whence  he  was  taken  in  July,  1842,  to 
the  city  of  Victoria,  capital  of  the  province  of  Espirito 
Santo.  He  remained  there  until  the  month  of  December, 
when  he  was  permitted  go  to  the  capital  of  the  empire 
and  take  his  seat  in  the  senate  where  his  prosecution,  as  a 
leader  of  the  rebellion,  awaited  him. 

Explaining  his  conduct  in  the  exposition  which  he  pre- 
sented to  the  senate,  Feij6  still  displayed  the  frankness 
and  energy  of  his  former  days. 

This  exposition  was  the  last  act  of  his  political  life. 

Father  Diogo  Antonio  Feij6  died  in  the  city  of  S.  Paulo 
on  the  10th  of  November,  1843. 

In  private  life  Father  Diogo  Antonio  Feij6  was  the  proto- 
type of  virtue;  in  the  government  he  committed  errors 
owing  to  his  untameable  and  most  rigid  character,  incapa- 

-  160  — 
ble  of  making  concessions  to  his  adversaries.  But  from 
1831  to  1832,  he  was  the  minister  who  maintained  order 
and  the  monarchy  ;  and  at  all  times  he  was  an  example  of 
firmness,  of  personal  disinterestedness,  and  of  the  purest 
patriotism.  Men  like  Father  Feijd  are  rare. 

VI    OF    FBBIiXJAIi^S^ 

On  this  day  of  the  year  1644,  Pedro  de  Albuquerque, 
governor  and  captain-general  of  the  State  of  MaranhSo 
and  Gr5o  Pari,  died  in  the  city  of  Nossa  Senhora  de 

He  vas  a  native  of  Pemambuco  and  one  of  the  sons  of 
Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  brother-in-law  of  Duarte  Coelho 
Pereira,  the  first  donee  of  that  capitania. 

Pedro  de  Albuquerque  enlightened  and  glorified  his 
life  by  one  of  those  feats  which  reveal  unexcelled  bravery. 

The  war  of  the  Dutch  invasion  had  been  raging  since 
1630;  Domingos  Fernandes  Calabar,  deserting  from  his 
country's  flag  carried  the  fortunes  of  his  arms  to  the 
enemy's  camp. 

In  November,  1632,  Calabar,  leading  a  numerous  force*  of 
the  Dutch,  landed  at  a  place  befween.  th«  rivers  Formosa 

TOL.  I  21 

—  162  — 
and  Serinhaem,  and  commenced  hostilities,  which  seriously 
injured  the  people  of  Pernambuco,  retreating  in  safety 
and  in  time  after  pillaging  and  destroying  plantations. 

General  Mathias  de  Albuquerque  had  a  redoubt  built  on 
the  river  Formoso,  with  two 'guns  of  calibre  4  and  6, 
and  put  into  it  a  garrison  of  twenty  men,  one  of  them 
being  a  gunner,  and  gave  the  command  to  Pedro  de  Al- 
buquerque, who  had  been  a  captain  of  the  militia  of  the 
parish  of  Villa  Formosa. 

In  the  following  year  Major  Schkoppe,  at  the  head  of 
five  hundred  men,  leaves  the  port  of  Recife  on  the  4th  of 
February,  and  on  the  6th  brings  his  flotilla  to  an  anchor 
three  miles  south  of  the  mouth  of  the  river  Formoso,  lands 
half  the  force  at  a  place  chosen  by  Calabar,  in  order  that 
the  redoubt  might  be  attacked  by  land,  whilst  the  boats 
at  the  same  time  attacked  it  from  the  river. 

At  daybreak  of  the  7th  of  February  fire  is  opened 
on  the  front  and  on  the  flank  of  the  small  and  weak 
redoubt  of  river  Formoso.  But  Pedro  de  Albuquerque, 
with  his  twenty  men,  resists  bravely  and  refuses  to  sur- 
render :  his  two  guns  answer  the  enemy's  fire  ;  four  suc- 
cessive assaults  are  repulsed,  with  great  loss  to  the  as- 

Netscher,  the  Dutch  historian,  wrote  the  following 
generous  words: 

«  There  never  were  soldiers  who  did  their  duty  better 
than  that  handful  of  brave  men.  » 

But  at  each  assault  and  at  each  discharge  from  the 
boats  the  numbers  of  the  defenders  of  the  redoubt  became 
reduced,  and  at  last  the  Dutch  entered  it  unresisted.  What 
they  found,  what  they  saw,  astounded  them.  Nineteen 
corpses  strewed  the  ground,  and  among  these  Captain  Pedro 

-  163  - 
de  Albuquerque  half  dead,  with  two  severe  wounds,  one 
from  a  musket  ball  and  one  from  a  pike. 

Of  the  twenty-one  men  who  garrisoned  the  redoubt, 
Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  a  relation  of  the  captain,  finding 
himself  alone,  and  having  received  three  wounds,  to  avoid 
being  taken  prisoner,  threw  himself  into  the  river  and 
saved  himself  by  swimming. 

The  D  .tch  were  moved  and  surprised  at  such  gallantry, 
they  lavished  every  care  on  Pedro  de  Albuquerque,  and 
taking  him  to  Recife  they  rejoiced  on  seeing  him  recover 
under  the  most  careful  treatment.  They  sent  him  to  India 
tinder  parole  not  again  to  take  up  arms  against  Holland. 

Pedro  de  Albuquerque  passed  over  to  Spain  and  thence 
to  Portugal.  In  1642  he  was  appointed  governor  and  cap- 
tain-general of  the  State  of  Maranhao  and  Grao  Pari, 
where  he  died  from  infirmities  consequent  on  the  severe 
wounds  which  he  received  in  the  defense  of  the  redoubt 
of  the  river  Formoso,  the  taking  of  which  cost  the  Dutch 
eighty  men  killed,  besides  the  wounded. 

"VrC  or  FfiBUXTAllTf 


The  man  who  is  raised  to  greatness  by  the  flights  of 
his  enlightened  intelligence,  and  hy  the  charm  of  his  vir- 
tues, conquers  a  place  in  history  as  an  example  and 
as  a  beacon. 

Romualdo  de  Souza  Coelho^  son  of  the  planter  Alberto 
de  Souza  Goelho  and  of  Donna  Maria  de  GusmSo,  both 
natives  of  Pari,  was  born  on  the  7th  of  February,  1762, 
in  the  village,  now  city,  of  Cameti,  in  the  province  of 
OrSo  Par4,  and  there  received  primary  Instruction,  and 
completed  the  study  of  Latin.  Friar  Angelo,  of  the  order 
of  Nossa  Senhora  das  Merces  and  Redemption  of  Slaves, 
appreciating  the  intelligence  and  character  of  the  boy,  took 
him  to  his  convent  in  the  city. 

Romualdo  de  Souza  devoted  himself  to  priesthood  and 

—  166  - 
received  orders  of  presbyter  in  1785,  becoming  notable 
for  his  learning  and  for  the  austerity  of  his  life.  In  the 
following  year  he  was  appointed  vicar,  ad  interim,  of 
S.  Josd  of  the  river  Araxi.  In  1789  he  was  named  Pro- 
fessor of  Latin  in  the  seminary.  In  1794  the  new  bishop, 
Don  Manoel  de  Almeida  Carvalho,  made  him  his  secretary 
and  appointed  him  treasurer  of  the  Pontificals  and  vice- 
rector  of  the  seminary,  synodical  examiner,  professor  of 
theology,  and  archpriest  of  the  cathedral  in  1805. 

And  this  came  without  his  aspiring  to  or  asking  for 
it ;  his  only  object  in  life  had  been  to  become  a  priest ; 
the  rest  came  because  he  knew  how  to  be  a  priest. 

In  the  capital  of  Pari  he  was  the  only  one  who  ignored 
that  he  was  a  model  of  virtue,  and  a  rich  fount  of  science. 
The  bishop,  Don  Manoel  de  Almeida,  often  called  him  to 
scientific  conferences. 

In  1817  the  safne  bishop  sent  Romualdo  de  SouzaCoelho 
to  Rio  de  Janeiro  to  congratulate  Don  JoEo  VI  who  had 
succeeded  to  the  throne  of  Donna  Maria  I,  and  to  compliment 
him  in  his  name,  in  that  of  the  chapter,  of  the  clergy, 
and  of  the  diocese  of  Pari,  and  on  taking  leave,  said . 
«  Go ;  I  wish  them  to  know  you ;  for  you  will  be  my  suc- 
cessor in  the  see». 

The  prophesy  was  realized  very  soon  after ;  Don  Ma- 
noel de  Almeida  died  on  the  30th  of  June,  1818.  Don  Ro- 
mualdo  de  Souza  became  bishop  of  Pari  in  1819. 

He  became  bishop  because  he  had  been  a  simple,  humble, 
zealous  and  benevolent  priest,  an  example  of  virtue  and 
learning.  No  one  ever  had  a  more  numerous  family;  all  the 
poor  were  his  children;  no  one  ever  thought  less  of  himself, 
and  no  one  ever  had  more  blessings  implored  on  him  than 
Don  Romualdo  de  Souza. 

-  167  — 

The  seminary  and  the  pious  institutions  were  the  objects 
of  his  love  on  earth. 

He  was  elected  deputy  to  the  Lisbon  cfirtes  by  GrSo 
Par&y  and  on  his  return  to  the  city  of  Belem  he  was 
named  president  of  the  Junta  Provisoria  Governativa.  The 
bishop  accepted  the  charge  and  employed  every  means  to 
preserve  order,  to  prevent  conflicts,  and  he  counselled 
conciliatory  measures,  till  the  province  escaped  the  influ- 
ence and  the  oppression  of  the  Portuguese  troops,  with  the 
proclamation  of  the  independence,  and  of  Don  Pedro  I,  Em- 
peror of  Brazil. 

Though  old  and  tired  out  by  study,  which  enlightens 
the  intelligence  but  abates  the  disregraded  body,  Don  Ro- 
mualdo  de  Souza  Coelho  undertook  long  and  toilsome  jour- 
neys to  many  parishes  and  chapels  of  his  diocese,  his 
apostolic  word  being  heard  every- where. 

A  fatal  disease  attacked  him  shortly  before  the  revolt 
of  1835  broke  out  in  Pari.  Anarchy,  the  frenzy  of  the  fac- 
tions, and  his  horror  of  bloodshed  made  him,,  almost  a 
corpse,  rise  from  his  bed  of  pain.  Leaning  on  the  arms  of 
two  priests,  Don  Romualdo  de  Souza  twice  went  and  ex- 
posed himself  to  the  rage  of  the  rebels  who  had  committed 
the  greatest  outrages.  He  spoke  to  them  in  the  name  of 
God,  in  the  name  of  the  country,  calling  on  them  to 
obey  and  promising  to  beg  an  amnesty. 

The  old  bishop  could  obtain  nothing,  and  again  retired 
to  his  bed  of  sufiTering.  He  continued  five  years  this  life  of 
a  martyr,  until  he  expired  on  the  15th  of  February,  1841. 

His  sepulchre  received  a  corpse  of  mere  skin  and 

The  printed  works  of  Don  Romualdo  de  Souza  Coelho 
are  numerous  :  two  of  them  explain  the  events  of  1823  in 

whioh  he  took  part.  The  others  are  catechisms,  dissertations^ 
discourses,  orations^  and  pastorals  of  great  merit. 

Don  Romnaldo  de  Soa2a  was  a  prince  of  the  church, 
who,  like  the  apostles  of  Jesus  Christ,  was  taken  from  the 
midst  of  poor  and  humble    people. 

"Vm  or   FBBDRXJAil-'Sr 


The  functionary,  even  in  a  high  position,  and  in  the  most 
important  department,  he  who  in  one  or  other  branch  of 
public  administration  consecrates  himself  to  the  country, 
lives  a  whole  life  of  toil  and  devotion,  improving  the  sys- 
tem of  accounts,  facilitating  the  solution  of  a  thous- 
and questions,  clearing  up  doubts  which  embarass  the 
work,  destroying  the  obstacles  which  ministers  may  en- 
counter in  their  path,  regulating  the  administrative  engine, 
directing  the  subalterns,  his  assistants,  and,  finally,  pre- 
paring the  road  to  progress,  is  as  worthy  of  respect  as  the 
warriors  of  the  country,  or  the  champions  of  parliament . 
Nevertheless  he  often  remains  there  many  years  almost 
unknown  and  hidden  among  the  books  and  port-folios  in 
the  room  of  the  department  to  which  he  belongs.  He  has 
VOL.  I  22 

—  no  — 

not  the  incentive  of  popular  ovations  to  stimulate  his  pro- 
gress, but  still  he  proceeds  and  modestly  and  calmly  he 
contributes  to  the  prosperity  of  the  State  ;  like  the  small 
and  nameless  brook  ^hich  runs  quietly  along  the  valley 
fertilizing  the  lands  through  which  it  winds. 

Councilor  Emiliano  Faustino  Lins  was  one  of  the  finest 
types  of  the  public  functionary. 

Emiliano  Faustino  Lins,  the  legitimate  son  of  Ignacio 
Josd  Lins  and  of  Donna  Anna  Inocencta  da  Silva,  was 
born  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  8th  of  February, 

He  received  his  literary  education  at  the  old  seminary  of 
S.  Joaquim,  where  he  learnt  the  Latin  and  French  lan- 
guages, and  attended  the  course  of  philosophy  with  profi- 
ciency. On  leaving  the  seminary  he  entered  the  class  of  com- 
merce, where  he  was  considered  as  one  of  the  first  students  ; 
instead  of  losing  his  time  in  frivolous  pastimes,  he  employed 
his  leisure  hours  in  the  study  of  the  English  language. 

He  commenced  his  career  as  a  public  functionary  by 
entering  the  junta  of  finance  as  a  clerk,  and  such  proofs 
did  he  give  of  his  intelligence  and  zeal,  that,  without  the 
magic  of  patronage  which  sometimes  raises  incapable  men, 
as  the  wind  carries  on  its  wings  the  dry  leaves  which  lie 
rolling  in  the  dust,  he  gradually  rose  in  position,  until  on 
the  18th  of  November,  1819,  he  was  appointed  second  writer 
in  the  national  treasury. 

In  December,  1827,  the  reputation  of  Emiliano  Faustino 
Lins  was  already  so  well  established  that  he  was  chosen 
for  a  highly  important  commission :  that  of  regulating 
the  junta  of  finance  of  the  province  of  Bahia,  and  so  well 
did  he  fulfill  his  arduous  mission  that  on  returning  to  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  he  was  first  made  a  chevalier  of  the  Order  of 
Christ,  and  afterwards  of  that  of  the  Cross,  and  was  pro- 

—  ni  — 

moted  to  be  a  first  writer  in  the  national  treasury,  which 
was  then  undergoing  the  reform  authorized  by  the  law  of 
the  1st  of  October,  1831. 

On  the  22d  of  December,  1840,  Emiliano  Faustino  Lins 
was  appointed  chief  officer  of  the  general  accounting  depart- 
ment of  the  rension  of  the  national  treasury,  and  by 
decree  of  21st  of  February ,  1844,  he  was  appointed  account- 
ant general  and  H.  M.  the  Emperor  made  him  a  comman- 
der of  the  Order  of  Christ. 

He  always  enjoyed  the  fuUest^confldence  of  his  superiors 
and  of  the  ministers  with  whom  he  served  ;  he  was  respect- 
ed by  all  his  colleagues,  and  loved  by  all  who  knew  him, 
being  an  example  of  unblemished  probity,  and  of  intelli- 
gent, severe  and  vigilant  zeal.  Councilor  Emiliano  Faus- 
tino Lins,  after  forty  years  of  relevant  services,  a  tired 
laletudinarian,  obtained  his  superannuation  as  accountan- 
general  on  the  2d  of  December,  1850,  seven  years  before 
his  death,  which  happened  on  the  18th   of  October,    1857. 

This  enlightened  citizen  was  one  of  the  members  who 
founded  the  Brazilian  Historical  and  Geographical  Institute, 
and  he  served  many  years  as  its  treasurer,  being  always 
elected  member  of  the  committee  of  accounts. 

Intelligence,  zeal,  severe  probity,  patriotism,  perfect 
courtesy  and  amiabitity^  made  Smiliano  Faustino  Lins  the 
model  of  public  functionaries. 

I^    OF    FEBTITJA.11"^ 


In  his  manuscript  notes  bestowed  on  the  Historical  Insti- 
tute of  Brazil,  Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa  informs,  that  Diogo 
Gomes  Carneiro  was  born  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  9th  of 
February,  1628.  It  has  been  ascertained,  and  no  one  denies, 
that  Rio  de  Janeiro  was  the  birthplace  of  Diogo  Gomes  ; 
the  date  of  his  birth,  however,  is  unknown.  Balthazar  da 
Silva  Lisboa  does  not  prove  his  assertion,  which  being 
transcribed  here,  and  being  accepted  with  this  explana- 
tion, leads  to  the  conclusion  that  this  distinguished  Bra- 
zilian died  when  only  forty-eight  years  of  age. 

Of  the  life  of  Diogo  Gomes  Carneiro  in  his  native  country 
nothing  certain  is  known ;  he  was  probably  educated  in 
Portugal,  where  he  distinguished  himself  for  his  intelli- 
gence and  assiduous  study. 

—  174  — 

Neither  could  this  Brazilian  otherwise  have  been  sec- 
retary to  the  Marquis  of  Aguiar,  nor  could  he  have  been 
appointed  by  the  king  chronicler-general  of  Brazil,  with 
the  annual  pension  of  three  hundred  mil  reis. 

This  appointment  also  indicates  that  Diogo  Gomes  paid 
great  attention  to  matters  concerning  Brazil,  his  native 

Diogo  Gomes  Carneiro  died  in  Lisbon  on  the  26th  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1676. 

He  left  the  following  works  : 

Oragdo  apodixica  aos  scismaticos  da  patria  (Apodictical 
oration  to  the  schismatics  of  my  native  country.) 

Historia  da  guerra  dos  Tartaros,  em  que  se  refers 
como  invadirdo  0  imperio  da  China,  etc.,  (History  of  the 
Tartar  war,  wherein  is  related  how  they  invaded  the  Chi- 
nese Empire,  etc.)  Translated  from  the  Latin. 

Primeira  parte  da  Historia  do  capuchinho  Escocez, 
(First  part  of  the  History  of  the  Scotch  Capuchin).  Trans- 
lated from  the  Tuscan. 

Instrucgdo  para  hem  crer,  hem  ohrar  e  hem  pedir 
em  cinco  tratados.  (Instructions  for  believing  well,  for 
proceeding  well,  and  for  praying  well ;  in  five  treatises). 
Translated  from  the  Castilian. 



Francisco  Solano  was  bom  on  the  10th  of  February, 
1743,  either  in  the  parish  of  S.  Joao  de  Itaborahy  or  in  the 
town  of  Macacu  (the  same  parish  as  that  of  the  town  of 
Santo  Antonio  de  Si,  now  extinct).  He  was  a  legitimate  son 
of  Jorge  Antonio  Leite  Mendonga,  a  native  of  the  same 
village,  afterwards  town  of  S.  Joao  de  Itaborahy,  which  then 
belonged  to  the  district  of  Santo  Antonio  de  S&,  capitania  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro.  He  commenced  studying  in  the  convent 
whichthe  Franciscan  friars  then  had  there,  going  afterwards 
to  that  of  Santo  Antonio  ip  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  where 
he  professed  and  acquired  much  learning. 

In  1814,  after  occupying  the  highest  charges  of  the 
order  he  became  provincial,  having  the  famous  Friar  Sam- 
paio  as  his  secretary. 

—  176  — 

Having  an  extraordinary  disposition  for  the  fine  arts, 
and  there  being  no  school  in  Brazil,  which  country  he  never 
left,  Friar  Solano  could  never  become  a  great  master,  but 
he  became  as  skillful  as  it  was  possible  for  him  to  become  in 
sculpture,  in  drawing  and  in  painting. 

The  convent  of  Santo  Antonio  still  preserves  some  pic- 
tures of  Saints,  and  some  backs  of  chairs,  the  work  of  Friar 
Solano,  and  two  wooden  jars,  of  which  only  tradition  re- 

A  devotee  was  in  the  habit  of  lending,  for  the  feast  of 
Santo  Antonio,  two  beautiful  and  valuable  Chinese  porce- 
lain jars,  but  one  year  the  friars  did  not  ask  for  the  loan 
0    them. 

The  devotee  went  to  the  feast  and  saw  his  jars  embellish- 
ing the  altar.  Surprised  at  the  sight,  when  the  solemnity 
was  over,  he  questioned  the  sacristan,  who  laughingly 
showed  him  the  two  wooden  jars  which  he  believed  to  be  his 
Chinese  ones. 

When  at  the  end  of  the  last  century,  the  learned  Friar 
Velloso,  also  a  Franciscan,  was  working  at  his  Flora  Bra- 
zileira,  Friar  Solano  was  the  assistant  artist  who  aided  in 
the  work. 

As  Friar  Velloso  could  not  draw,  he  asked  for  an  assis- 
tant who  could  help  in  the  matter  and  the  viceroy,  Luiz  de 
Vasconcellos,  sent  him  Friar  Solano,  who  became  the  in- 
separable companion  of  that  scholar,  and  followed  him  in 
his  excursions  into  the  forests.  All  the  drawings  of  plants 
mentioned  in  the  Flora  Brazileira  are  from  his  pencil. 


jEEomo  DE  mmm  marmo 


On  this  day  of  the  year  1618  in  the  city  of  S.  Luiz  do 
Maranhao,  a  tomb  was  opened  to  receive  the  mortal  remains 
of  the  Brazilian  hero,  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  Mar- 

The  issue  of  an  illegitimate  union,  he  was  the  son  of  Jero- 
nymo de  Albuquerque — the  terrible^  of  Cam5es,  and  brother- 
in-law  of  the  first  donee  of  Pernambuco,  Duarte  Coelho,  and 
of  an  Indian  girl,  who  when  baptized  was  called  Maria  do 
Espirito  Santo,  daughter  of  Arco  Verde,  murvbixaha,  or 
chief  of  a  tribe  settled  near  Olinda.  This  renowned  and 
illustrious  Brazilian  was  born  in  1548, 

With  the  Jesuits  he  learnt  to  read,  to  write,  and  to  speak 
well  the  Portuguese  language,  and  this  was  all  the  literary 
education  which  he  received.  He  did  not  however  forget 
VOL.  1  23 

—  178  — 
the   Ttipi  or  Indian    language,  which  was  that  of  his 

While  yet  very  young,  but  already  accustomed  to  the  use 
of  arms,  he  followed  his  father,  or  Arco  Verde,  his  grand- 
father, in  campaigns  against  the  hostile  Indians  of  Igua- 
rassu,  and  he  was  twenty  years  old,  when  he  took  part  in 
the  last  combats  which  established  the  conquest  of  Para- 
hyba,  having  acquired  in  these  fights  a  glorious  reputa- 

Brave,  untamed  and  proud,  he  was  much  respected  by 
the  Portuguese,  owing  to  his  father's  name  ;  and  owing  to 
that  of  his  maternal  grandfather  he  was  the  object  of  the 
love  and  of  the  pride  of  the  friendly  Indians,  but  his  fame 
and  t)ie  fear  of  his  arm  spread  to  the  tdbas  or  villages  of  the 
yet  unconquered  savages. 

The  half-caste,  Jeronymode  Albuquerque,  was  from  1598 
to  1599  the  real  conqueror  of  Rio  Grande  do  Norte,  and 
was  appointed  captain  of  the  young  colony.  The  Indian 
chiefs  Itaptcanguasstiy  SorobabS,  and  Uiratining,  or  Dry- 
Stick,  submitted  to  the  grandson  of  Arco  Verde  and  had 
opportunities  of  experiencing  his  good  faith  and  his  pro- 

The  gallant  and  patriotic  half-caste  was  declared  or 
made  a  nobleman  of  the  royal  household. 

He  had  two  nobilities,  that  which  came  from  his  father, 
to  which  and  to  the  services  rendered  he  doubtless  owed 
that  high  distinction,  and  that  of  the  grandson  of  the  vali- 
ant Arco  Verde,  of  whom  he  proved  himself  worthy ;  this 
and  the  fame  of  his  bravery,  as  well  as  the  ostentation  of 
his  Indian  descent,  gave  him  that  extraordinary  influence 
over  the  savages,  of  which  he  was  extremely  proud,  and  of 
which  he  boasted. 

Having  been  sent  in  1613  to  Gear4,  he  establishes  there  a 

—  179  — 
settlement  in  the  bay  of  Jurard-^codra  or  of  Tortoises, 
the  church  receiving  the  invocation  of  Nossa  Senho7*a  do 
Rosario.  Having,  however,  been  informed  that  a  strong 
expedition  of  Frenchmen  had  established  a  colony  on  the 
island  of  Maranhdio,  he  instructed  his  companion  Martim 
Scares  Moreno  to  go  by  sea  and  examine  it,  and  he  himself 
'went  to  Pernambuco  to  obtain  reinforcements  and  ammuni- 
tion. On  his  arrival  he  found  there  positive  orders  from  the 
court  for  the  expulsion  of  the  French  from  the  large  island 
which  they  occupied,  and  on  the  17th  of  June,  1614,  he  re- 
ceives the  appointment  of  captain  of  the  conquest  and  dis- 
covery of  the  lands  of  Maranhao,  and  though  his  forces  were 
insufficient  he  started  for  his  greatest  and  most  glorious 

The  history  of  the  conquest  of  Maranhao,  even  though 
summarized,  would  occupy  too  many  pages  to  be  related 

After  many  mischances,  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  was 
at  last  able  to  enter  the  bay  of  MaranhEo  and  land  at  a  place 
called  Guaxemduba. 

The  French  founders  of  the  colony  of  S.  Luiz,  which 
name  has  been  preserved  by  the  capital  of  the  province  of 
Maranhao,  had  a  chief  named  Ravardiere.  On  the  sea  they 
had  double,  and  on  land  treble  the  force  that  Jeronymo  de 
Albuquerque  commanded,  besides  a  great  disproportion  in 
the  number  of  Indians,  many  of  those  on  whom  the  proud 
young  half-caste  had  counted  not  having  appeared. 

Ravardiere  embarks  a  relatively  overpowering  and  crush- 
ing force,  throws  the  greater  part  of  it  in  front  of  Guaxem- 
duba, and  summons  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  to  surren- 
der. He  answered  by  charging  the  enemy,  regardless  of  the 
superiority  of  numbers,  and  routs  them.  The  Indians  fly,  the 
French  who  had  landed  were  either  killed  or  taken  prison- 

—  180- 

ers,  and  as  the  tide  had  fallen  and  the  shore  is  very  shal- 
loW)  Ravardiere,  at  a  distance,  witnesses  the  defeat  of  his 
men  without  the  power  to  render  them  any  assistance. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  the  thunderbolt  of  war,  had 
obtained  an  almost  miraculous  victory. 

Ravardiere,  though  still  with  superior  forces,  soon  found 
himself  restrained  to  the  occupation  of  his  young  colony 
and  the  forts  of  S.  Luiz,  having  signed  an  armistice  to  last 
till  the  end  of  the  following  year,  whilst  two  noblemen, 
one  Portuguese  and  the  other  French,  went  to  the  respec- 
tive courts  to  explain  the  case  and  await  the  final  decision 
of  the  war. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  whose  resources  were  limited 
and  who  could  not  communicate  with  Pernambuco  owing 
to  the  French  cruisers,  forseeing  that  ammunition  and  pro- 
visions would  fail  him,  and  having  before  him  an  enemy 
stronger  than  himself  and  already  fortified  on  the  Island, 
signed  an  armistice  inglorious  to  the  French  who  retired  to 
their  fortifications  of  S.  Luiz ;  at  the  same  time  the  armis- 
tice gave  the  metropolis  time  to  conquer  and  expel  the  fo- 
reign enemy  from  the  island  of  MaranhSo. 

The  hero  did  everything  that  could  be  imagined  or  exact* 
ed  from  a  general  without  an  army.  The  armistice,  how- 
ever, was  not  approved  by  the  government  of  the  metrop- 
olis, who  had  sent  no  soldiers  and  who  had  abandoned 
the  half-caste  hero,  grandson  of  Arco  Verde. 

Alexandre  de  Moura  arrived  from  Lisbon  with  strong  re- 
inforcements for  the  expulsion  of  the  French  from  Mara- 
nhao.  On  arriving  there  and  resolving  to  attack  them  in 
their  forts,  he  confided  the  command  of  the  forces  to  the  in- 
trepid and  gallant  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque. 

Ravardiere  being  vanquished,  retired  with  his  compan- 

-  181  — 

Alexandre  de  Moura  named  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque 
capitao  mdr  of  Maranhao.  He  however, conscious  of  his  vic- 
tory, as  a  conqueror  decorated  himself,  and  to  his  name, 
and  to  that  of  his  father,  added  that  of  his  greatest  glory — 
Maranhdo — and  thenceforward  called  himself  Jeronymo  de 
Albuquerque  Maranhdo,  and  left  to  his  descendants  the 
noble  family  names  of  Albuquerque  Maranhao —Aifti^gwer- 
que,  the  pride  of  the  Portuguese,  and  MaranMo,  the  pride 
of  the  Brazilians. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  Maranhao,  the  worthy  de- 
scendent  of  Affonso  de  Albuquerque,  the  hero  of  Asia,  the 
grandson  of  the  Murubixaba  Arco  Verde,  the  half-caste 
twice  noble,  died,  as  was  said  on  the  11th  of  February,  1618, 
at  the  age  of  seventy  years,  leaving  three  sons,  all  nobles 
of  the  royal  household  and  illustrious  for  their  services. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  Maranhao  is  a  homeric  figure 
in  the  history  of  Brazil. 

TTTT    or    FEBItTJA.It"Sr 


In  November,  1807 ,  Napoleon's  conquering  eagles 
invaded  the  peninsula,  and  obliged  the  royal  family  of 
Portugal  to  emigrate  to  Brazil.  The  ship  of  war  Principe 
Real,  which  conveyed  the  prince  regent,  afterwards  king  Don 
Joao  VI,  and  his  son  Don  Pedro,  who  fifteen  years  later  was 
to  be  the  founder  of  the  new  empire,  brought  also,  as 
commander  of  a  detachment  of  artillery,  Captain  Gandido 
Norberto  Jorge  de  Bellegarde  who  was  accompanied  by 
his  worthy  wife.  Donna  Maria  Antonia  de  Niemeyer  Bel- 
legarde, despite  her  delicate  state,  and  who,  owing  to  the 
violent  commotion  produced  by  a  terrible  tempest,  was  pre- 
maturely delivered,  on  the  3d  of  December,  of  a  boy  who  at 
the  baptismal  font  received  the  two  first  names  of  his 
godfather,  the  prince  Don  Pedro,  and  was  called  Pedro  de 
Alcantara  Bellegarde. 

—  184- 

Candido  Norberto,  then  major,  haviag  died  in  1810,  the 
prince  Don  Pedro  in  the  following  year  enlisted  as  a  ca- 
det of  artillery,  with  pay  and  counting  time  of  serrice,  not 
only  his  godson,  the  boy  Bellegarde,  but  also  his  brother 
Henrique  Luiz  de  Niemeyer  Bellegarde,  mentioned  in  the 
article  of  the  21st  of  January. 

Pedro  de  Alcantara  Bellegarde,  when  thirteen  years 
old,  matriculated  in  the  military  school,  having  received 
prizes  in  five  years  out  of  the  seven  into  which  the  course 
was  divided. 

The  law  then  established  competitive  examinations  for 
promotion  in  the  corps  of  artillery,  and  Pedro  Bellegarde 
in  this  way  obtained  promotion  in  1823  to  the  rank  of 
second-lieutenant;  in  1826  to  that  of  first-lieutenant,  and 
in  the  following  year  to  that  of  captain. 

He  was  still  in  the  military  school  when  he  under- 
took his  first  engineering ;  works  under  most  able  chiefs. 

Having  passed  into  the  corps  of  engineers,  and  having 
been  promoted  in  1828  to  the  rank  of  major,  he  went 
to  Campos  de  Goytacaze»<»,  where  during  two  years  he  was 
employed  in  engineering  works. 

In  1832  (his  godfather  being  then  Emperor  of  Brazil, 
he  was  one  of  the  six  candidates  inscribed  for  the  compe-? 
titive  examinations  for  the  three  vacancies  of  assistant  pro- 
fessors of  the  military  school,  and  the  only  one  whose 
name  was  presented  to  government.  He,  however,  was  only 
appointed  in  1834  ;  but  almost  immediately  after  became 
a  cathedrated  professor,  and  lectured  most  ably  in  most 
of  the  chairs  until  in  1853  he  retired  on  a  pension. 

In  1836  he  contributed  powerfully  to  the  establishment 
of  the  school  of  architects,  in  the  province  of  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro, of  which  he  became  professor  and  director,  pro- 
viding and  publishing  the  compendiums  for  the  same. 


At  the  same  time  he,  and  his  uncle  Gonrado  Jacob  de 
Niemeyer,  presented  to  the  government  the  project  of 
levelling  the  Gastello  hill  in  the  capital  of  the  empire. 

In  1841,  at  the  invitation  of  the  provincial  government 
of  Pemambnco,  he  went  to  that  province  with  his  uncle, 
Colonel  Conrad,  and  in  two  months  they  presented  the  full 
plans  for  the  water- works  of  Recife,  which  were  executed 
with  merited  applause. 

Besides  other  important  commissions  with  which  he 
was  entrusted  and  which  he  ably  discharged,  in  1852  he 
was  appointed  director  of  the  war  arsenal  of  the  capital, 
when  serious  abuses  observed  in  that  department  had  been 
denounced  in  parliament* 

He  and  his  uncle  and  companion  raised  the  topograph* 
ical  map  of  the  province  of  Rio  de   Janeiro. 

Before  undertaking  these  works,  however,  he  had  spent 
four  years  out  of  the  empire  serving  his  country.  In  1848 
his  patriotism  obliged  him  to  accept  the  appointment  of 
charg6  d'affairs  of  Brazil  in  Paraguay,  with  which  coun- 
try he  entered  into  a  treaty  of  alliance  which  facilitat- 
ed the  development  of  the  policy  of  the  Empire  in  the 
River  Plate. 

In  1853  Pedro  de  Alcantara  Bellegarde  entered  the 
cabinet,  formed  by  the  Marquis  of  Parana,  as  minister  of 
war,  leaving  it  at  the  end  of  two  years,  having  complet- 
ed, with  the  batallion  of  engineers,  the  organization  of 
the  army ;  he  also  created  the  school  of  practise. 

On  the  death  of  the  Baron  ofCagapavahe  was  appoint- 
ed chief  of  the  committee  of  limits  between  the  Empire 
and  the  Republic  of  Uruguay. 

In  1863,  immediately  after  the  dissolution  of  the  chamber, 
he  entered,  as  minister  of  agriculture,  commerce,  and  public 
works,  the  cabinet  presided  over  by  the  Marquis  of  Olinda, 
VOL.  I  24 

—  186  — 

and  was  elected  a  deputy  to  the  general  assembly.  Bat 
at  the  end  of  eight  months  the  ministry  retired  on  the 
15th  of  January,  1864. 

Twenty-eight  days  after,  on  the  12th  of  February, 
Pedro  de  Alcantara  Bellegarde  slept  the  sleep  of  death. 

Besides  his  important  services,  some  of  which  are  not 
mentioned  here,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  he  was  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  Historical  and  Geographical  Ins- 
titute of  Brazil. 

Pedro  de  Alcantara  Bellegarde  was  a  field  marshal,  a 
member  of  H.  M.  the  Emperor's  council,  a  chamberlain 
of  H.  M.  the  Empress,  a  commander  of  the  Order  of  Aviz, 
a  doctor  in  mathematical  sciences,  a  retired  professor  of 
the  military  school,  a  member  of  the  supreme  military 
council  of  justice,  a  member  of  many  scientific  and  lit- 
erary societies,  and  above  all —  an  honorable  man. 

During  his  life  he  published  the  following  works  : 

Compendia  de  mathematicas  elementares,  (Compendium 
of  elementary  mathematics). 

Compendio  de  topographia,  (Compendium  of  topography,) 
for  the  use  of  the  school  of  architects  in  the  province 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Nogffes  de  Geometria  Descriptivay  (Notions  of  descrip- 
tive geometry),  for  the  same  school. 

Compendio  de  mechanica  elementar  e  applicada  (Com- 
pendium of  elementary  and  practical  mechanics). 

Nogffes  elementares  de  direito  das  gentes,  (Elementary 
notions  of  international  lawj,  for  the  use  of  the  students 
of  the  military  school. 

Nogdes  e  novas  taboas  de  balistica  pratica,  (Notions  and 
new  tables  of  practical  balistics). 

Instrucgdes  para  as  medigOes  stereometricas  e  aero^ 
metricaSy  (Instruction  in  stereometric  and  aerometric  meas- 

—  187  — 
urements^,  ordered  to  be  put    in  practise  in  the  custom- 
houses of  the  Empire  in  October,  1835. 

Compendia  de  architectura  civil  e  hydraulica,  (Com- 
pendium of  civil  and  hydraulic  architecture). 

Limites  ao  sul  do  imperio  com  o  Estado  Oriental  do 
Vrugmy)y  Southern  Boundaries  of  the  Empire  with  the 
Oriental  Republic  of  Uruguay),  in  an  official  report  to 

3:m  OF  E^BitTj-A-n^sr 



Antonio  do  Padua  Fleury,  the  legitimate  son  of  JoSo 
Fleury  Coelho,  and  of  Donna  Rosa  Maria  de  Lima  Ga- 
margo.  was  born  on  the  8th  of  December,  1795>  in  the 
village  of  Santa  Cruz,  province  of  Goyaz. 

When  still  young  he  served  in  the  militia,  in  which  he 
rose  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant  in  one  of  the  cavalry 

In  1823  he  responded  to  the  heroic  shout  of  the  inde- 
pendence with  the  enthusiasm  of  a  patriotic  heart,  and 
contributed  with  spontaneous  donations  towards  the 
increase  of  the  national  naval  force. 

In  the  city  of  Cuyabi,  to  which  he  removed  to  estab- 
lish himself  as  a  merchant,  he  was  highly  esteemed  by  his 
fellow  citizens,  who  raised  him  to  all  the  charges  of  popu- 
lar election. 

—  190  — 
During  two  years  he  had  a  seat  in  the  council  of  the 
president  of  the  province  of  Matto-Grosso,  and  for  four 
years  he  was  a  member  of  the  provincial  council,over  which 
he  also  presided.  In  Goyaz,  to  which  he  afterwards  re- 
turned, he  served  in  the  provincial  assembly  during  differ- 
ent legislatures,  having  several  times  been  elected  its 
president.  In  1836  his  fellow  provincialists  gave  him  a 
high  proof  of  their  confidence  by  including  his  name  in  a 
triple  list  for  senator.  In  the  last  legislature  but  one 
he  was  by  them  elected  a  deputy  to  the  general 

These  eloquent  demonstrations  of  regard  and  esteem  of 
the  people  could  not  be  groundless.  The  worthy  citizen 
had  an  undisputed  right  to  them. 

In  Cuyabi  as  well  as  in  the  province  of  Goyaz  to 
where  he  removed,  Antonio  de  Padua  Fleury  always 
devoted  himself  to  the  good  and  to  the  progress  of  the 
country.  In  1838  he  was  appointed  colonel,  chief  of  the 
legion  of  the  national  guard  of  the  city  of  Goyaz,  and 
proved  himself  worthy  of  this  high  and  honorable  post. 
He  was  included  in  the  list  of  the  vice-presidents  of  his 
province  from  the  publication  of  the  acto  addicional  to 
1846,  by  the  choice  of  the  respective  assembly,  and  from 
that  date  forward  by  imperial  decree.  As  vice  president 
he  administered  the  province  for  more  than  a  year,  from 
the  13th  of  February,  1848,  to  June,  1849,  to  the  satis- 
faction of  everyone.  During  that  period  he  founded  the 
settlement  of  Pedro  AfjTonso,  a  civilizing  centre  of  sev- 
eral savage  tribes. 

In  1825,  1831  and  1842,  this  patriotic  citizen  opened 
his  purse  to  assist  the  State,  both  in  the  provincial  and 
mthe  general  expenses. 

-  191  — 

In  1837  and  1851  he  lent  monies  to  the  treasury  for 
an  unlimited  time  and  without  interest. 

Padua  Fleury  contributed  generously  to  a  great  im- 
provement, the  lighting  of  the  capital  of  the  province,  and 
the  establishment  of  the  first  printing  office  in  the  prov- 
ince. He  constantly  encouraged  the  navigation  of  the 
Araguaya,  a  source  of  future  riches  and  of  progress,  which 
wil  shortly  ensure  immense  advantages. 

Antonio  de  Padua  Fleury  died  in  Goyaz  in  the  year 
1860,  blessed  by  his  fellow  provincialists  who  remem- 
ber his  name  with  due  gratitude. 





The  dissolution  of  the  Brazilian  constituinte  assembly 
on  the  12th  of  November,  1823,  estranged  the  liberal 
party  from  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  I,  and  originated  that 
implacable  opposition  which  only  ended  on  the  7th  of 
April,  1831. 

Under  the  excitement  of  political  passions  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Emperor  looked  upon  most  of  the  liberals  as 
republicans,  and  these  accused  the  ministers  and  the 
friends  of  the  emperor  of  entertaining  reactionary  views 
for  the  establishment  of  absolutism. 

Vol.  I  35 

—  194  — 
Among  the  statesmen  most  devoted  to  Don  Pedro  I,  was 
Manoel  Jacintho  Nogueira  da  Gama,  who  suffered  in  con- 

This  illustrious  Brazilian,  a  legitimate  son  ofNicolau 
Antonio  Nogueira  and  Donna  Joaquina  de  Almeida  e  Gama, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  S.  JofLo  d'El-Rei,  in  Minas-Geraes, 
on  the  8th  of  September,  1765. 

Being  descended  from  an  old  and  distinguished  family, 
whilst  yet  a  child  he  received  a  splendid  lesson  of  pa- 
triotism, seeing  his  father,  who  was  an  ensign  of  the 
militia  of  S.  Jofto  d'El-Rei,  on  hearing  that  the  Span- 
iards menaced  the  frontier  in  1777,  collect  the  corps 
of  which  his  prestige  and  the  love  of  the  men  gave 
him  the  command,  start  for  S.  Paulo,  and  march  a  hun- 
dred and  sixty  leagues,  afterwards  refusing  indemni- 
fication or  reward. 

Manoel  Jacintho  studied  humanities  in  his  province, 
and  before  his  nineteenth  year  went  to  Portugal,  intend- 
ing to  take  his  degree  in  the  University  of  Coimbra. 
At  that  time  communications  were  difficult,  and  the 
student,  with  no  pecuniary  resources  during  two  years, 
maintained  himself  by  his  work,  copying  music  for  a  live- 
lihood, as  Rousseau  had  done. 

On  receiving  remittances  from  his  family,  he  matri- 
culated in  the  faculties  of  philosophy  and  mathematics 
in  Coimbra.  He  became  distinguished  for  the  brightness 
of  his  intelligence  and  for  his  good  conduct;  but  before 
concluding  the  courses  of  the  two  faculties,  he  received 
a  severe  blow. 

His  father's  fortune  had  become  comprised  as  he  had 
become  surety    for    a  farmer  of  taxes   who   had  fallen 
into  debt. 
The  young  student  was  not  disheartenedo.  He  became 

-  196  - 
private  teacher  to  many  of  his  less  talented  colleagues, 
and  thus  obtaining  means,  he  not  only  was  able  to  cond- 
tinue  his  studies,  but  also  had  the  consolation  of  sen- 
ding his  family  some  small  aid,  which  at  least  cheered 
the  hearts  of  his  parents  as  it  proved  that  the  absent 
son  was  not  suflfering  the  torments  of  poverty. 

Having  passed  and  received  prizes  in  every  year  of  the 
course  of  philosophy  and  mathematics,  his  insatiable  in- 
telligence aspired  to  more,  and  he  entered  the  faculty  of 
medicine,  gaining  laurels  in  the  first  and  second  year, 
which  he  passed  with  applause. 

His  academical  career,  however,  was  suddenly  and  glo- 
riously interrupted.  Without  asking  for  it,  without  even 
expecting  it,  he  received,  by  decree  of  the  16th  of  No- 
vember, 1791,  the  appointment  of  assissant  professor  of 
mathematics  of  the  Royal  Naval  Academy  of  Lisbon, 
which  he  exercised  till  1801. 

Brazilian  pride  rejoices  at  the  thought  that  the  unpro- 
tected Manoel  Jacintho,  he  who  was  two  years  in  Lis- 
bon copying  music  for  a  livelihood,  he  who,  owing  to 
the  misfortunes  of  his  father  was  left  at  the  University 
of  Goimbra  without  means,  and  studied  at  his  own  ex- 
pense, gaining  his  bread  by  private  teaching,  should^ 
being  a  Brazilian,  have  deserved  that  appointment,  which 
proved  his  great  merit. 

In  1793  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  first-lieu- 
tenant in  the  navy,  and  in  1798  to  that  of  post  captain, 
having  been  made  a  chevalier  of  the  Order  of  S.  Bento  de 
Aviz,  three  years  before. 

Among  the  friends  of  a  high  social  position,  which  his 
fine  intellectual  gifts  and  his  good-heartedness  attracted^ 
one  of  the  most  aflfectionate  was  Don  Rodrigo,  afterwards 
Count  of    Linhares,    Rfanoel  Ja<?intbo    »vaile4    himself 

—  196  — 
of  this  friend  on  behalf  of  the  patriot,  his  countryman, 
Jos6  de  Rezende  Gosta^  exiled  with  his  father  to  Cape 
Yerde  for  the  crime  of  high  treason  in  the  conspiracy  of 
Minas  Geraes,  called  the  Tiranientes  conspiracy. 

Rezende  Costa  was  pardoned  and  obtained  employment 
in  the  public  treasury  of  Lisbon,  whence  he  afterwards 
returned  to  his  beloved  country. 

This  was  not  the  only  Brazilian  protected  by  Manoel 
Jacintho,  who  haying  himself  experienced  misfortunes,  well 
knew  how  he  could  be  useful  to  his  unfortunate  country- 
men in  foreign  lands. 

Another  misfortune,  and  another  proof  of  a  generous 
heart :  Manoel  Jacintho*s  eldest  brother,  Antonio  Joaquim 
Nogeira  da  Gama,  had  no  sooner  taken  his  degree  in 
medicine  at  the  University  of  Coimbra,  than  he  died  leav- 
ing a  widow  and  six  children  perfectly  destitute.  Though 
poor,  Manoel  Jacintho*s  accepts  the  fraternal  legacy,  sends 
his  nephews  to  his  family  in  Minas  Geraes,  and  gives 
the  widow  a  small  pension  in  Coimbra  until  her  death. 

Being  anxious  to  return  to  his  native  country,  he 
obtained,  on  the  1st  of  July  1801,  the  appointment,  of 
inspector-general  of  the  nitre  deposits  and  of  the  man- 
ufactories of  gunpowder  of  Minas  Geraes,  of  deputy  to 
the  mining  and  coinage  junta,  and  of  Secretary  to  the 
government,  this  place  being  declared  for  his  life  by 
decree  of  the  1st  of  October,  on  which  day  he  was  also 
named  to  the  junta  of  the  Royal  Treasury,  in  the  same 
capitania,  and  on  the  12th  of  November  of  the  same  year 
he  was  moreover  appointed  assistant  to  the  intendent- 
general  of  the  mines  and  metals  of  the  kingdom,  in  the 
assaying  department  of  the  mint,  where  he  established 
'a  chemical  laboratory,  and  undertook  the  construction  of 

manufactories  of  artificial  nitre  at  the  Brago  de  Prata, 
of  which  he  became  inspector. 

This  was  not  enough ;  because  the  last  appointments 
detained  him  in  Portugal.  On  the  9th  of  February,  1802, 
he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel  of 
engineers.  In  the  same  year  he  tendered  his  resignation 
as  secretary  of  the  government  of  Minas  Oeraes,  never 
having  occupied  the  place,  and,  at  last,  on  the  24th  of 
September,  he  returned  to  Brazil  with  the  appointment 
of  deputy  and  secretary  to  the  Junta  of  Finance  of  his 
cherished  province. 

From  1806  to  1821  the  biographical  history  of  Manoel 
Jacintho  is  long  and  praiseworthy.  In  Minas  Geraes  he 
appears  as  the  zealous,  but  prudent  fiscal  functionary.  In 
1808,  as  secretary  to  the  Royal  Treasury,  created  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  suppressed  abuses  and  prevarications. 
He  proposed  improvements  and  a  system  for  recovering 
the  taxes  and  for  auditing  the  expenses,  despising  the 
enemies  which  he  created  in  the  zealous  fulfillment  of 
his  duty. 

In  1811  he  was  named  deputy  to  the  administrative 
junta  of  the  military  academy  which  had  been  created, 
and  inspector  of  the  classes,  a  place  which  he  occupied 
until  1821,  without  any  salary. 

In  1809  he  was  made  a  commander  of  the  Order  of 
Aviz;  in  1814  a  member  of  the  council;  in  1815  a  nobleman, 
and  on  the  11th  of  December,  1822,  he  retired  on  half  pay 
with  the  rank  of  marshal. 

In  February,  1821,  he  was  appointed  member  and  secre- 
tary of  the  committee  of  twenty,  who,  with  the  members 
elected  by  councils  of  the  cities  and  towns  of  Brazil,  had 
to  examine  which  of  the  articles  of  the  future  Portuguese 
constitution  were  adapted  to  this  kingdom,   and  propose 

-  198  — 

the  necessary  reforms.  In  April,  he  assisted,  as  elector 
of  the  parish  of  S.  Jos^,  the  tumultuous  discussions  and 
the  violent  and  barbarous  attack  on  the  electoral 
assembly  holding  its  sitting  in  the  Exchange. 

Having  been  elected  by  the  province  of  Rio  de  Janeiro 
a  deputy  to  the  Brazilian  constituinte  assembly  in  1823, 
Manoel  Jacintho  distinguished  himself  remarkably,  and 
on  the  17th  of  July  of  the  same  year,  the  Andrada  min- 
istry having  retired,  he  entered  the  cabinet,  organized 
by  the  emperor,  as  minister  of  finance.  In  November, 
however,  refusing  to  accept  the  responsibility  of  the  im- 
politic dissolution  of  the  constituinte,  he,  and  four  other 
ministers  his  colleagues,  wisely  resigned  their  port- 

On  the  13th  of  November  the  ex-minister-Manoel  Ja- 
cintho, was  named  a  Councilor  of  State,  and  he  had  the 
glory  of  being  one  of  the  authors  of  the  constitution 
of  the  Empire  and  of  signing  it,  for  which  relevant  service 
he  was  made  a  dignitary  of  the  Imperial  Order  of  the 

On  the  15th  of  October,  1825,  he  was  created  Viscount 
of  Baependy,  with  the  honors  of  a  grandee,  being  a  year 
later  created  a  marquis. 

On  the  21st  of  January,  1826,  he  again  entered  the  cabi- 
net as  minister  of  finance,  occupying  the  post  during  two 
years,  though  mortified  at  seeing  his  plans  of  administrative 
and  fiscal  reform  frustrated. 

In  1826  he  had  been  voted  in  the  triple  lists  for  senators 
both  by  the  province  of  Rio  e  Janeiro  and  by  MinasGeraes, 
and  having  been  chosen  for  this  province  by  the  Emperor, 
he  took  his  seat  on  the  installation  of  the  senate. 

Out  of  power  until  1831,  the  Marquis  of  Baependy  shone 
in  the  senate  amongst  the  $iblest    and   most  (Jistinguishe4 

—  199  — 

members,  and  in  the  council  of  State  he  sometimes  saw, unfor- 
tunately, his  opinions  disregarded  which  however  remained 
consigned  in  writing  and  which,  had  they  been  adopted, 
would  have  saved  the  government  of  the  Emperor  from 
committing  fatal  errors.  He  strenuonsly  opposed  the. 
London  loans  which  so  heavily  burthened  the  finances 
of  the  government,  and  brought  so  much  obloquy  upon  the 
ministry.  His  were  the  wisest  views  on  the  question 
which  arose  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  Don  John  YI, 
and  of  the  call  of  the  Emperor  of  Brazil  to  the  throne  of 
Portugal  as  king  Don  Pedro  IV.  Of  all  the  opinions 
which  he  proffered,  however,  none  is  more  important 
than  that  which  he  emitted,  when  vehement  and  bitter 
party  debates  in  the  chambers  were  at  their  height,  and 
announced  the  crisis  which  appeared  in  March  and  April, 
1831 :  the  Marquis  of  Baependy  voted,  advising  government 
to  circumscribe  their  action  within  the  sphere  of  the  cons- 
titution, and  to  confirm  the  independence  and  power  of 
the  two  chambers  of  the  legislative  power. 

lu  March,  1831,  the  capital  of  the  Empire  was  heaving 
with  the  germ  of  revolt.  The  national  pride,  during  three 
consecutive  nights,  had  been  outraged  by  bands  of  Portu- 
guese, who  remained  unpunished,  and  this  served  the 
manifest  conspiracy  of  the  exalted  liberals  against  the 
Emperor,  who,  wishing  to  appease  the  anger  of  the  peopl 
formed  a  cabinet  of  liberals  who  unfortunately  had  neither 
prestige  nor  influence,  and  who,  whilst  they  were  able  to 
crush  the  revolting  intervention  of  the  foreign  element, 
were  incapable  of  embarassing  the  action  of  the  conspira- 
tors. Don  Pedro  I,  under  these  circumstances,  suddenly 
changed  the  ministry,  and  on  the  night  of  the  5th  of  April 
organized  another  with  the  Marquis  of  Baependy  as  minister 
of  finance. 

—  200  — 

This  ministry  lasted  from  the  night  of  the  5th  of  April 
till  daybreak  of  the  7th,  when  Don  Pedro  I  abdicated  the 
crown,  refusing  to  accede  to  the  people  and  the  troops,  who 
exacted  the  reintegration  of  the  ministers  who  had  been 

The  Marquis  of  Baependy  from  the  7th  of  April  forward, 
abstained  from  politics. 

In  1831  the  liberal  party  being  in  power,  and  acceding 
perhaps  to  the  necessity  of  satisfying  popular  passion, 
framed,  in  the  chamber  of  deputies,  accusations  against 
the  ex-ministers  of  Don  Pedro  I;  but  the  accusation  brought 
against  the  Marquis  of  Baependy  was  acknowledged  to  be 
unfounded  by  the  report  of  the  committee  of  the  house, 
which  obtained  the  votes  even  of  the  liberal  deputies. 
After  1831  the  Marquis  of  Baependy  was  vice-president, 
of  the  senate,  and  Don  Pedro  II,  who  had  been  declared  of 
age,  on  his  coronation  day,  the  18th  of  June,  1841,  pre- 
sented him  with  the  Grand  Cross  of  the  Order  of  the  Rose. 

The  Marquis  of  Baependy  left  an  honored  memory  for 
important  services  which  he  rendered  apart  from  politics- 

His  was  the  idea  and  the  project  of  the  annuity  association 
for  the  families  of  military  men,  and  of  another  which  he 
presented  in  1825  to  Don  Pedro  I,  of  the  general  annuity 
society  for  Brazilian  families,  which  was  submitted  to  the 
consideration  of  the  senate.  The  result  of  this  patriotic 
work  was  the  institution  of  the  Monte  Pio  Geral  dos  Ser- 
vidores  do  Estado,  (State  Servants  Annuity  Institute), 
which,  to  prove  once  more  the  sic  vols  non  vobis,  ignored 
its  illustrious  initiator. 

The  Marquis  of  Baependy  died  near  midnight  of  the 
14th  of  February,  1847,  at  the  age  of  eighty-one  years  and 
some  months  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  was  buried 

—201  r- 

in  the  cimetery  of  the  third  order  of  S.  Francisco  de 

Conspicuous  as  a  student,  as  a  professor^  as  an  adminis- 
trator, as  a  financier,  as  a  legislator,  he  was  a  man  of  vast 
science,  and  of  great  practise  in  the  direction  of  the 
treasury  and  fiscal  departments. 

The  proof  that  he  was  an  able  statesman  is  rather  to  be 
found  in  the  Council  of  State  papers,  and  in  the  fact  that 
he  positively  refused  to  sanction  the  dissolution  of  the 
constituinte  assembly,  than  in  his  acts  in  the  cabinets  of 
which  he  was  member,  the  first  of  which  lasted  a  little 
more  than  three  months,  the  second  one  year  full  of 
difficulties,  and  the  third  only  one  day  and  two  nights  of 

The  liberal  party  during  the  reign  of  the  first  Empe- 
ror opposed  him  strongly,  owing  to  his  being  an  unwav- 
ering supporter  of  the  conservative  party,  as  well  as 
a  loyal  and  devoted  friend  of  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro 
I,  opposing,  in  the  Council  of  State,  grave  errors  of 
his  government,  but  shielding  him  in  parliament  with 
personal  abnegation. 

Immediately  after  the  abdication  of  Don  Pedro  I,  on 
the  7th  of  April,  the  people,  exulting  in  their  victory 
ry,  outraged  his  house. 

But  in  1847,  when  he  died  he  was  generally  regretted. 

More  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  has  passed  since 

Posterity  commences  to  pass  judgement;  on  the  tomb 
of  the  Marquis  of  Baependy  it  will  engrave  the  words : 

«  Courage  and  toil;  benevolence  and  learning;  loyalty 
and  abnegation;  patriotism  and  honor.  » 

VOL.  I  26 

3:"V  or  FEs,:RTjAJErz' 


From  1820  to  1823  a  Brazilian  student  shone  in  the 
University  of  Coimbra;  having  entered  at  the  faculties  of 
mathematics  and  philosophy,  he  obtained  prizes  in  every 
year  and  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  took  his  degree  as 
bachelor  in  mathematics. 

The  board  of  the  faculty  which  conferred  the  degree  pro- 
posed to  government  that  the  Brazilian  student  should 
be  graduated  gratuitously,  if  he  would  accept  the  fa- 
vor; one  of  the  professors  attesting  his  academical  trium- 
phs, added  that  the  bachelor  laureate  would  be  coun- 
ted among  the  learned. 

This  student  was  Gandido  Baptista  de  Oliveira,  son  of 
Francisco  Baptista  dos  Anjos  and  Donna  Francisca  Can- 
dida de  Oliveira,   and  bom  in  the  city  of  Porto  Alegre, 

—  304  - 
province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio   Grande  do  Sul,  on  the  ISth 
of  February,  1801. 

Candido  Baptista  being  destined  by  his  parents  for  an 
ecclesiastical  life,  studied  humanities  at  the  Seminary  of 
S.  Jos6,  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  As,  however,  he 
had  no  inclination  for  the  priesthood,  he  went  to  Por- 
tugal, where  at  the  University  of  Coimbra  he  obtained 
such  extraordinary  and  brilliant  distinction. 

Candido  Baptista  from  Portugal  passed  over  to  France, 
and  obtained  leave  from  the  government  to  attend  the 
polytechnic  school;  he  there  gained  the  friendship  of  the 
learned  Arago,   who  taught  astronomy. 

On  returning  to  Brazil  in  1827,  he  was  appointed  assis- 
tant professor  at  the  military  academy,  becoming  shortly 
after  cathedrated   professor  of  rational  mechanics. 

The  fame  of  his  triumphs  in  Coimbra,  and  of  the  name 
which  he  left  at  the  polytechnic  school  in  France  had 
spread,  and  his  province  elected  him  a  deputy  in  the  sec- 
ond legislature. 

Candido  Baptista  in  1830  became  connected  with  the 
liberal  party,  and  in  1831  he  was  one  of  the  twenty- 
four  who  signed  the  famous  representation  of  the  15th 
of  March. 

After  the  abdication  of  Don  Pedro  I,  the  minister  of 
finance,  Bernardo  Pereira  de  Vasconcellos,  who  in  the 
chamber  had  appreciated  the  profound  knowledge  of  Can- 
dido Baptista,  appointed  him  inspector-general  of  the 
National  Treasury  when  he  realized  the  reform  of  that 
department  and  its  dependencies. 

In  the  execution  of  this  arduous  task  he  rendered 
important  sei  vices,  and  among  others  he  introduced  the 
especial  use  of  stereometry,  till  then  unknown  in  the 
custom-houses  of  the  Empire,  anew  formula  for  measure 

-ao5  — 

ing  the  capacity  of  merchant  vessels  in  order  to  regu- 
late the  anchorage  dues ;  he  also  systematized  weights 
and  measures. 

In  1834  he  left  the  treasury,  but  returned  in  1837; 
Miguel  Calmon,  afterwards  Marquis  of  Abrantes,  being 
then  minister  of  finance. 

In  the  meantime,  as  a  deputy,  though  he  did  not 
shine  as  a  speaker,  he  was  the  chief  collaborator  of  all 
financial  measures. 

In  1838  he  did  not  obtain  a  seat  in  the  chamber.  A 
tremendous  revolt  having  broken  out  in  his  province, 
it  took  no  part  in  the  elections  of  the  fourth  legisla- 
ture. In  1839,  however,  he  entered  a  cabinet  holding 
the  two  ofiices  of  finance  and  foreign  affairs.  This  min- 
istry did  not  satisfy  the  ardent  expectations  of  political 
parties,  and  therefore  lasted  but  a  few  months.  In  the 
administration  of  the  finances,  however,  Gandido  Baptista 
raised  himself  above  all  opposition,  and  as  minister  of 
foreign  afiairs  he  had  the  glory  of  calling  upon  l^imself 
the  hatred  of  the  slave  dealers. 

From  1840  to  1843  a  high  diplomatic  mission  took 
him  to  St.  Petersburg  and  shortly  after  to  Vienna.  At 
this  place  Gandido  Baptista  was  admired,  and  enjoyed 
the  esteem  of  prince  Mettemich.  In  St.  Petersburg  he 
acquired  the  friendship  of  Gount  Nesselrode ;  and  would 
sometimes  pass  whole  days  in  the  astronomical  observ- 
atory, with  the  director,  who  received  and  commended 
him  as  a  fellow,  and  an  equal  in  science. 

On  returning  home  he  occupied  his  professor's  chair 
until  1847,  when  he  was  superannuated.  In  May  of  the 
same  year  he  again  accepted  oiBce  as  minister  of  ma- 
rine in  the  cabinet  presided  by  Manoel  Alves  Branco, 
afterwards  Viscount  of  Garvellas.  This  ministry  also  lasted 

—  206  - 
only  a  short  time;  but  Candido  Baptista  left  office,  having 
created    the   corps  of  naval  fuzileers,   having  increased 
the  navy,   and  having  given  such  an  impulse  to  admims- 
tration,  that  his  retirement  from  government  was  justly 

regretted.  . 

In  1850  national  gratitude  presented  him  in  a  list  of  six 
names  for  senators  for  the  province  of  Ceari,  and  H.  M. 
the  Emperor,  who  honored  Candido  Baptista  with  his  friend- 
ship and  confidence,  and  appreciated  his  great  merit,  his 
capacity,  and  his  preeminent  services  to  the  country,  gave 
him,  by  his  constitutional  choice  a  well-deserved  chair  in 
the  Brazilian  senate. 

There,  in  the  senate,  as  in  the  chamber  of  deputies,  he 
was  a  weak  speaker  ;  always  mathematically  concise,  he 
had  no  high  flights  of  oratory.  He  rose  and  spoke  to  say 
clearly  and  simply,  but  in  a  few  minutes,  only  what  was 
absolutely  useful  and  necessary.  In  the  cabinet,  however, 
the  great  orators  asked  his  advice  and  accepted  his  arbi- 

As  a  statesman  he  was  an  administrator  but  not  an 


The  Emperor  appointed  him  a  councilor  of  State,  and 
the  government  made  him  a  director  of  the  Bank  of  Brazil, 
and  Candido  Baptista,  the  learned  and  practical  adminis- 
trator, the  man  of  unblemished  probity,  did  his  duty,  and 
served  with  intelligence,  zeal,  and  devotedness  in  the  coun- 
cil of  State,  and  in  the  board  of  the  Bank  of  Brazil. 

He  was  also  inspector  of  the  Botanical  Garden. 

Politics  and  administration  perhaps  deviated  Candido 
Baptista  from  his  special  vocation.  He  was  a  profound  ma- 
thematician, and  would  have  been  an  admirable  scholar 
if  he  had  had  the  pecuniary  means,  and  had  not  been  con- 
strained by  family  cares  from  persuing  exclusively  his 

—  207  — 

favorite  science,  and  if  he  had  not  been  urged  by  gov- 
ernment, that'  sometimes  displaces  predestined  intellien- 

Candido  Baptista  was  a  passionate  and  masterly  culti- 
vator of  mathematics ;  he  loved  them  as  Tasso  loved  poetry ; 
the  science  of  calculation  was  the  flame  of  his  life.  With 
the  pencil  in  his  hand  and  the  board  before  him,  he  used 
to  forget  the  world,  or  rather,  to  conquer  worlds,  he 
would  sometimes  pass  four  or  six  hours  consecutively  in 
calculating  and  resolving  problems  without  feeling  any 
fatigue,  or  fearing  the  precision  of  his  calculating  mind. 
When  he  commenced  calculating,  it  became  necessary  for 
his  family,  tired  of  waiting  for  him,  to  go  and  bring  him 
from  his  pencil  and  his  board. 

Candido  Baptista  de  Oliveira,  the  worthy,  the  learned, 
the  enlightened  and  the  honorable  Brazilian,  died  in  the 
city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  15th  of  October,  1865. 

X-^TT    OF    FBBRXTAJl-Sr 


On  the  16th  of  February,  1630,  a  numerous  and  formid- 
able Dutch  fleet,  conveying  a  large  force  destined  for  the 
conquest  of  the  capitania  of  Pernambuco,  appeared  in  the 
port  of  Recife  and  opened  fire  on  the  city.  General  Wawden- 
bnrch  landed  with  his  army  on  the  beach  of  Pdo  AmarelU), 
about  twelve  miles  to  the  north  of  Olinda,  capital  of  Per- 
nambuco, on  to  which  he  marched  at  sunrise  on  the  fol- 
lowing day. 

The  people  of  Pernambuco,  who  later  on  behaved  so 
gallantly,  on  the  first  day  of  the  Dutch  invasion  showed 
weakness  and  even  cowardice. 

The  governor,  General  Mathias  de  Albuquerque,  vainly 
attempted  to  dispute  Wawdenburch  the  passage  of  the 
river  Doce.  All  his  men  fled  disbanded^  and  he  retreating, 
VOL.  I  27 

—  210- 
evacuated  Olinda  to  attempt  a  very  doubtful  resistance  in 
Recife,  which  commands  the  port. 

The  Dutch,  numbering  three  thousand  men,  entered 
Olinda  in  three  columns;  finding  the  place  abandoned 
and  no  troops  to  combat,  they  commenced  the  pillage  of  the 
churches,  for  in  the  private  houses  they  found  very  little  to 

It  was  then  that  patriotism  and  the  spirit  of  religion 
inspired  acts  of  desperation,  and  men,  who  had  born  for 
heroes,  sacrificed  their  lives  in  vain  and  hopeless  resis- 
tance ;  thus  depriving  the  country  and  religion  of  sublime 

So  it  was  that  Captain  Salvador  de  Azevedo,  with 
twenty-two  brave  men,  posted  himself  in  front  of  the 
Jesuits'  college,  and  fought  furiously,  only  leaving  the 
field  when  his  twenty-two,  against  a  thousand,  had  all 
been  killed  or  wounded,  and  the  doors  of  the  church  had 
been  broken  in  by  artillery. 

Captain  Andr6  Pereira  Temudo,  committed  a  still  more 
desperate  act. 

Temudo's  birthday,  his  birth-place,  and  his  life  prior 
to  this  day  are  unknown.  He  was  a  captain  of  militia  and 
called  himself  a  native  of  Pernambuco.  The  16th  day  of  Feb- 
ruary,  1630,  with  the  admirable  sacrifice,  useless  though 
it  was,  of  his  life,  if  it  be  not  a  glorious,  is  at  least  a 
proud  day  for  Brazil. 

Quite  alone,  instigated  by  foolish  pride,  Captain  Temudo 
refused  to  leave  Olinda.  His  spirit  revolted  at  seeing  the 
pillage  of  the  churches,  and  rushing  to  that  of  the  Miser- 
icordia,  invaded  by  bands  of  Dutch  soldiers,  seeing  them 
brutally  and  indignantly  profane  the  altars,  he  gave  one 
shout,  and  drew  his  sword. 

Captain  Temudo  had  not  a  single  person  at  his  side  ;  he 

—  211  — 
alone  without  hope,  with  the  certainty  of  death,  he  alone, 
sword  in  hand  attacked  the  Dutch. 

It  appears  incredible ;  but  so  it  was. 

Desperate  and  furious,  he  becomes  a  Hercules,  a  hero 
of  Ariosto,  or  of  old  romances  of  chivalry  of  the  middle  ages. 

Like  a  wild  lion  he  roars,  felling  men,  and,  in  the  midst 
of  ten  or  more  of  the  sacrilegists,  whom  he  dlone  had 
prostrated  with  his  sword,  he  falls  covered  with  wounds 
and  dies  amidst  those  he  had  killed. 

Captain  Andr6  Pereira  Temudo  may  not  be  a  hero  ; 
but  he  is  at  least  legendary  in  the  history  of  Brazil. 

OF    rEBUXT-A-Rir 


Jos6  Clemente  Pereira,  the  legitimate  son  of  Jose  Gon- 
^Ives  and  Donna  Maria  Pereira,  was  born  at  a  place 
called  Adem,  in  the  town  of  Castello  Mendo,  district  of 
Trancoso,  in  the  kingdom  of  Portugal,  on  the  17th  of 
February,  1787. 

He  took  his  degree  in  law  and  canons  at  the  University 
of  Coimbra. 

Daring  the  French  invasion  of  Portugal  he  enlisted  in 
the  academical  corps  which  was  commanded  by  3os6  Bo- 
nifacio de  Andrada  e  Silva,  and  as  a  captain  commanded 
one  of  those  famous  guerrillas  so  fatal  to  the  enemy. 

He  served  in  the  Anglo-Luzitanian  army  which,  under 
Wellington,  invaded  Spain. 

In  1815  he  left  for  Brazil,  arriving  in  Rio  de  Janeiro 
on  the  IStb  of  October,  and  practised  as  a  lawyer  till  1819, 

—  2U  — 
when  he  was  appointed  juiz  de  f6ra  of  the  town  of  Praia- 
Grande  (afterwards  the  city  of  Nictheroy)  which  had  lately 
been  created. 

The  plan  and  the  measurement  and  laying  out  the  streets 
and  squares  of  the  town  are  due  to  him,  as  also  other 
services  of  a  real  founder  of  a  town. 

On  the  26th  of  February,  1821,  in  the  town  of  Marici, 
he  convoked  the  council  and  the  people  to  take  the  oath 
of  the  constitution  which  the  c6rtes  were  to  promulgate. 
In  the  same  year  he  was  appointed  juiz  de  f6ra  of  the  city 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  commenced  to  exercise  his  functions 
on  the  30th  of  May.   , 

On  the  5th  of  June  following  the  auxiliary  division  (Por- 
tuguese troops)  which  garrisoned  the  city  became  undis- 
ciplined, and  succeeded  in  obtaining  from  the  prince  regent 
Don  Pedro  the  oath  to  the  bases  of  the  constitution  ema- 
nated from  the  Portuguese  cortes,  and  the  dismissal  of  the 
Count  dos  Arcos'ministry.  But  the  rebellious  troops,  under 
arms,  resolved  that  a  junta  of  nine  deputies  should  be 
named  to  assist  the  Prince  in  the  despatch  of  state  papors, 
as  a  means  of  subjecting  Don  Pedro  to  the  influence  of 
General  Avilez,  their  commander.  Jos6  Clemente  cour- 
ageously and  firmly  opposed  this  violent  measure  as  pre- 
sident of  the  senate  of  the  chamber,  and  succeeded  in 
annulling  it. 

In  December,  1821,  he  proposed  that  the  chamber  should 
make  representation  to  the  Prince  begging  him  to  remain 
in  Brazil,  which  was  equivalent  to  proposing  the  revolution 
of  the  independence. 

On  the  9th  of  January,  1822,  Jos6^  Clemente,  as  juiz  de 
f6ra,  president  of  the  senate  of  the  chamber,  at  the  head 
of  this  corporation,  with  the  greatest  solemnity  and  fol- 
lowed by  an  immense   crowd,  went  to  the  city  palace  to 

—  215  — 

present  the  famous  representation  of  the  people  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro  to  the  prince  D.  Pedro,  proposing  disobedience 
to  the  decrees  of  the  cflrtes,  with  the  request  that  he 
should  remain  in  Brazil. 

When  he  presented  that  representation  he  delivered  a 
memorable  and  energetic  speech,  which  is  a  pattern  of 

It  was  Josd  Clemente  who,  from  one  of  the  palace  win- 
dows, repeated  to  the  people  in  a  loud  voice  the  Prince's 
answer  :  «  As  it  is  for  the  good  of  all  and  for  the  gen- 
eral welfare  of  the  nation,  I  am  ready;  tell  the  people 
that  —  I  remain.  » 

The  senate  of  the  chamber,  owing  to  its  representative 
character,  ought  to  have  been,  and  was  in  1822,  the  offi- 
cial organ  of  the  revolution  which  addressed  the  Prince 
and  which  convoked  the  people  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  On  the 
13th  of  May  the  corporation  offered  the  Prince  Don  Pedro 
the  title  of  Perpetual  Defender  of  Brazil ;  and  on  the 
23d  of  the  same  month  petitioned  for  the  convocation  of 
a  Brazilian  constituinte  assembly.  On  the  21st  of  Sep- 
tember, after  the  shout  of  Ipiranga,  they  convoked  the 
citizens  for  the  solemn  proclamation  of  Don  Pedro  I  as 
Emperor  of  Brazil  on  the  12th  of  October,  and  on  that 
day  the  act  of  the  proclamation  was  drawn  up.  The  name 
of  Jos6  Clemente  Pereira,  president  and  speaker  of  the 
senate  of  the  chamber,  is  written  in  all  these  documents 
of  the  history  of  the  independence  of  Brazil. 

Immediately  after  the  triumph,  discord  appeared  among 
the  toilers  for  the  independence.  The  Andrada  ministry 
persecuted  as  demagogues  and  anarchists  Jos6  Clemente, 
Ledo,  Januario,  Nobrega  and  others,  and  who,  after  a  rapid 
inquiry,  were  exiled. 

The  intrigues  and  plots  of  the  enemies  of  the  patriots 

—  216- 
of  the  independenoe,  which  in  November,  1823,  would  aLso 
succeed  in  exiling  the  Andradas,  now  obtained  the  exile 
of  those  illustrioue  men  of  1823. 

On  the  17th  of  February,  1824,  Josd  Clemente,  who 
had  returned  to  the  country  of  his  adoption,  was  named 
a  dignitary  of  the  Order  of  the  Gross. 

In  the  first  Brazilian  legislature  three  provinces  elect- 
ed him  as  deputy :  Rio  de  Janeiro,  S.  Paulo,  and  Minas 

After  being  intendant-general  of  police,  Jos6  Clemente 
entered  the  cabinet;  as  an  administrator  he  supplied  the 
capital  of  the  Empire  with  drinking  water,  fountains  being 
erected  in  different  points.  He  systematized  the  post-office, 
and  ordered  the  first  public  exhibition  of  the  fine  arts;  as  a 
legislator  he  collaborated  in  the  monumental  criminal  code 
of  Brazil,  and  was  the  chief  initiator  and  organizer  of  the 
commercial  code ;  as  a  politician  and  as  minister  he  devote 
ed  himself  entirely  to  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  I,  and  was 
the  object  of  the  most  vehement  opposition  of  the  liberal 
party  during  the  last  four  years  of  the  reign  of  the  first 

In  1831  he  retires  from  politics  and  from  administra- 
tion, convinced  of  the  general  repulse  of  the  liberal  party, 
then  in  power.  In  the  third  and  fourth  legislatures  he 
had  no  seat  in  parliament ;  but  in  1835  Evaristo  Ferreira 
da  Veiga  had  included  him  in  his  list  and  had  succeeded  in 
having  him  elected  a  member  of  the  first  provincial  as- 
sembly of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  where  Jos6  Clemente  rendered 
great  services. 

In  1836  and  1837  Vasconcellos  hoists  the  flag  of  the 
conservative  party,  and  Jos*  Clemente  enlists  under  it. 
In  1838  he  was  returned  a  member  of  the  chamber  of  deputies; 
in  1841  he  accepts  office  as  of  minister  of  war;  hisacti- 

—  217  — 
vity  and  energy  multiply  resources  to  crush  the  liberal 
revolts  of  1842  in  S.  Paulo  and  Minas  Geraes.  He  was, 
in  the  same  year,  chosen  senator  from  the  triple  list 
offered  by  the  province  of  Pari ,  and  in  1851  he  was  ap- 
pointed the  first  president  of  the  tribunal  of  commerce, 
and  a  councilor  of  State. 

He  rose  as  high  as  it  was  possible  for  him  to  rise  in 
the  administration  and  in  politics. 

He  had  a  solid  basis  for  his  undeniable  glory  in  the 
monumental  work  of  the  independence  of  Brazil  in  1822. 
In  his  administrative  services  he  had  brilliant  flowers. 
From  1827  forward  he  led  a  political  life  more  or  less 
tempestuous,  cursed  by  the  liberals,  sanctified  by  the  im- 
perialists of  the  first  reign,  and  applauded  by  the  conserv- 
atives of  the  second ;  but  in  the  latter  days  of  his  most 
active  life,  liberals  and  conservatives,  all  admired,  extolled, 
and  honored  the  worth  of  Jos6  Clemente  Pereira  as  the 
administrator  of  the  hospital  of  the  Santa  Casa  da  Miseri- 
cordia  of  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

To  this  zealous  and  most  devoted  administrator,  to  Jos6 
Clemente  Pereira,  who  held  that  post  from  the  8th  of 
June,  1838,  until  the  night  on  which,  an  hour  before  his 
death,  he  was  still  toiling  in  the  service  of  the  Santa 
Casa,  does  this  establishment  owe  many  and  extraordinary 
improvements :  he  passed  the  interments  from  the  ditches 
of  the  Misericordia  to  the  Campo  Santo  or  cemitery  of 
the  Caju ;  he  raised  at  the  Praia  de  Santa  Luzia  a  fine 
building,  and  systematically  reformed  the  infirmaries  of 
the  Misericordia;  he  removed  the  foundling  asylum  to 
a  new  building ;  he  improved  the  orphan  asylum,  and  built 
at  the  Praia  Vermelha,  a  magnificent  palace,  the  Hospicio 
de  Don  Pedro  II;  for  a  mad  asylum. 

In  the  last  few  years  of  his  life  Josd  Clemente  Pe- 
voL.  I  28 

—  218  - 
roira  did  as  much  for  the  benefit  of  his  fellow-creatures 
as  would  be  suflScient  to   fill  with  glory  a  long  life, 
entirely  devoted  to  the  service  of  mankind. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  Jos6  Clemente  Pereira  was 
assisted  by  government  with  great  protection  and  immense 
favors ;  but  there  is  great  merit  in  having  deserved  and 
in  having  applied  to  charitable  and  pious  institutions, 
all  the  gifts,  aid,  and  resources  which  his  personal  in- 
fluence and  the  deserved  confidence  reposed  in  him  could 

The  memory  of  Jos6  Clemente  Pereira  is  blessed  by  his 

The  Emperor  Don  Pedro  II,  who  had  intended  shortly 
to  confer  on  him  a  title  of  nobility,  was  surprised  by 
the  sudden  death  of  this  praiseworthy  citizen  on  the 
night  of  the  10th  of  March,  1854 ;  but  immediately  honored 
his  memory  by  conferring  on  his  widow  the  title  destined 
for  her  husband.  She  was  created  Countess  of  Piedade. 

Jos6  Clemente  Pereira,  the  pious,  thanks  to  the  muni- 
ficence of  the  Emperor,  left  to  his  widow  the  inheritance 
of  the  saintly  nobility  of  Piedade,  (Piety). 




The  interesting  Indian  girl  who  became  the  legitimate 
wife  of  the  Indian  hero  Poty,  or  Antonio  Felippe  Ca- 
marSo,  was  the  daughter  of  Indians,  and  was  born  in 
some  unknown  taba  of  the  deserts,  probably  in  Ceard  or 
Rio  Grande  do  Norte.  A  savage  girl,  she  was  received  or 
taken  by  civilized  people,  losing  her  primitive  name,  which 
was  probably  that  of  some  flower,  some  delicate  shrub, 
some  stream  or  some  beautiful  image,  given  to  her  by  her 
loving  parents. 

The  active,  brilliant  and  glorious  part  which  the  gal- 
lant Camarao  took  in  the  war  against  the  Dutch  is  well 
known.  Damiao  de  Frees  says  that  Donna  Clara  followed 
her  husband  in  all  his  campaigns,  and  that  she  gained 
martial  laurels  in  all  his  victories.  That  she  accompanied 
her  husband  in  his  warlike  excursions,  but  without  entering 

—  220  — 
actively  in  the  fights,  though  exposed  to  danger,  is  more 
than  probable ;  for  such  was  the  custom  among  the  savages 
from  whom  she  descended.  That  she  might  have  entered 
in  one  combat  or  another  in  which  she  might  have  seen 
her  cherished  Poty  in  danger,  is  very  possible,  it  is  even 
natural;  but  what  is  certain  is  that  she  immortalized 
her  name  as  a  heroine  on  the  18th  of  Februuiry,  1637. 

Prince  Maurice  of  Nassau,  having  been  appointed  gov- 
ernor-general of  Dutch  Brazil,  arrived  at  Recife,  in  Per- 
nambuco,  on  the  23d  of  January,  1637,  and  immediately 
proceeded  to  attack  the  army  of  Pernambuco,  fortified  at 
Porto  Calvo,  under  the  command  of  General  Bagnuolo. 

On  the  18th  of  February  a  terrible  fight  took  place 
near  the  river  which  runs  by  Barra  Grande.  The  Dutch 
were  divided  into  three  columns  under  the  command-in- 
chief  of  Nassau.  The  army  of  Pernambuco,  was  not  only 
inferior  in  number,  but  was  also  under  the  disadvantage 
of  fighting  without  its  general,  Bagnuolo  being  absent, 
but  even  so  immortalized  itself  by  its  bravery. 

Henrique  Dias,  commanding  his  black  soldiers,  performed 
unheard-of  feats,  and  receiving  a  wound  in  the  left  hand 
from  a  ball,  had  it  amputated  and  continued  the  fight. 

Camarao,  always  the  same  hero,  searched  death  every- 
where, for  his  Indians  commenced  to  waver,  when  sud- 
denly Donna  Clara,  his  wife,  appears  sword  in  hand  at 
the  head  of  some  ladies,  whose  anxious  fears  had  been 
changed  into  a  warlike  impetus,  and  with  incredible  gal- 
lantry encourages  the  Indians  with  her  example,  and 
battles  like  Ariosto's  Brandimarte,  exceeding  in  valor  and 
in  exploits  the  greater  part  of  the  men. 

The  battle  raged  till  night,  and  remained  undecided, 
which  probably  would  not  have  been  the  case  but  for 

-221  - 

the  impetuous  and  manly  concourse  of  the  heroine  Donna 

Taking  advantage  of  the  night  Bagnuolo  retired  to 
Alagdas,  and  Donna  Clara  GamarSo^  without  resting  from 
the  fatigues  of  the  combat,  escorted,  at  the  head  of  her 
warlike  and  enthusiastic  companions,  the  families  which 
emigrated  from  Porto  Calvo,  fleeing  the  dominion  of  the 
foreign  conqueror. 

Clara  Camarao  shared,  as  was  her  right,  the  title  of 
Don  which  Phillip  IV  (III  of  Portugal)  conferred  on  her 
husband,  besides  making  him  a  chevalier  of  the  Order  of 

Towards  the  end  of  1648,  and  after  the  first  battle 
and  glorious  victory  of  the  Guararapes,  the  gallant  Don 
Antonio  Felippe  CamarSo,  died  at  the  new  hamlet  of  Bom 
Jesus,  of  pernicious  fever. 

After  her  husband's  death,  the  heroine  of  Porto  Calvo 
did  nothing  further  to  commemorate  her  name. 

Donna  Clara  CamarSo,  the  Brazilian  Brandimarte,  after 
losing  her  husband  retired  completely  from  the  world. 

TTTTT     OF    FBBRXT-A.Il-5r 


In  the  month  of  February,  1822,  the  generous  first  blood 
was  spilt  for  the  independence  of  Brazil  in  the  city  of 
S.  Salvador,  capital  of  the  province  of  Bahia. 

Brazilians  and  Portuguese  were  already  separated  into 
two  parties,  when  on  the  I5th  of  February  a  royal  decree 
was  received  appointing  Brigadier  Luiz  Ignacio  Madeira  de 
Mello  (a  Portuguese),  military  commandant  of  Bahia,  a 
post  which  was  occupied  by  Brigadier  Manoel  Pedro  de 
Freitas  GuimarEes  (a  Brazilian).  The  provisional  junta  of 
government  and  the  municipal  council  invented  pretexts 
for  refusing  to  invest  Madeira,  and  to  preserve  Manoel 
Pedro  in  the  military  command. 

On  one  side  were  the  natives  of  Bahia  in  the  city,  and 
some  batallions  mostly  of  militia ;  on  the  other  was  the 

—  824- 

numerous  garrison  of  disciplined  Portuguese  troops,  and 
the  Portuguese  established  at  S.  Salvader. 

On  the  17th  and  18th  of  February  the  two  parties  fought 
in  the  streets.  The  Brazilians  were  beaten,  and  retreated 
to  the  fort  of  S.  Pedro  (which  they  also  evacuated  on  the 
21st  and  went  to  encamp  in  the  interior).  On  the  19th  the 
victory  of  General  Madeira  was  complete. 

But  the  unrestrained  and  frenzied  soldiery,  taking  ad- 
vantage of  the  disorder  and  the  defeat  of  the  patriots,  broke 
into  and  pillaged  the  houses  of  the  people  of  Bahia,  going 
so  far  as  to  plunder  churches,  and  furious  and  impelled  by 
the  thirst  for  blood  they  ventured  ta  attack  the  Lapa 

It  was  a  fearful  day,  that  19th  of  February. 

The  Lapa  convent,  the  asylum  of  virgins  consecrated  to 
the  Lord,  was  an  object  of  respect  and  veneration  to  every- 
one. No  suspicion,  no  shadow  of  doubt,  no  insolent  jest  had 
touched  the  walls  of  that  tenement,  which  light  spirits 
might  repute  anachronic ;  but  virtue  dwelt  in  the  Lapa 
convent,  venerated  for  the  saintly  piety  of  those  innocent 
exiles  forgotten  by  the  world. 

The  mother  abbess  of  the  Lapa  convent  was  Joanna  An- 
gelica, a  Bahia  lady,  whom  all  Bahia  respected  and  admired, 
owing  to  her  exemplary  charity,  her  mildness,  and  her  chas- 
tity, worthy  of  her  name — Angelica, 

Whilst  the  fight  raged  in  the  streets,  the  mother  abbess 
and  her  sisters  were  kneeling  at  the  foot  of  the  altar  pray- 
ing God  for  peace,  and  pardon,  and  remission  for  all... 

But  on  the  19th  of  February  the  furious  soldiery  advance 
and  menace  the  Lapa  convent. . .  the  sacrilegists  enter... 
they  knock  and  in  savage  shouts  announce  their  intended 


The  Carmelite  virgins,  terror-stricken,  embrace  the  feet 
of  the  image  of  the  Immaculate  Mother. 

The  postigo,  however,  opens  and  the  noble  abbess,  Joanna 
Angelica,  appears  before  the  soldiers,  pale  and  weak  from 
maceration,  with  a  crown  of  grey  hair. 

—  Retire,  she  cried,  you  cannot  enter  here !  The  sentinel 
of  this  sacred  asylum  is  Jesus  !... 

In  vain  she  cried;  the  door  of  the  convent  is  burst  in, 
and  the  phrenzied  and  vandalic  crowd  rushes  in. . . 

Then  placing  herself  in  front  of  the  savages,  firmly  and 
with  a  flashing  eye,  the  admirable  Joanna  Angelica,  the 
abbess,  alone  and  unflinching,exclaims  with  the  enthusiasm 
of  the  martyrs  of  faith : 

—  You  shall  only  enter,  trampling  on  my  corpse !... 
And  she  fell  under  the  bayonets  of  the  ruffians.. . 

The  chaplain  of  the  convent,  the  old  virtuous  Father 
Daniel  da  Silva  Lisboa  appears,  and  is  killed  whilst  trying 
to  remove  the  body  of  the  martyr  from  under  the  feet  of 
the  assassins. 

The  Portuguese  soldiers  invade  and  plunder  the  convent, 
and  the  terrified  nuns  flee  and  take  refuge  in  the  Soledade 

And  on  the  19th  of  February  Joanna  Angelica,  the  nun 
martyr,  rose  to  heaven,  leaving  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador 
da  Bahia,  the  cause  of  the  independence  of  Brazil  consecrat- 
ed with  the  blood  of  a  virgin  spouse  of  Christ. 

VOL.    I 

OF    FBBIl.X7-A.Il."5r 


Angelo  de  Siqueira,  an  apostolic  missionary,  was  a 
native  of  S.  Paulo,  where  he  was  born  and  for  many 
years  devoted  himself  to  the  service  of  God  and  mankind 
in  the  eighteenth   century. 

Little  is  known  of  his  humble,  austere,  and  most  mod- 
est life. 

Being  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  obtaining 
the  protection  of  Captain  Antonio  Rabello,  who  gave  him 
the  necessary  ground,  Angelo  de  Siqueira,  in  order  to 
promote  devotion  to  the  Most  Holy  Virgin,  under  the 
invocation  of  Nossa  Senhora  da  Lapa,  built  a  house  for 
a  seminary  to  receive  young  aspirants  to  the  priesthood. 
The  friar  bishop,  Don  Antonio  do  Desterro,  on  the  2d  of 
Felruary,    1751,   granted  leave  for  the  execution  of  tho 

project^    and    permission  to  teach  chant,  choir  ceremo- 
nies, spiritual  exercises,  Latin,  and  very  little  else. 

The  foundation  stone  of  the  building  was  laid  on  the 
20th  of  February,  1751;  it  was  built  entirely  from  the 
proceeds  of  donations  obtained  by  the  indefatigable  An- 
gelo  de  Siqueira. 

The  Lapa  seminary  became  very  prosperous.  Some  of 
the  seminarists  became  men  of  note:  Father  Elias,  Dr. 
Goulao,  Canon  Luiz  Gon^alves,  Joao  Manso,  and  others. 
Its  prosperity,  however,  and  the  very  existence  of  the 
institution  did  not  exceed  half  a  century. 

In  1808,  the  Carmelite  convent  being  connected  by  a 
gallery  to  the  house  of  the  viceroy  for  the  accommodation 
of  the  Portuguese  royal  family  which  came  to  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  the  Carmelites  in  1811  went  to,  and  to  this 
day  occupy,  the  old  seminary  at  the  Lapa. 

Friar  Angelo  de  Siqueira,  soon  after  founding  his  cher- 
ished seminary,  went  to  Portugal,  and  was  in  Lisbon  in 
1755,  for  he  then  preached  there  penitence  sermons  to 
allay  divine  justice,  which  he  announced  as  chastizing 
the  sins  and  the  corruption  of  the  people,  with  the  hor- 
rors of  the  earthquake  of  the  1st  of  November  of  that 

Friar  Angelo  de  Siqueira  wrote:  A  Boticapreciosaou 
thesouro  precioso  da  Lapa  ;  printed  in  Lisbon  in  the 
printing  office  of  Miguel  Rodrigues  in  1756. 

0  penitento  arrependido  e  flel  companheiro  para  in- 

struir  uma  alma  devota  e  arrependida,  fazendo  confissdo 

geral  com  varios  soliloquios  para  antes  e  depots  da  com* 

.  munhdo ;  printed  in  Lisbon  in  the  printing  office  of  Costa, 

and  in  Coimbra  in  that  of  Pedro  Ferreira  in  1757. 



Jos6  Pereira  Rebougas  was  born  in  the  town,  afterwards 
city  of  Maragogipe,  province  of  Bahia,  on  the  2d  of 
January,  1789.  He  was  the  legitimate  son  of  Gaspar  Pe- 
reira Rebou^as  and  Donna  Rita  Bazilia,  a  happy  pair 
who  gave  to  their  country  three  citizens,  models  of 
education,  ardent  patriots,  and  highly  intelligent. 

Jos6  Rebou^as  was  studying  humanities,  commencing 
with  Latin,  which  he  learnt  in  three  years.  But  acquir- 
ing with  great  facility  some  other  preparatory  stud- 
dies,  he  abandoned  letters  to  devote  himself  entirely  to 
music,  which  he  passionately  cultivated,  becoming  a  vio« 
linist  of  great  merit. 

As  he  was  completely  absorbed  by  the  study  of  the 
art    of  his  predilection,  in  a  short  time  there  was  no 

-  230  — 
unconquered  difficulty  of  musical  execution  on  his  violin, 
an  instrument  of  the  most  delicate  secrets. 

He  only  wanted  a  good  school. 

Jos6  Rebougas  was  as  much  esteemed  for  his  educa- 
tion   and  moral  gifts  as  for  his  merit  as  an  artist. 

He  created' and  organized  the  band  of  the  second  regi- 
ment of  militia  of  the  city  of  S.  Salvador,  and  led  it 
during  the  governorship  of  the  Counts  of  Arcos,  and  of 
Palmas,  and  even  after  these. 

In  1822  when  the  strife  broke  out  between  General 
Madeira  with  the  Portuguese  troops,  and  the  militia  corps 
and  patriots  of  Bahia,  who  being  beaten  in  the  city,  re- 
tired on  the  21st  of  February,  to  1822,  the  interior,  Jos6  Re- 
bougas  gave  up  music  to  take  his  post  of  honor  among  the 
heroes  of  Cachoeira,  where  he  was  almost  immediately 
charged  with  the  guard  of  a  store  of  provisions  and 

The  combats  commenced  shortly  after.  Jos6  Rebougas 
was  at  the  side  of  his  two  brothers,  who  were  devot- 
ed to  the  independence  of  their  mother  country.  He 
enlisted  in  the  heroic  army  and  fought  gallantly  tQl 
the  glorious  2d  of  July,  1823,  on  which  day  Madeira 
evacuated  the  city  and  the  patriotic  army  entered  it,  vic- 
toriously hoisting  the  auri-verd  flag. 

The  artist  then  laid  aside  his  musket  and  again  took  up 
his  violin. 

In  1829  the  love  of  his  beautiful  art,  and  the  laudable 
ambition  of  improvement  took  him  to  Europe.  He  landed 
at  Havre,  and  went  to  Paris,  where  he  studied  a  year  and 
a  half  in  the  musical  conservatory,  hearing  at  the  same 
time  in  the  theatres,  Sontag,  Malibran,  Pasta,  Lablache 
and  other  wonders  of  the  day. 

From  France  he  passed  over  to  Italy  and  there  saw  the 


—  231  - 

principal  cities;  as  an  artist  he  wished  to  learn.  In  Bo- 
logna he  remained  three  years,  attending  the  musical  aca- 
demy, passing  examinations,  obtaining  at  last  an  honorable 

He  was  the  first  Brazilian  who,  for  love  of  the  musical 
art  went  to  Europe  to  study  and  to  conscientiously  cul- 
tivate it. 

He  returned  to  his  beloved  Bahia  an  enlightened  musi- 
cian and  master ;  but  Bahia  could  offer  him  no  field  where, 
in  great  compositions,  he  could  expand  his  musical  talents. 

Jos6  Rebou^as  became  celebrated  as  a  surprising,  a 
masterly,  and  an  inspired  violinist. 

As  a  composer,  who  became  remarkable  for  his  pro- 
found knowledge  of  the  art,  he  did  much  less  than  he 
could  have  done,  if  he  had  flourished  in  Italy  or  in  France. 

He  belonged  much  more  to  the  Italian  than  to  the  Ger- 
man school.  If,  to  the  attractive  transports,  more  co- 
quettish than  serious,  of  Donizetti  and  Bellini  and  even  of 
the  immortal  Rossini  who  preceded  the  other  two,  he  had 
preferred  the  path  followed  by  Haydn,  Mozart  and  other 
masters,  he  would  have  found  in  the  majesty  of  art,  in 
sacred  music,  a  more  opportune  and  frank  revelation  of 
his  genius,  which  aspired  to,  but  did  not  find  in  Bahia, 
the  opera-house  which  so  enraptured  him  in  France  and 

Notwithstanding,  Jos6  Rebougas  left  compositions  of 
great  merit,  which  ought  to  be  remembered. 

Among   many   others  which  he  scattered  profusely, 
and  which  in  his  time  were  much  prized,  though  less  im- 
portant, the  following  were  much  applauded  ; 
An  ouverture^  in  Bologna,  1832 ; 
Two  ouvertures,  in  Bologna,  1833 ; 
Three  ouvertures,  in  Bahia,  1834 ; 

—  232  — 

The  magnificaty  in  Bahia,  1835 ; 

Variations  on  the  motive  of  the  air  of  the  Estragniera, 
for  the  violin,  in  Bahia,  1836 ; 

Constitutional  hymn,  and  against  the  republican  revolt 
of  the  city  of  S.  Salvador,  in  Bahia,  1837  ; 

Cansonets,  romances,  lundus,  martial  marches,  in  great 

Jos6  Pereira  Rebougas,  musical  genius,  did  not  ap- 
pear greater  because  it  was  only  the  size  of  the  times 
in  which  he  lived,  in  his  mother  country. 

If  any  thing  is  to  be  deplored  and  lamented,  on  exam- 
ining his  great  musical  intelligence  which  produced  so 
little,  it  is  that,  being  of  a  religious  turn  of  mind 
like  his  parents  and  his  illustrious  brothers,  he  should  not 
have  cultivated  sacred  music. 

Nevertheless,  his  name  as  an  artist,  as  a  patriot,  and 
as  an  honorable  man,  is  worthy  of  his  parents,  and  of 
his  brothers,  and  deserves  the  gratitude  of  Brazil  and 
a  record  in  national  history. 

xxrc   or    febuxtah^z- 


Antonio  Francisco  Dutra  e  Mello  was  born  the  city  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  on  the  8th  of  August,  1823 ;  When 
yet  very  yoyng,  he  lost  his  father,  who  bore  the  same 
name,  and  was  left  in  great  poverty,  and  confided  to  the 
tender  love  of  his  sad  widowed  mother,  Donna  Antbnia 
Rosa  de  Jesus  Dutra. 

But  to  a  mothers  love  God  gives  the  charm  of  devotion 
and  loftiness  in  sacrifices  ;  poor  and  laborious,  but  honest 
and  sensible.  Donna  Antonia  with  great  toil  and  economy 
maintained,  though  very  poorly,  her  children,  for  her 
husband  had  left  her  others  besides  Antonio  Francisco 
Dutra  e  Mello,  and  to  this  one,  the  eldest,  she  herself,  for 
want  of  means,  gave  primary  education. 

YOl.  I  30 

—  284  - 

Dutra  6  Mello  received  from  his  mother  education  and 
the  example  of  virtue,  and  perhaps,  from  the  mourning 
and  the  tears  of  the  widow,  that  deep  sadness  which  was 
his  constant  companion  through  his  short  life. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  say  how  that  loving  mother 
multiplied  the  resources  she  drew  from  her  honest  toil, 
and  from  the  privations  she  imposed  on  herself.  How  that 
son,  still  so  young,  to  an  extraordinary  talent  and  an 
intense  application  to  his  studies,  joined  a  grave  and  serious 
conduct,  only  found  at  a  more  mature  age.  It  is,  however^ 
certain  that  Dutra  e  Mello  succeeded  in  matriculating  in 
the  school  of  elementary  instruction  of  Captain  Januario, 
where  he  completed,  in  his  seventeenth  year,  the  study  of 
algebra,  geometry,  trigonometry,  geography,  chronology 
and  history,  Portuguese  grammar  and  literature,  the 
Latin,  French,  and  English  languages,  religion,  philosophy 
and  rhetoric,  being  always  considered  the  first  student  o{ 
the  school. 

Captain  Januario,  who  had  been  for  some  time  his  protec- 
tor, and  some  other  friends,  encouraged  young  Dutra  e 
Mello  to  follow  either  medicine  or  law  as  a  career.  He 
however  thanked  them,  declined  their  generous  offers,  and 
devoted  himself  to  private  tuition,  being  immediately 
employed  in  the  school,  which  he  had  left. 

His  friends  tried  to  ascertain  the  reasons  for  his  i^ingular 
refusal,  and  at  last  discovered  that  Dutra  e  Mello  was 
paying  a  sacred  debt  to  his  beloved  mother,  saving  h'er 
from  "^ incessant  work  and  assisting  her  to  maintain  the 

Dutra  e  Mello,  however,  did  not  stop  with  his  studies, 
but  in  his  leisure  hours  he  learnt  Greek  and  Hebrew,  and 
was  studying  Sanscrit ;  he  also  cultivated  physical  sciences 
and  astronomy.  He  would  have  become  a  learned  scholar : 

His  spirit,  however,  was  burning  with  a  brilliant  and 
irresistible  flame  which  consumed  his  nights  in  long  and 
constant  vigils :  Dutra  e  Mello  had  been  born  a  poet  and 
poetry  enraptured  him. 

During  the  day  he  worked  for  his  mother  and  his  family, 
some  leisure  hours  belonged  to  his  severe  studies ;  night  he 
devoted  to  the  culture  of  poetry,  to  the  flights  of  his 
imagination,  writing  poetry,  not  hackneyed  nor  of  exag- 
erated  or  extravagant  transports,  but  full  of  philosophy, 
and  sentiment,  and  replete  with  melancholy. 

Porto  Alegre  (now  Baron  of  Santo  Angelo)  said  of  Dutra 
e  Mello  :  <  His  poetry  appears  to  have  been  written  by  him 
sitting  on  his  coffin  ;  they  breathe  the  pain  of  mourning, 
and  the  breath  of  the  tomb  ;  they  are  veiled  in  sorrow, 
like  him  in  his  winding  sheet.  > 

Entirely  devoted  to  tuition,  to  study,  and  to  solitude, 
Dutra  e  Mello  only  had  intercourse  with  a  few  learned 
and  literary  men  and  only  attended  literary  societies.  In 
Rio  de  Janeiro  he  belonged  to  the  following  : 

Instrvtcgdq  Elementar,  Atkeneu  Fluminense,  4-cademia 
Brazileira,  AtuxnliadoradalndicstriaNacionaly  and  Ins- 
tituto  Historico  e  Geographico  Brasileiro,  besides  which 
he  was  a  corresfonding  memhev  of  the  Polytechnic  of  PaHs. 
Pale  and  melancholy,  thin  and  meditative,  he  stooped' 
at  twenty  years  of  age,  as  if  searchinig  for  his  sepulchre. 
He  did  not  long  search  for  it.  Antonio  Francisco  Dutra 
e  Mello  died  at  the  age  of  twenty-two,  on  the  22d  of 
February,  1846. 

Owing  to  his  singular  virtues  he  might  be  likened  to 
an  angel,  he  was  a  most  devoted  son  and  brother,  his 
conduct  was  irreprehensible,  he  was  mild  and  faithful  to  his 
friends,  and  incapable  of  the  slightest  shade  of  envy.  Porto 
Alegre  wrote  his  eulogy,  and  commenced  saying :  the  earth 

-  286  - 

received  the  virgin  body  of  Dutra  e  Mello,  and  concluded 
with  these  words  :  this  angel,  born  in  poverty,  was 
educated  in  orphanage. 

The  following  lines,  chosen  at  random,  from  his  Hymno 
d  Noitet  are  of  Dutra  e  Mello  : 

Tu  es,  oh  dia,  o  predilecto  encanto 

Da  natureza  inteira  ; 
Todos  amao  colher  as  aureas  flAres 
Que  as  rodas  do  teu  carro  a  terra  lauQao 
Para  o  teu  rutilar  volvem-se  os  olhos 
E  ninguem  busca  a  noite  !  0  somno  os  prende^ 
Emquanto  vagaroso  vai  seu  plaustro 
As  Campinas  do  c6o  placido  arando, 
Mas  tu  me  is  sempre  deleitosa  e  cars, 
Oh !  noite  melancolica  I  a  minha  alma 
Attractiyos  em  ti  descobre  anciosa 
Nao  amo  o  perylampo  a  luz  do  dia 
Nem  as  aves  da  morte  entao  solu^ao. 

Thou  art,  oh  day,  the  favorite  charm  of  all  nature :  all  lore  to 
cull  the  golden  flowers  which  the  wheels  of  thy  chiarriot  scatter 
on  the  earth ;  all  eyes  turn  to  thy  brightness  and  no  one  seeks  night! 
Sl^ep  arrests  them,whilst  slowly  goes  his  car  the  fields  of  heaven  calmly 
ploughing,  i>ut  thou  art  always  dear  and  pleasant.  Oh  I  melancholy 
night!  my  soul  in  thee  attractiveness  always  finds.  The  fire-fly  loves 
not  the  light  of  day,  nor  do  the  birds  of  death  then  sigh. 

or  FEBrnxjAinr 


Now  rises  the  majestic  figure  of  one  of  the  three  great 

Martin  Francisco  Ribeiro  de  Andrada  was  born  in  1766 
in  the  same  nest  whence  came  the  eagles  Jos^  Bonifacio 
and  Antonio  Carlos.  (See  the  article  of  the  6th  of  April  to 
avoid  repetitions). 

His  parents  were  rich  and  were  able  to  cultivate  his  fine 

Martin  Francisco  took  a  degree  in  mathematics  at  the 
Uniyersity  of  Coimbra,  and  iji  1800  he  had  scientific  employ- 
ment with  his  brother  Jos^  Bonifacio  and  Lieutenant- 
General  Napion. 

On  returning  to  S.  Paulo,  his  native  province,  he  in 
twenty  years  of  a  quiet  and  happy  life,  sometimes  in  retire- 

-  288  — 

ment  absorbed  in  severe  studies  of  letters  and  sciences, 
sometimes  in  scientific  journeys,  examined  and  registered 
in  manuscripts  the  natural,  and  especially  the  mineral- 
ogical  riches  of  the  province. 

In  1821  he  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  provisional 
government  of  S.  Paulo,  and,  a  patriot,  starts  At  the  news 
of  the  decree  of  the  29th  of  September,  fulminated  by  the 
Lisbon  cdrtes  against  Brazil,  and  on  receiving  the  fraternal 
invitation  from  Rio  de  Janeiro,  contributed  in  a  remarkable 
manner  towards  the  representation  which,  on  the  24th  of 
that  month,  the  provisional  government  sent  to  the  prince 
regent  Don  Pedro  begging  him  to  remain  in  Brazil. 

On  the  9th  of  January  1822  Don  Pedro  pronounced  the 
—  /  remain — the  first  words  of  the  revolution  of  the  inde- 
pendence of  Brazil.  On  the  16th  3os&  Bonifacio,  who  had 
just  arrived  from  S.  Paulo,  was  appointed  minister  for  home 
and  for  foreign  afiairs. 

In  the  meantime  an  adverse  influence  prevails  in  S. 
Paulo  ;  Martin  Francisco  is  expelled  from  the  provisional 
government  and  is  taken  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  as  a  prisoner. 
Shortly  after,  on  the  4th  of  July,  1822,  he  readily  accepted 
office  as  minister  of  finance  in  the  glorious  ministry  of  the 

Rigid  economy,  activity,  zeal,  probity  which  calVimny 
never  dared  to  attack,  a.  strict  check  on  the  expenses,  able 
recourse  to  a  loan  and  to  patriotic  subscriptions,  put  in 
order  and  systematized  the  finances,  and  furnished  capital 
to  revolutionized  Brazil. 

The  independence  was  proclaimed  and  Martin  Francisco 
was  elected  a  deputy  to  the  Brazilian  constituinte  assembly 
by  the  province  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

On  the  17th  of  July,  1823,  the  Andrada  Qiinistry  retired 
owing  to  the  opposition  of  the  constituinte. 

-  239  - 

In  November  of  the  same  year  the  antagonism  between 
Brazilians  and  Portuguese  was  at  its  height .  Daniel  Pam- 
plona, the  writer  of  an  article  in  a  newspaper,  having  been 
beaten  by  some  Portuguese  officers  in  the  service  of  Brazil, 
complained  to  the  constituinte:  Martin  Frantisco  made 
a  speech  which  electrified  the  people.  Antonio  Carlos, 
Montezuma,  and  others  spoke  in  the  s^me  sense;  the 
position  of  affairs  became  worse,  and  the  Emperor  Don 
Pedro  I  disastrously  and  impolitically  dissolved  the  consti- 
tuinte, the  house  being  surrounded  by  artillery  and  by 
numerous  troops  on  the  12th  of  November. 

Martin  Francisco  being  arrested,  with  other  deputies,  at 
the  door  of  the  constituinte,  was,  with  his  two  brothers, 
Montezuma,  Rocha  and  others  exiled  to  Europe. 

The  exiled  patriots  were  prosecuted,  the  evidence  brought 
against  them  being  the  periodical,  Tamago,  the  speeches 
of  the  Andradas  in  the  constituinte,  and  even  letters 
written  by  them  to  their  families  !...  In  1828  they  were 
to  be  tried  for  the  crime  of  sedition;  Martin  Fran»;isco  and 
Antonio  Carlos  return  from  Europe,  present  their  defence, 
and  are  absolved  by  the  Relagdo ;  Martin  Francisco  leaves 
the  fortress  of  Cobras  island,  where  he  had  been  impris- 
oned, to  be  informed  shortly  after  that  he  had  been 
elected  a  deputy  to  the  second  legislature  by  the  province 
of  Minas  Geraes,  which  was  then  the  great  focus  of  liberal 

From  1829  forward  he  opposed  the  cabinet  with  moder- 
ation but  energetically ;  in  1839  he  refused  to  enter  the 

After  the  abdication  of  Don  Pedro  1,  he  again  refused 
oflBce  under  the  regency,  and  in  parliament  he  vigorously 
opposed  the  ministry  of  Father  Feijd  and  of  Vasconcellos, 
and  those  that   followed,  representing  the  liberal  party 

-  240  - 
victorious,  but  sensible  and  moderate,  after  the  events  of 
the  6th  of  April,  1831. 

The  car(imurti,  or  restoration  party,  had  been  reorgan- 
ised since  1^33,  and  it  wis  then  said  that  Josd  Bonifacio 
was  its  soul  ^nd  counselor,  he  who  was  the  guardian 
of  the  Emperor  and  his  august  sisters,  then  minors.    • 

Martin  Francisco  eloquently  defended  his  brother  in  par- 

In  the  third  legislature,  though  not  proscribed  like  Aris- 
tides,  he  was  forgotten  and  set  aside  by  the  political  party 
in  power,  patriotic  though  it  was. 

This  party  however  wasted  itself  in  sacrifices  and  in  dis- 
cussions ;  the  death  of  the  ex-emperor  Don  Pedro  I  in  Por- 
tugal extinguished  the  powerful  party  which  had  been 
united  and  compact  to  resist  the  plans  of  restoration. 

In  1836  Yasconcellos  in  the  chamber  declared  himself  a 
contrite  sinner,  proclaimed  the  necessity  of  regress,  and 
raising  Lazarus  from  the  grave,  called  for  the  regular 
political  reorganization  of  the  conservative  party. 

In  1837  Vasconcellos  leader  of  the  dead,  but  ressuscita- 
ted,  party  triumphed  on  the  19th  of  September. 

In  1838  Martin  Francisco  and  Antonio  Carlos,  who  h^d 
been  elected  deputies  to  the  fourth  legislature  by  the  pro- 
vinc?  of  S.  Paulo,  supported  the  Vasconcellos  cabinet  and 
gave  it  prestige  and  force ;  in  the  following  year,  howe- 
ver, they  opposed  the  ministry  and  in  1840  put  themselves 
at  the  head  of  those  who  insisted  on  the  majority  of  the  em- 
peror Don  Pedro. 

On  the  22d  of  July  two  decrees  were  read  in  the  chamber, 
the  first  communicating  that  senator  Vasconcellos  had  been 
named  minister  of  the  empire,  and  the  second,  signed  by 
this  minister,  adjourning  the  general  assembly. 

Maftin  Francisco,    Antonio  Carlos,  with  other  liberal 

deputiesy  went  to  the  house  of  the  Senate,  amidst  the  crowd 
who  cheered  them,  joined  the  senators  who  supported  the 
declaration  of  the  Emperor's  majority,  and  sent  a  deputa- 
tion to  the  Emperor,  to  explain  the  dangers  of  the  nation, 
and  begging  him  to  assume  the  reins  of  government. 

The  regent  of  the  empire,  Pedro  de  Araujo  Lima,  after- 
guards viscount  and  marquis  of  Olinda,  in  view  of  the  ge- 
neral feeling,  receded,  and  after  going  to  the  Emperor, 
convoked  for  the  next  day  (23rd  of  July)  the  general  assem- 
bly which  immediately  voted  the  Emperor  of  age ;  and 
Don  Pedro  II  arriving  at  the  house  of  the  Senate  at  half 
past  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  took  the  oath  prescri- 
bed by  the  constitution. 

On  the  24th  of  July  the  Emperor  formed  his  first  minis- 
try, in  which  Martin  Francisco  held  the  office  of  minister 
of  finance. 

This  cabinet  lasted  eight  months. 

In  1841  Martin  Francisco  strongly  opposed,  in  the  cham- 
ber, the  cabinet  which  had  been  organized  in  March,  and 
afterwards  attacked  it  still  more  ardently  in  the  provincial 
assembly  of  S.  Paulo,  protesting  against  the  laws  of  the 
3rd  of  December,  and  of  the  council  of  State. 

In  1842  he  had  to  shew  his  last  political  vexations  in 
consequence  of  the  liberal  revolt  of  S.  Paulo  and  Minas 

Physically  depressed,  though  his  intelligence  preserved 
all  its  brightness,  Martin  Francisco  Ribeiro  de  Andrada 
died  in  Santos  on  the  23rd  of  February,  1844. 

He  was  a  dinguished  orator,  elegant  and  correct,  his  habits 
were  severe  and  his  probity  was  unexcelled.  He  was  twice 
minister,  he  was  a  deputy  to  the  Brazilian  constituirUe,  and 
to  the  general  assembly  in  two  legislatures,   and  died  a 

TOL.  1  31 

—  242- 
chevalier  af  the  order  of  Christ,  a  decoration  which  he  had 
received  in  colonial  times. 

Having  been  robbed  from  science  by  politics,  he  left  but 
the  few  following  published  works : 

Manical  de  mineralogia,  ouesbogo  do  reino  mineral,  dis- 
posto  segimdo  a  analyse  chimica  de  M.  Farher,  etc.  Trans- 
lated into  Portuguese.  Lisbon,  Jo5o  Procopio  Ferreirada. 
Silva,  1799,  4%  2  vols  with  plates. 

Traciado  sobre  o  Canamo,  translated  from  the  French  of 
Mr.  Morcandier,  Lisbon,  1799,  8vs. 

Diario  de  uma  viagem  mineralogica  pela  provincia  de 
S.  Paulo  em  1505.  Published  in  the  three  monthly  Re- 
view of  the  Historical  and  Geographical  Institute,  vol  IX, 
pag.  527. 

3:1X3:  V    OF     FBBDBIXJARTZ- 



Francisco  Cordeiro  da  Silva  Torres  e  Alvim,  was  born  at 
the  quinta  of  Olaia,  district  of  the  town  of  Oureos,  in  the 
Kingdom  of  Portugal,  on  the  24th  of  February  1775 ;  he 
was  the  second  son  of  Antonio  de  Souza  Mello  e  Alvim  and 
of  his  wifo  Donna  Maria  Barboza  da  Silva  Torres. 

When  seventeen  years  old  having  completed  in  a  bril- 
liant manner  the  course  of  humanities,  Francisco  Cordeiro 
went  to  Lisbon,  and  having  passed  his  examinations,  he 
enlisted  as  a  naval  cadet  and  entered  at  the  naval  school 
in  1797;  after  going  through  the  course  of  the  academy 
with  honors,  and  being  then  a  sub-lieutenant,  he  petitio- 

—  244  - 

ned  to  attended  the  military  school  of  fortification,  artil- 
lery, and  drawing,  and  obtained  the  first  prize  every  year. 

At  the  request  of  all  the  professors,  who  hoped  to  have 
him  as  a  companion  in  tuition,  government  in  1804,  trans- 
ferred him  to  the  corps  of  engineers. 

On  finishing  the  course  of  engineering,  Francisco  Cordeiro 
was  employed  in  the  water  works  of  the  river  Tejo  which 
had  overflown  its  banks  between  Santarem  and  Vallada ; 
he  had  directed  these  hydraulic  works  with  great  skill  for 
upwards  of  a  year,  when,  on  the  storny  night  of  the  25th 
of  November,  1807,  his  house  was  suddenly  invaded  by  a 
multitude  of  French  soldiers  who  were  advancing  on 

Not  wishing  to  remain  in  Portugal  under  the  dominion 
of  the  invaders,  he,  a  few  weeks  after,  at  the  Sodr6  quay, 
in  Lisbon,  embarked  in  a  boat,  with  a  lady,  whom  he  had 
married  the  day  previous,  descended  the  river  six  leagues, 
crossed  the  line  of  gunboats  that  watched  and  defended 
the  entrance  of  the  port,  and  at  day  break  got  on  board  the 
Bristish  frigate  iVt/mp/i.  Shortly  after  he  went  to  England, 
and  thence  to  Brazil,  arriving  in  Riode  Janeiro  on  the  12th 
of  May,  1809. 

Having  been  prometed  to  the  rank  of  captain,  and  being 
employed  in  the  service  of  the  royal  household,  he  was  in 
1811  appointed  professor  in  the  military  school,  and  was 
charged  with  preparing  the  compendiums  for  that  school, 
which  had  been  created  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  this  he  readily 
did,  compiling  from  the  best  authors. 

In  1813  he  directed  the  repairs  and  the  improvements  of 
the  hydraulic  works,  left  by  the  jesuits,of  the  estate  of  Santa 
Cruz,  afterwards  the  Maracanan  aqueduct,  and  the  erec- 
tion of  the  fauntain  in  the  campo  de  Sant*Anna  (prasa  da 


Acclamagao) ;  in  the  old  city  the  quay  of  the  exchange,  and 
also  inspected  the  works  of  the  custom  house. 

In  1822  he  adhered  to  the  cause  of  the  independence  of 
Brazil,  and,  in  the  service  ofthe  new  empire,  he  was  em- 
ployed on  the  fortifications  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay, 
from  Guaratiba  as  far  as  the  Gavea ;  on  the  24th  of  Decem- 
ber he  was  appointed  inspector  general  ofthe  sinking  fund 
department,  and  on  the  following  year  he  entered  the  cabi- 
net as  minister  of  war,  but  found  tha  the  was  out  of  his  ele- 
ment ;  from  his  first  day  of  office  he  became  discouraged, 
and  at  the  end  of  a  few  more  obtained  the  dismissal  for 
which  he  had  been  insisting. 

In  1830  he  administered  the  works  of  the  Pat?wna  canal 
and  of  the  river  Guandu,  and  left  proofs  of  his  great  abili- 
ties in  opinions  given  respecting  machinery  and  inventions, 
in  the  plan  for  the  dock  in  the  isle  of  Cobras,  in  the  plan 
for  the  house  of  correction  of  the  capital,  in  the  inspection 
of  the  naval  arsenal,  and  in  the  work  which  he  wrote  for 
the  reorganization  of  the  Military  School. 

He  had  gradually  risen  in  rank,  and  in  1833,  at  his  own 
request,  he  was  put  on  the  half  pay  list  with  the  rank  of 
field  marshal,  and  in  1846  he  was  superamuated  in  the  office 
which  he  held  in  the  sinking  fund  department. 

The  Emperor,  on  being  declared  of  age  in  1840, 
appointed  him  major-domo  to  the  princesses,  and  in  the 
following  year  named  him  a  member  of  the  Council  of 
State  which  was  then  organized,  having  previously 
made  him  a  grand  dignitary  of  the  Imperial  Order  of  the 
Rose,  and  creating  him  afterwards,  in  1854,  Viscount 
of  Jerumirim. 

This  illustrious  citizen  died  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro on  the  8th  of  May,  1856,  in  the  eighty-first  year  of 
his  age. 

—  246  — 

Besides  being  a  grand  dignitary  of  the  Imperial  Order 
of  the  Rose,  he  was  an  officer  of  that  of  the  Cross,  and 
a  chevalier  of  that  of  S.  Bento  de  Aviz. 

He  was  honorary  president  of  the  Society  for  the  Pro- 
motion of  National  Industry,  and  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  Historical  and  Geographical  Institute  of  Brazil. 

The  Viscount  of  Jerumirim  was  one  of  the  most  illus- 
trious and  most  modest  men  of  his  time. 

He  left  many  important  manuscripts  on  systems  of 
weights  and  measures,  general  system  of  light-houses, 
on  matters  of  financial  administration,  and  many  others 
on  different  subjects. 

:K.:Er^  of"2- 


The  day  and  month  are  very  uncertain,  but  there 
is  no  doubt  as  to  the  year  in  which  we  register  the 
name  of  this  Portuguese  nobleman,  who  is  a  Brazilian 
from  the  services  rendered  to  the  capitania  of  Pernam- 
buco,  with  which  he  became  intimately  connected, 
leaving  there  his  name  perpetuated  by  a  great  number 
of  children,  more  than  one  of  whom  immortalized  his 
name  by  heroic  exploits. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  arrived  in  Pernambuco  in 
the  year  1535  accompanied  by  his  sister  Donna  Brites, 
wife  of  the  donee  Duarte  Coelho,  who  had  arrived  be- 
fore to  lay  the  foundations  of  his  new  colony. 

The  CaheteSy  after  being  routed  in  1535,  returned  more 
than  onco  to  wage  war  against   the  conquerors,  and  at 

the  end  of  1547  they  appeared  menacingly  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Olinda  and   before   Iguarassu. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  liked  Brazil  so  much  that 
he  resolved  on  remaining.  In  the  first  years  of  the  existence 
of  the  capitania  of  Pernambuco  he  distinguished  him- 
self as  a  fortunate  vanquisher  of  Indians.  He  is  said  to 
have  lost  an  eye  in  some  combat;  but  on  the  2dst  of  Jan- 
uary, 1548,  he  had  the  misfortune  to  fall  a  prisoner 
into  the  hands  of  the  savages,  who  towards  the  end 
of  1547  attacked  the  young  colonies  of  Pernambuco.  He 
was  condemned  to  the  horrible  sacrifice  of  anthropo- 

It  is  to  be  believed  that  it  was  not  into  the  hands 
of  the  fierce  CaheUs  that  he  fell,  but  into  those  of  some 
warlike  but  less  cruel  tribe,  brought  by  those  from 
the  interior  as  allies;  for  record  says  that  the  daughter  of 
Arco  Verde,  morubixabay  or  chief  of  the  vanquishers, 
falling  in  love  with  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque,  succeed- 
ed in  obtaining  from  her  father,  that  he  who  was  con- 
demned to  minister  to  the  enjoyments  of  anthropophagy 
in  a  horrible  bapquet  of  revenge,  should  be  given  to  her 
as  a  cherished  consort. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  being  the  object  of  the  love, 
and  king  of  the  heart,  of  the  enamoured  daughter  oiArco 
Verde,  governed  through  her  the  savage  tribe,  and  convert- 
ed her  to  Christianity,  she  receiving  at  the  baptismal 
font  the  name  of  Maria  do  Espirito  Santo.  He  blessed  and 
legitimated  tho  first  fruit  of  his  union,  and  gave  it  the 
name  of  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  (he  who  in  1599  con- 
quered Rio  Grande  do  Norte  and  in  1614  vanquished  the 
French  in  Maranhao),  and  finally,  he  settled  Arco  Verde 
and  his  tribe  in  the  neighborhood  of  Olinda,  this  chief 
becoming  a  valuable  ally  of  the  Portuguese. 

Being  inconstant  and  sensual  Jeronymo  de  Albuquer- 
que multiplied  his  love  intrigues  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
bring  on  himself  the  warnings,  and  the  censure  of  the 
queen  Donna  Gatharina,  regent  of  the  kingdom  during 
the  minority  of  Don  Sebastiao,  who,  at  last,  informing 
him  of  the  departure  of  Don  Christovao  de  Mello  for 
Pernambuco,  advised  him  to  take  for  his  legitimate  wife 
one  of  the  daughters  of  that  nobleman. 

Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  obeyed  the  queen  with  pleas- 
ure, and  although  advanced  in  age,  had  by  her  eleven 
children,  leaving  altogether  twenty-four  children,  includ- 
ing the  legitimate  ones,  some  half-caste  like  the  hero, 
son  of  Maria  do  Espirito-Santo,  the  enamoured  Indian  girl 
who  saved  his  life,  and  others  born  of  Portuguese  women, 
the  whole  of  which  he,  at  least,  legitimated. 

On  the  death  of  Duarte  Coelho  in  1554  Jeronymo  de 
Albuquerque  became  the  protector  of  his  widowed  sister 
against  the  Cahetis,  who  returned  and  fiercely  attacked 
the  capitania. 

Old  and  broken  down  by  the  weight  of  services  rendered 
in  many  and  important  combats,  the  progenitor  of  heroes, 
a  Brazilian  from  the  glory,  the  love,  and  the  children 
which  he  left  to  Brazil,  Jjeronymo  de  Albuquerque  died 
in  Olinda  on  the  25th  of  February,  1594,  being  about 
eighty  years  of  age. 

VOL.  I  32 

:k.^:^^x    of   FEBuxj-A-ii^sr 


— ♦^^ 

Diogo  Pinheiro  Camarao  was  of  the  pure  Brazilian  In- 
dian race,  and  a  nephew  of  the  famous  Don  Antonio  Fe- 
lippe  CamarSo.  He  either  was  a  native  of  Rio  Grande  do 
Norte,  or  was  bom  in  Pernambuco,  as  Abreu  Lima  thinks, 
and  says   in  a  valuable  manuscript. 

It  is  probable  that  he  came  into  the  world  in  the  midst 
of  the  Catholic  community,  to  which  his  uncle  belonged 
since  boyhood.  His  education  was  very  limited,  and  the 
year  in  which  he  commenced  to  serve  in  the  war  against 
the  Dutch  in  Brazil  is  uncertain  ;  but  it  is  positive  that 
since  1645  he  served  with  distinction  and  gallantry, 
belonging  to  the  corps  of  Indians  commanded  by  Don  An- 
tonio, the  heroic  —  Poty — of  the  savages.  In  1648  he 
did  wonders  in  the  first  battle  of  the  Guararapes. 

Such  was  the  reputation  for  bravery  of  Diogo  Pinheiro, 

that  on  the  death,  at  the  end  of  the  year,  of  Don  An- 
tonio Felippe  CamarSo,  the  governor  of  the  Indians,  he 
received  the  appointment  of  commander  of  the  regiment 
which  his  uncle  had  organized,  and  commanded. 

In  the  following  year  he  greatly  distinguished  himself 
in  the  second  battle  of  the  Guararapes,  contributing  much 
to  the  result  with  his  Indians,  who  rivalled  in  courage 
the  black  men  of  Henrique  Dias. 

From  that  celebrated  day  Diogo  Pinheiro  CamarSo  was 
numbered  among  the  most  intrepid  and  able  chiefs. 

From  1649  to  1654  he  still  further  illustrated  his  name 
in  several  combats,  from  which  he  never  retreated  van- 
quished, though  he  was  sometimes  considered  impetuous 
and  imprudent  owing  to  his  daring  which  never  led  him  to 
calculate  either  on  the  number  or  the  favorable  position  of 
the  enemy's  forces.  At  the  attack  and  taking  of  the  fort 
of  Barreto  he  confirmed  his  glory  as  a  chief  and  as  a  brave 
and  fearless  soldier. 

The  greatest  praise  was  lavished  on  Diogo  Pinheiro  Oa- 
marao  by  his  companions  and  fellow  combatants,  who 
proclaimed  him  the  worthy  successor  of  his  uncle,  whose 
fame  he  always  maintained. 

The  day  of  the  death  of  Diogo  Pinheiro  GamarSo,  the 
brave  and  heroic  Indian  of  the  Dutch  war,  is  unknown. 

His  name  is  here  registered  arbitrarily  on  the  26th  of 

3k:xvii  of  febhtj-a^r^st 


The  laborious  operative,  the  honest  citizen,  who  from 
a  simple  compositor  in  a  printing  office,  gradually  raised 
himself  by  work,  by  intelligence  and  by  perseverance  to 
the  position  of  a  praiseworthy  member  of  the  family  of 
Guttemberg,  has  here  his  place  of  honor. 

The  first  printing  press  of  the  province  of  Maranhao 
arrived  at  the  capital,  S.  Luiz,  on  the  31st  of  October, 
1821.  It  was  bought  by  the  Conciliador  do  MaranhOo, 
also  the  first  newspaper  published  there,  which  com- 
menced by  numerous  copies  in  manuscript  on  the  18th  of 
April  of  that  year  on  the  receipt  of  the  unexpected  news 
of  the  constitutional  revolution  of  1820  in  Portugal. 

Up  to  1830  that  was  the  only  representative  of  the 
press  in  MaranhSo,  which  after  the  independence  was  called 
the  Typographia   Nacional  ItnperiaL    Clementino  Josd 

—  254  — 

Lisboa,  in  1830,  founded  the  Typographia  Constitucioml, 
and  Jotlo  Francisco  Lisboa  and  Mr.  Frederico  Magno 
d'Abranches,  in  1835,  established  another  which  shortly 
afterwards  became  .the  property  of  Major  Ignacio  Jose 

In  1843  the'printing office  oiF.  deS.  N.  Cascaes  introduced 
some  improvements,  and  being  bought  hy  Messrs.  Fabio 
Alexandrine  de  Carvalho  Reis,  A.  Theophilo  de  Carvalho 
Leal,  and  A.  Regoand  still  further  improved  and  published 
the  Progresso,  the  first  daily  paper  of  Maranhuo,  as  also 
six  volumes  of  romances,  and  in  1849  the  second  edition 
of  the  Annaes  histoyneos  do  eslado  do  MaranMo,  by  B. 
P.  de  Berredo. 

It  was  in  this  printing  office  that  Bellarmino  de  Mattos 
finished  liis  appronticoship,  having  for  his  able  master  and 
director  Antonio  Josh  da  Cruz,  tlio  foreman  of  \\\o. 

Bellarmino  do  Matlos  was  born  at  the  hamlet  of 
Arixa,  belonging  to  the  town  of  Icatii,  province  of  Mara- 
nhiXo,  on  the  24th  of  May,  1830,  and  when  six  years  old 
was  taken  to  the  city  of  S.  Luiz  by  his  mother,  Donna  Sil- 
vina  Rosa  Ferreira. 

When  ten  years  old,  being  able  to  read  and  write  cor- 
rectly, he  entered  as  an  apprentice  at  the  Temperan^<i> 
printing  office,  from  which  he  passed  to  that  of  the  P^'O- 
gressOy  which  in  1849  passed  into  the  hands  of  Antonio  Jose 
da  Cruz. 

During  five  years  of  toil  and  poverty  did  Bellarmino 
de  Mattos  serve  his  old  master  with  devotedness,  and 
employed  half  of  his  leisure  hours,  sometimes  joining  and 
glueing  together  sheets  of  paper  for  the  Progresso  when 
paper  of  the  proper  size  could  not  be  obtained,  sometimes 


—  255  — 
composing  and  printing,  he  alone,  prayers  and  legends 
of  saints,  which  left  him  a  little  profit. 

In  1854  the  old  A.  J.  da  Cruz,  accepted  public  em- 
ployment and  stopped  the  publication  of  the  Progresso, 
organ  of  the  liberal  opposition.  But  Drs.  Carlos  F.  Ri- 
beiro  and  J.  J.  Ferreira  Valle,  established  a  printing 
office  of  their  own,  the  young  operatives  of  the  Progresso 
all  went  to  the  new  office,  with  Bellarmino  de  Mattos 
as  foreman,  displaying,  in  its  organization,  so  much  ap- 
titude, activity  and  experience,  as  to  surprise  everyone. 
It  was  then  that  he  gave  himself  up  to  the  ardent  and 
intelligent  study  of  the  typographical  art,  becoming  in  a 
short  time  thoroughly  acquainted  with  every  improve- 
ment, and  with  all  the  machinery  and  apparatus,  and  an 
enthusiastic  lover  of  the  daughter  of  Guttomborg,  whose 
love  glorified  him. 

But  political  intolerance,  abuse,  and  violence  al  tempted 
to  silence  the  opposition  press.  Typographical  operatives 
were  menaced,  two  of  them  were  arrested  and  forced  to 
enlist  in  the  army.  The  editors  of  the  paper  drew  up  a 
protest,  and  Bellarmino,  taking  refuge  in  the  house  of  Dr. 
Carlos  F.  Ribeiro,  conceived  in  those  days  of  adversity  the 
idea  of  the  Typgoraphical  Association  of  Maranhdo,  which 
he  installed  on  the  Uth  of  May  of  the  year  1857,  in  which 
he  sufifered  so  much. 

After  a  few  years  devoted,  more  to  political  discussions, 
than  to  his  art,  Bellai'mino  de  Mattos,  who  belonged  to  the 
liberal  party  of  his  province,  being  one  of  its  most  eloquent 
and  able  supporters  in  the  press,  being  a  patriotic  toiler  for 
the  advancement  of  the  province  and  a  man  of  letters,  Dr. 
Antonio  Henriques  Leal,  encouraging  and  advising  Bellar- 
mino, and  offering  him  his  credit  and  his  name,  induced 
him  to  draw  from  the  Commercial  Bank  the  sums  necessary 

—  256  — 

for  establishing  a  printing  oflSce  of  his  own,  worthy  of  the 
art  of  which  he  was  master. 

Bellarmino  then  established  the  first  printing  office  of 
Brazil,  in  which  he  published  thirteen  volumes  of  alma- 
naks,  the  Postillas  gramaticaes  of  Sotero,  the  poetic 
loorks  of  Franco  de  Sd,  the  Comedies  of  Dr.  Luiz  M. 
Quadros,  the  Comedies  and  a  short  poemof  Joaguim  Serra, 
and  a  number  of  other  works  and  translations  by  Brazilians, 
serving  in  this  manner  not  only  his  own  province,  but  also 
those  of  Par&,  Piauhy,  Ceari  and  Pernambuoo. 

Vienna,  Paris,  London,  Brussels,  Lisbon,  and  New  York, 
were  all  put  under  contribution  for  their  best  type,  and 
their  most  perfect  specimens  of  printing, 

Bellarmino  de  Mattos  obtained  one  of  the  first  prizes  at 
the  national  exhibition  held  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  1867. 

He  gained  two  crowns  which  the  gratitude  of  his  country 
cherishes  and  perpetuates.  Owing  to  his  proficiency  and 
probity,  his  printing  office  was,  and  continues  to  be,  noted 
for  the  neatness  and  beauty  of  the  work,  and  the  most 
just,  and  the  word  must  be  said,  the  cheapest  in  all  the 
Empire  of  Brazil.  Thanks  to  his  love  of  letters  and  arts, 
Bellarmino  de  Mattos  multiplied  editions  of  old  and  origi- 
nal works,  and  of  translations,  all  by  Brazilians  or 
concerning  Brazil ;  he  thereby  gave  a  strong  impulse  to 
civilization  in  his  province  and  in  Brazil. 

Despite  whatever  may  be  said  to  the  contrary  with 
regard  to  the  grateful  memory  of  Paula  Brito  or  to  Messrs. 
Laemmert  and  Gamier,  both  praiseworthy  and  commend- 
able editors  of  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Bellarmino  de 
Mattos  was  the  first  typographer  of  Rio  de  Janeiro ;  he  was 
the  most  legitimate,  the  most  clever  representative  of  the 
progress  of  the  typographical  art  in  Brazil. 

-257  - 

For  these  reasons,  the  province  of  Maranhao  gave  him, 
and  all  Brazil  ought  to  preserve  to  him,  the  name  of 
—  Firmin  Didot  of  Maranhao. 

In  1866  a  crime  which  stained  his  honor  was  imputed  to 
him.  Envy,  and  perhaps,  political  enmity,  took  him  from 
his  establishment,  where  he  shone,  to  the  prison,  which 
disheartened  and  dejected  him. 

In  two  successive  sessions  of  the  jury,  in  the  court  of 
appeal  and  in  the  supreme  court  of  justice,  his  innocence 
was  acknowledged. 

But  the  victim  had  been  wounded  to  the  heart. 

When  set  at  liberty,  Bellarmino  de  Mattos,  always  labor- 
ious but  broken  down  by  misfortune,  grieved  by  the 
injustice  of  men,  he  lived  discouraged,  and  never  again 
smiled  on  the  world. 

He  insisted  on  living  and  working  only  for  his  aged 

He  sickened.  On  the  26th  of  February,  1870,  he  felt  that 
he  was  going  to  die,  and  at  ten  o'  clock  at  night  he  said  to  his 
poor  desolate  mother : 

—  Do  not  cry  ;  I  grieve  to  leave  you  so  poor  ;  but  my 
brothers  remain  to  support  you,  and  that  consoles  me. 
Have  courage  !  I  am  dying ;  but  do  not  cry... 

And  he  never  spoke  again. 

At  two  0  clock  in  the  morning  of  the  27th  of  February 
1870,  Bellarmino  de  Mattos  expired. 

Bellarmino  de  Mattos  left  a  name  and  a  memory  which 
belongs  to  the  Pantheon  of  his  country.  He  came  from  the 
people,  he  was  an  intelligent  and  laborious  operative,  a 
loving  son,  an  honest  citizen,  anartist  of  great  merit,  a  typo- 
grapher who  ardently  loved  his  art,  an  able  master,  a  pa- 
triot, a  civilizing  light,  and  he  created  the  best,  the  most 
VOL.  I  33 

—  258  — 

perfect,  the  most  fertile  and  most  useful  printing  oflSce  of 

Of  this  praiseworthy  citizen,  the  learned  Dr.  Antonio 
Henriques  Leal,  in  the  second  volume  otbis Pantheon  Mar- 
anhensCj  writes  an  long  biographical  essay,  of  which 
this  article  is  a  summary. 


•yyviu  or  rBBRTJ-A.n.^z- 


3os6  de  Sd  Bitancourt  Accioli  was  born  in  the  town, 
afterwards  city,  of  Caethi,  province  of  Minas  Geraes,in  the 
year  1752.  His  parents  having  removed  to  the  province  of 
Bahia,  where  they  had  bought  an  estate,  he  and  his  brother 
remained  with  Donna  Maria  Isabel  de  SA  Bitancourt,  who 
undertook  to  educate  them. 

Bitancourt  Accioli  took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  natur- 
al sciences  in  the  University  of  Goimbra,  where  he  left 
the  reputation  of  a  distinguished  student. 

On  returning  to  Minas  Geraes,  the  young  student  was 
delighted  at  seeing  the  natural  riches  of  his  country.  He 
worked  the  excellent  kaolin  of  CaethS,  and  smelted  iron, 

—  260  — 
sending  the  results  of  his  labor  to  some  friends  and  col- 
leagues, with  a  short  descriptive  notice  of  the  metal  and  of 
its  abundance  in  the  place.  The  notice  was  read  amid  toasts 
of  prosperity  to  Brazil,  at  a  dinner  given  a  few  weeks  prior 
to  the  discovery  of  the  Minas  conspiracy  of  1789,  and  the 
arrest  of  the  chief  conspirators. 

Hearing  that  he  also  was  to  be  arrested,  Bitancourt 
Accioli  fled  to  Bahia,  intending  to  emigrate  to  the  United 
States.  But  the  estate  of  Acarari,  where  he  had  taken  ref- 
uge, was  one  night  surrounded  by  three  hundred  soldiers, 
and  he  was  arrested,  taken  to  the  city  of  S.  Salvador,  and 
thence  sent  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  where  the  algaia  (criminal 
court)  was  prosecuting  the  conspirators. 

Though  one  hundred  and  eight  years  old,  the  lady  Donna 
Maria  Isabel  did  wonders,  and  displayed  so  much  activity, 
and  such  good  will  that  she  succeeded  in  presenting  docu- 
ments proving  the  innocence  of  her  nephew,  and  obtained 
his  acquittal  by  the  terrible  algada. 

Doubts  may  well  be  entertained  of  the  innocence  of  Bi- 
tancourt Accioli  who  was  in  Coimbra  at  the  time  when 
many  Brazilian  students  bound  themselves  to  work  for  the 
independence  of  their  country. 

Being  acquitted,  Bitancourt  Accioli  returned  to  Bahia 
and  on  the  banks  of  the  river  das  Contas  he  established  a 
cotton  plantation. 

In  1799  government  charged  him  with  mineralogical 
explorations,  and  more  especially  with  the  inspection  of  the 
saltpetre  mines  of  Montes  Altos.  He  presented  to  govern- 
ment a  report  of  his  observations,  which  was  printed  by 
order  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  of  Lisbon.  At  the  same 
time  he  founded  an  establishment  at  Montes  Altos,  opened 
a  road  which  connected  the  establishment  with  a  shipping 

—  281  — 

port,  and  greatly  assisted  the  colonist  who  arrived  from 
Azores  islands.  The  expense  for  the  conveyance  of  the 
saltpetre,  however,  discouraged  the  government,  the  war 
in  Europe  paralyzed  the  works  which  depended  on  costly 
official  protection,  and  the  inspector  of  the  Montes  Altos 
mines  asked  for,  and  obtained,  his  dismissal,  and  returned 
to  his  estate  on  the  river  das  Gontas. 

There  he  not  only  planted  himself,  but  also  distrib- 
uted seeds  to  all  his  neighbors,  and  instructed  them  in 
the  cultivation  of  cotton,  and  in  the  respective  industry, 
writing  instructions  on  the  subject.  But  suddenly  his  ado- 
ptive mother  calls  him. 

Under  pretext  of  her  one  hundred  and  twelve  years  of 
age,  the  energetic  old  lady  Donna  Maria  Izabel  had  been 
declared  insane,  and  had  been  deprived  of  the  use  and  ad- 
ministration of  her  property.  Bitancourt  Accioli  goes  to 
Minas  Geraes,  annuls  the  iniquitous  proceeding,  and  rein- 
states the  old  lady  in  the  possession  and  management 
of  her  property,  and  remains  to  protect  her  until  her  death 
but  as  his  adoptive  mother  made  him  her  heir,  he  fixes 
his  residence  in  Minas  Geraes. 

The  revolution  of  1820  breaks  out  in  Portugal. 

Bitancourt  Accioli  hailed  it  as  a  liberal,  and  as  a  Bra- 
he  welcomed  it  as  the  forerunner  of  the  Brazilian  rev- 
olution of  the  independence. 

He  who  had  been  oppressed  and  prosecuted,  arrested  and 
imprisioned  from  1789  to  1892,  greets  1820  which  pre- 
pares 1822. 

On  hearing,  towards  the  end  of  1821,  of  the  decrees  of  the 
cdrtes  which  called  the  prince  Don  Pedro  from  the  regency 
of  Brazil  and  ordered  him  to  travel  in  Europe,  he  and  other 
patriots  founded  the  association  which  they  called  Pedro  e 

—  262- 

Carolino  with  the  view  of  sending  a  representation  to  the 
Prince  begging  him  not  to  leave  Brazil,  and  to  prepare  the 
means  for  preventing  the  country  from  again  becoming  a 

On  hearing  that  the  provisional  government  established 
at  Ouro  Pedro,  ceding  to  the  impulses  of  ultra-liberal  ex- 
citiment,  was  opposing  the  manifestations  against  thecdrtes 
ofLisbon,  and  in  favor  of  the  then  revolutionary  regency 
of  Don  Pedro  in  Brazil,  Bitancourt  Accioli,  who  was  a 
colonel  of  the  militia,  put  himself  at  the  head  of  his  regi- 
ment, proclaimed  the  regent  Don  Pedro,  called  out  the 
second  regiment  of  cavalary  commanded  by  a  relation  of 
his,  and  marched  to  the  capital  of  the  province,  only  stop- 
ping when  he  heard  that  Don  Pedro,  without  an  army, 
had  entered  the  province  of  Minas,  and  was  only  three 
leagues  distant  from  Ouro  Pedro  ;  that  the  people  every 
where  applauded  him,  and  offered  him  the  enthusiasm 
of  pa  triotism  as  a  triumphal  car. 

Bitancourt  Accioli  sent  his  son,  lieutenant-CoronelJosi 
de  Si,  to  assure  the  Prince  of  his  devotedness  and  of  that 
of  the  troops  under  his  command. 

The  assurance  was  not  merely  a  ceremony  or  a  simple 


The  war  of  the  independence  broke  out  in  Bahia .  Co- 
lonel Bitancourt  Accioli  proposed  to  government  that  the 
auxiliary  corps  of  the  independents  should  march  through 
the  interior  to  Bahia,  and  being  authorized  to  raise  the 
force,  he  drew  from  his  regiment  a  batallion  of  585  men, 
at  the  head  of  which  his  worthy  son,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Jos6  de  Si  Bitancourt  e  Camara,  marched  to  Bahia. 

Bitancourt  Accioli  was  then  in  his  seventieth  year;  aged 
and  weak  he  could  not  himself  command  the  patriotic 

—  263  — 

expedition ;  but  avenged  himself  on  his  old  age  and  on  the 
ailments  which  prostrated  him,  by  sending  in  the  batallion, 
besides  the  commander,  three  other  sons  ready  to  fight,  and 
to  die  for  the  independence  of  their  country. 

Jos^  de  Si  Bitancourt  Accioli  has  many  titles  to  the  na- 
tional gratitude. 

I    or   IS^A-ROH 


Valentim  da  Fonseca  e  Silva,  generally  known  as  mes- 
ire  Valentim,  died  on  this  day  of  the  year  1813,  in 
the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

He  was  born  in  Minas  Geraes.  His  father  was  a  Por- 
tuguese nobleman,  a  diamond  contractor;  his  mother 
was  a  poor  Brazilian  woman.  He  was  taken  to  Portugal 
by  his  father  who  there    commenced  to  educate  him. 

Valentim  returned  to  Brazil  when  a  youth,  for  his 
father  dying,  his  relations  sent  him  to  Rio  de  Ja- 

Poor  and  abandoned,  but    laborious,   he  yielded  to  a 

decided   inclination,    and  gave  himself  up  entirely  to  the 

study   of  the  toreutic  art,  with  the  sculptor  who  cut 

the    first    ornaments    of  the  third  Order  of  Carmelites, 

VOL.  I  34 

—  266  — 
which  he    partly    finished;    as  he  in  a   very  short  time 
became  a  most  able  artist. 

Mestre  Valentim  attained  celebrity.  His  diligence  was 
only  equaled  by  his  facility  of  invention.  All  the  ar- 
tists of  Rio  de  Janeiro  went  to  him,  especially  goldsmiths 
and  embossers,  for  designs  and  models  of  chandelierSi 
candelabras,  lamps,  monstrances,  altar  fronts,  trays 
and  every  object  required  by  luxury  or  taste.  The 
silver  lamps  even  now  admired  in  the  churches  of 
S.  Bento,  Carrao,  and  Santa  Rita,  were  designed  and 
modeled  by  him.  All  the  sculptured  work  of  the  Cruz 
church,  the  ornaments  of  the  sachristy  of  that  of  S. 
Francisco  de  Paula  and  others  of  the  same  kind  are  all 
due  to  the  inspired  artist. 

The  viceroy,  Luiz  de  Vasconcellos,  used  to  say  that  Mes- 
tre Valentim  was  his  right  arm  in  the  works  which  he  had 
to  execute. 

The  fountain  which  to  this  day  is  to  be  seen  in  Don  Pedro  I 
(formerly  Palace)  Square,  was  the  work  of  Mestre  Val- 

On  the  night  of  the  24th  of  August,  1789,  the  Asylum 
do  Porto  was  burnt  down,  and  Valentim  rebuilt  it  in  three 
months  and  seventeen  days,  thus  giving  admirable  proofs 
of  activity  and  intelligence,  though  he  protested  against 
the  design  of  the  old  building,  which  he  was  obliged  to 

Luiz  de  Vasconcellos  owed  him  more  than  these  two 
works,  and  he  also  owed  something  to  Vasconcellos  with 
Public  Gardens  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  for  the  glory  of  this  work 
was  divided  between  the  founder  and  the  architect. 

By  order  of  the  viceroy  a  lagoon  (called  do  Boqueirdo) 
was  filled  in  with  the  earth  from  a  hill  called  das  Man- 
gueias.r  On  the  site  of  the  hill  is  now  to  be  seen  the  stree 

-  267  — 

which  preserves  that  name  ;  and  on  the  artificial  ground  of 
the  lagoon  the  Public  Gardens  were  laid  out,  with  the  spa- 
cious terrace  overlooking  the  bay,  which  is  still  in  exis- 

Valentim  gave  the  designs  and  the  models  for  all  the 
architectural  work  and  for  the  ornaments,  and  in  the 
small  cascade  between  the  two  central  flights  of  steps  he 
placed  the  two  alligators  which  were  cast  under  his  per- 
sonal inspection.  In  the  almost  complete  and  tasteful  trans- 
formation which  the  Public  Gardens  suffered  under  the 
plans  and  execution  of  the  able  Mr.  Glaziou,  the  cascade 
and  the  alligators  were  respected,  and  are  preserved  as 
being  of  artistic  value. 

Valentim  finished  the  Public  Garden  in  lour  years, 
and  nearly  at  the  same  time,  the  Marrecas  fountain, 
with  the  statues  of  Echo  and  Narcissus,  which  appear 
to  be  there  as  sentinels  to  guard  it. 

Besides  many  other  fine  works  Valentim  designed  the 
models  for  two  porcelaine  services  manufactured  by  Joao 
Manso,  called  the  chemist,  with  the  kaolin  of  the 
Governador  island,  which   were   much  praised  in  Lisbon. 

A  most  competent  authority,  Mr.  Manoel  de  Araujo 
Porto  Alegre,  now  Baron  of  Santo  Angelo,  emitted  the 
following  opinion  respecting  Valentim  : 

«  He  was  a  great  artist,  an  extraordinary  man  for 
Brazil  of  that  time  and  of  to-day,  and  his  name  deserves 

TI    0"P   :L^A.£iCZZ 

mi  mm  da  silya 

Jose  CorrSa  da  Silva  was  born  in  Pernambuco  in  1746, 
and  was  destined  by  his  parents  for  a  military  career. 

In  1777  he  was  ensign  in  the  infantry  regiment  of 
Recife,  which  was  serving  at  the  island  of  Santa  Gatharina, 
when,  on  the  27th  of  February,  the  governor,  Antonio 
Carlos  Furtado  de  Mendon^a,  infamously  capitulated  and 
delivered  the  place  to  the  Spanish  general,  Don  Pedro 

The  ensign,  Jase  CorrSa,  runs  to  the  barracks,  takes 
the  flag  of  his  regiment,  ties  it  round  his  person,  suc- 
ceeds in  passing  from  the  islaud  to  the  continent,  hides 
himself  there  for  two  days,  awaitinjg  thejconsequences  of 
the  capitulation,  and  ascertaining  at  last  that  the  island 
had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  Spaniards,    on  the  2d 

—  270  — 
of  March   undertakes  an  extraordinary  long  journey  on 
foot  in  order  to  take  to  Pernambuco  the  flag  glorified 
by  him,   having  to  cross  the  interior  of  the  provinces  of 
S.  Paulo  and  Minas  Geraes,  a  feat  which  he  realized. 

The  governor,  Jos6  Cesar  de  Menezes,  promoted  him  to  the 
rank  of  lieutenant  and  shortly  after  made  him  adjutant  of 
the  regiment  of  grenadiers,  and  as  Jos6  Correa  was  very 
intelligent,  and  wrote  an  admirable  hand  he  was  entrusted 
with  the  statistical  tables  which  were  sent  to  Lisbon  and 
were  recommended  for  their  precision,  clearness,  and  im- 
portance, as  well  as  by  the  careful  caligraphy. 

The  same  captain  general,  Jos^Cezarde  Menezes,  promot- 
ed Jos6  Correa  to  the  rank  of  captain,  gave  him  the  com- 
mand of  the  sea  fort,  and  in  1787  entrusted  him  with  the 
police  of  the  town  and  district  of  Recife. 

This  last  was  a  most  arduous  task.  Thieves  and  assassins 
abounded,  in  Recife  and  its  suburbs ;  the  nights  were  full  of 
danger  and  apprehensions ;  Jos6  CorrSa  who  did  not  recom- 
mend himself  for  the  legality  of  his  acts,  and  who  used 
arbitrarily  to  arrest,  and  to  set  free  or  send  to  theisl  and  of 
Fernando  de  Noronho  wellknown  ruffians,  and  suspicious 
charracteres,  and  with  these,  perhaps,  some  innocent 
persons,  displayed  so  much  energy,  that  at  the  end  of  one 
year  of  his  official  absolutism,  the  inhabitants  of  Recife  could 
sleep  quietly,  without  the  fear  of  being  disturbed,  or  of 
neglect  in  fastening  the  doors. 

Jos6  Correa,  during  the  administration  of  four  governors, 
directed,  during  twenty  years,  to  the  general  satisfaction, 
the  police  of  the  district  of  Recife.  Sometimes  arbitrary, 
but  always  well  ntentioned,  he  was  the  cherished  guaran- 
tee of  life  and  property,  and  for  that  reason  a  civilizing 
element  for  thse  times. 

Jos6  Corrfia  da  SilvjBt  died  in  Pernambuco  in   the  year 

—  271  — 

1810,  shortly  after  being  promoted  to  the  rank  of  lieu- 
tenant colonel,  at  the  age  of  sixty  four ,  haying  rendered 
important  services  during  fifty  years. 

In  the  modest  sphere  of  his  life  he  distinguished  himself 
so  much  as  to  deserve  to  be  honorably  mentioned  in  the 
history  of  his  country. 


HI    OF    :M:Aitoi3[ 

mt  ANTilO  MARMO 

On  the  4th  of  March,  1853,  a  numerous  funeral  proces- 
sion followed  the  cofSn  containing  the  mortal  remains  of  a 
man  by  many  titles  illustrious.  The  most  impressive  part  of 
the  funeral,  however,  was  the  train  of  more  than  a  hun- 
dred boys,  many  shedding  tears,  and  all  sorrowful. 

It  was  a  simple  and  eloquent  picture ;  canon  Marinho  was 
being  conveyed  to  his  last  resting  place,  having  died  on  the 
3d  of  March,  1853. 

Jos6  Antonio  Marinho,  the  legitimate  son  of  Antonio 
Jos^  Marinho  and  his  wife,  whose  name  has  been  forgotten, 
was  born  on  the  7th  of  October,  1803,  at  the  port  of  Sal- 
gado,  a  small  hamlet  a  quarter  of  a  league  distant  from 
the  river  S.  Francisco. 

The  boy  Marinho  had  against  him  the  poverty  of  his  par- 
voL.  1  35 

-.  274  — 
ents,  which  was  like  the  negation  of  a  hopeful  future,  and 
the  accident  of  color,  which  degraded  him  in  the  eyes  of 
not  a  few  foolish  and  vain  persons.  God,  however,  had 
bestowed  on  him  that  flame,  which  is  of  more  value  than 
mines  of  gold,  and  which  is  neither  white,  nor  brown,  nor 
black — the  flame  of  intelligence. 

Marinho  received  primary  education  at  the  Salgado 
school ;  he  surprised  his  master,  but  could  go  no  further. 
Either  from  vocation  or  as  a  resource  he  in  vain  desired  to 
learn  Latin  and  be  a  priest :  it  was  a  fruitless  wish. 

Providence  is  sometimes  called  chance.  Chance  came  to 
the  assistance  of  Marinho  when  a  youth. 

There  was  to  be  a  religious  ieeistdit  Salgado' s,  and  besides 
the  feast  in  the  church,  private  theatricals  ;  but  on  the 
eve  of  the  representation,  the  person  to  whom  the  principal 
part  of  the  comedy  had  been  assigned,  fell  sick.  It  was  a 
great  misfortune  ;  Marinho,  however,  comes  forward  says, 
that  he  had  attended  the  rehearsals,  and  knew  the  part  by 
heart.  He  is  accepted,  as  a  sorry  substitute. 

The  comedy  is  acted,  and  Marinho  exceeds  every  expecta- 
tion, he  is  highly  applauded,  and  gains  the  honors  of  the 
theatrical  representation. 

Shortly  after  a  planter  sends  him  to  Pernambuco,  to 
which  diocese  Salgado  then  belonged,  that  he  might  re- 
ceive the  necessary  instruction  and  take  sacred  orders, 
and  with  this  recommendation  the  bishop  takes  him  as  a 

But  the  revolution  of  1817  breaks  out  in  Pernambuco 
and  the  student  Marinho,  the  famulist,  takes  up  arms,  be- 
came compromised,  and  fleeing  from  the  royal  troops,  crosses 
immense  solitudes  alone  and  completely  destitute  of  pecu- 
niary means.  Being  generously  received  at  the  town  of 

—  275  — 
Barra  by  a  family  residing  there,  he  undertook  the  educa- 
tion of  the  children  and  remained  some  time  in  the  town. 
His  protector,  however,  again  coming  to  his  assistance,  he 
entered  the  Caraga  seminary ;  there  he  finishes  his  studies, 
and  after  overcoming  some  difficulties  takes  sacred  orders 
in  1829. 

In  1831  he,  after  a  competitive  examination,  obtained 
the  chair  of  professor  of  rational  and  moral  philosophy  in 
the  city  of  Ouro  Preto,  lecturing  soon  after  on  the  same 
subject  at  the  city  of  S.  Joao  d'El  Rei. 

He  became  a  distinguished  preacher ;  and  in  1839  obtained 
the  appointment  of  preacher  at  the  Imperial  Chapel.  On 
the  9th  of  September,  1840,  he  was  named  honorary,  and 
shortly  after  effective,  canon  of  the  same  chapel,  and  su- 
pernumerary secret  chamberlain  to  His  Holiness,  with 
the  honors  of  monseigneur  on  the  11th  of  November,  1847. 

In  the  same  year  he  entered  at  the  competitive  examina- 
tion for  the  curacy  of  the  church  of  the  Most  Holy  Sacra- 
ment of  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  His  papers  were  most 
brilliant ;  on  the  8th  of  May  the  papers  were  presented  to 
government,  and  three  days  after  he  was  presented  with 
the  living. 

Politics,  however,  occupied  a  great  portion  of  the  life  of 
the  illustrious  priest. 

Being  an  ardent  liberal,  he  was  a  strong  oppositionist  in 
Minas  Geraes  during  the  last  years  of  the  reign  of  the  first 
Emperor.  In  1835he  took  his  seat  with  Vascon cellos,  Theo- 
philo  Ottoni  and  others  in  the  first  provincial  assembly  of 
Minas,  and  in  1837  he  was  a  member  of  the  chamber  of  de- 
puties, and  immediately  became  distinguished  as  an  orator 
and  as  an  inspired  impromptu  speaker. 

In  1842  he  joined  the  liberal  party  of  Minas  in  the  revolt 
which  was  quashed  with  the  defeat  of  Santa  Luzia.  Whilst 

—  276  — 
a  refugee  at  the  plantation  of  S.  Gongalo,  in  the  district  of 
Queluz,  he  wrote  his  Historia  da  revolugdo  de  Minos,  and 
after  the  province  had  been  completely  pacified,  he  deliv- 
ered himself  up  to  justice,  and  was  absolved  by  the  jury 
of  the  town  of  Piranga. 

In  1844  the  Emperor  granted  an  amnesty  to  all  those 
who  had  been  implicated  in  the  revolts  of  1842. 

Marinho  is  again  returned  a  deputy  to  the  general  assem- 
bly in  1845,  and  is  re-elected  in  the  following  legislature, 
but  the  chamber  was  dissolved  in  1849. 

In  the  political  press  he  edited  a  short-lived  paper  in 
S.  Joao  d'El  Rei,  the  liberal  party  entrusting  him  1847 
with  the  chief  editorship  of  the  GorreU)  MercantU. 

Neither  in  the  Caraga  seminary  nor  for  many  years  after 
was  he  distinguished  as  studious  or  diligent ;  but  with 
his  wonderful  intelligence  he,  in  a  few  hours,  did  more 
than  others  in  many  days  of  study.  As  a  parliamentary 
speaker  he  was  surprising  in  his  triumphs  of  eloquence  and 
specially  in  his  impromptu  speeches. 

After  1845  he  became  a  meditative  and  reading  man,  and 
in  a  short  time  acquired  much  learning. 

Having  abandoned  politics,  he,  in  1849,  established  in 
the  capital  of  the  Empire  a  boarding  school,  which  preserved 
his  name  for  many  years  after  his  death. 

As  director  and  head-master  of  the  Collegia  Marinho,  he 
devoted  himself  entirely  to  tuition  and  applied  to  secondary 
instruction  the  best  methods,  which  he  modified  according 
to  his  clear  judgment. 

In  this  profession  nothing  gave  him  so  little  care  as 
profit ;  in  the  Collegio  Marinho  there  were  a  number  of 
gratuitous  students  specially  from  Minas  and  from  the 
capital  of  the  Empire. 

—  277  — 

The  school  became  famous  and  the  pupils  loved  Mon- 
seigneur  Marinho  as  a  father. 

Death  too  soon,  on  the  3d  of  March,  1853,  cut  the 
thread  of  life  of  Monseigneur  Jos6  Antonio  Marinho,  when 
only  fifty  years  of  age,  and  when  for  more  than  twenty- 
five  years  he  had  been  a  constant  source  of  civilization. 


IV    OF     TsOiAJRai^ 

mt  mm  carmo  de  campos 



The  venerable  Brazilian  whose  name  and  title  are  at 
the  head  of  this  chapter,  was  born  on  this  day  of  the  year 
1768  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia.  His  parents,  Jos6 
Carneiro  de  Campos  and  Donna  Custodia  Maria  do  Sacra- 
mento, had  destined  him  for  the  priesthood. 

In  Coimbra,  Carneiro  de  Campos,  after  the  course  of 
physical  and  mathematical  sciences,  took  his  degree  in 
theology ;  but,  overcoming  the  wishes  of  his  family  which 
were  opposed  to  his  own,  he  took  his  degree  as  doctor  of 
civil  law. 

Famous  for  his  talents,  for  his  brilliant  studies,  and  for 
his  examplary  conduct,  he  commenced  by  undertaking  in 

—  280- 
Lisbon  the  education  of  the  children  of  Don  Rodrigo  de 
Souza  Coutinho,  afterwards  Count  of  Linhares,  the  cele- 
brated minister,  who,  having  Brazilian  maternal  progeni- 
tors, was  the  friend  and  protector  of  Brazilians. 

Having  shortly  after  obtained  an  appointment  in  the 
finance  department,  Carneiro  de  Campos  came  to  Rio  de 
Janeiro  in  1807  with  the  royal  family.  In  1808  he  was  an 
officer  in  the  department  of  home  affairs,  becoming  after- 
wards the  chief  officer,  working  zealously  and  being 
recompensed  until  1820 ;  but  in  the  shadow  of  the  admin- 
istrative system  which  gives  to  the  ministers  the  glory  of 
the  initiative,  and  of  the  toil  of  the  subordinate  chief. 

He  was  made  a  commander  of  the  Order  of  Christ  on  the 
17th  of  December,  1814,  of  the  Order  of  the  Iron  Crown  of 
Austria  in  1817,  a  chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Nossa  Senhora 
da  Conceigao  in  1820,  and  was  appointed  secretary  to  the 
new  foundation  of  studies  at  the  University  of  Coimbra  in 
1816.  This  attests  the  worth  of  Carneiro  de  Campos. 

In  1821  he  was  one  of  the  members  of  the  committee 
appointed  to  examine  the  treasury. 

In  1823  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Brazilian 
constituinte  assembly  by  the  province  of  Rio  de  Janeiro , 
he  entered  the  ministry  which  succeeded  that  of  the 
Andradas,  and  being  a  moderate  liberal  and  of  rigid  probity, 
he  was  respected  by  the  Andrada  opposition,  and  wisely 
resigned  office  on  the  eve  of  the  dissolution  of  the  constituinte, 
a  fatal  stroke  of  policy  which  he  strenuously  opposed. 

Being  a  minister  in  1823  he  rejected  the  last  proposal 
brought  by  the  Count  of  Rio  Maior,  for  the  union  of  Brazil 
with  Portugal. 

Being  a  man  of  moderate  opinions,  of  liberal  principles, 
but  not  linked  to  any  party,  Carneiro  de  Campos  was  one 
of  the  ten  councilors   named  to  draw  up  the  political 

—  281  - 

constitution  of  the  Empire,  and  to  him  are  chiefly  due  the 
liberal  principles  which  it  contains. 

In  1826  he  was  chosen  senator  for  Bahia.  On  the  12th  of 
October  of  the  previous  year  he  had  been  created  Viscount 
of  Caravellas,  being  shortly  after  made  a  marquis.  He  was 
minister  of  justice  and  of  the  Empire,  ad  interim,  from 
1826  to  1827  ;  again  minister  of  the  Empire  from  the  4th  of 
November,  1829,  to  the  end  of  1830.  The  Marquis  of  Cara- 
vellas was  a  singular  exception,  never  having  lost  the 
public  confidence. 

After  the  dissolution  of  the  Brazilian  constituinte,  almost 
all  the  ministers  of  Don  Pedro  I  became  objects  of  public 
disapprobation,  and  were  strongly  opposed  by  the  liberal 

The  Marquis  of  Caravellas  was  three  times  minister  in 
the  reign  of  Don  Pedro  I,  and  during  his  three  admin- 
istrations he  was  always  spared  and  respected  by  the 

Notwithstanding  there  never  was  a  minister  more  faith- 
ful and  loyal  to  the  Emperor. 

At  daybreak  of  the  7th  of  April,  1831,  Don  Pedro  I 
abdicates  the  throne  in  his  son  Don  Pedro  II,  a  minor ; 
the  liberal  party,  in  arms  in  the  capital  of  the  Empire 
triumphs.  In  order  to  maintain  peace,  and  organize  a 
government  for  the  nation,  the  senators  and  deputies  who 
were  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  meet  in  the  house  of 
the  senate  and,  though  not  in  number,  elect  a  provisional 
regency.  One  of  the  three  regents,  elected  by  a  large  ma- 
jority, was  the  Marquis  of  Caravellas,  who  had  been 
three  times  minister,  and  was  one  of  the  councilors  of 
state  of  the  ex-emperor,  Don  Pedro  I !... 

On  the  7th  of  April,  1831,  the  liberal  party  triumphing 
VOL.  I  36 

—  282  - 

in  the  revolution,  raised  the  learned  statesman,  Marquis  of 
Caravellas,  to  the  highest  honor. 

Jos6  Joaquim  Carneiro  de  Campos,  Marquis  of  Caravel- 
las, died  poor  on  the  8th  of  September,  1836,  having  been 
a  senator  of  the  Empire,  a  councilor  of  state,  a  minister 
three  times,  and  a  member  of  the  regency  elected  in  the 
ardor  of  a  revolutionary  triumph.  He  was  a  moderate 
liberal,  just  and  conciliating,  a  remarkable  stateman, 
learned  and  honorable.  He  never  was  a  chief  nor  a  fol- 
lower of  any  political  party,  but  always  deserved  the 
esteem  and  respect  of  all  political  parties. 

-^     OF    2S^EA."ROH 


Manoel  Ferreira  de  Araujo  Guamaraes  was  the  son  of 
a  merchant  named  Manoel  Ferreira  de  Araujo  and  of  his 
wife  Donna  Maria  do  CoragEo  de  Jesus.  He  was  born  in 
Bahia  on  the  5th  of  March,  1777. 

After  receiving  primary  education  and  studying  Latin 
in  Bahia,  the  young  Brazilian  went  to  Lisbon,  where  he 
completed  the  course  of  humanities  in  a  brilliant  manner, 
and  being  unable  to  enter  at  the  University  of  Coimbra 
for  want  of  pecuniary  means,  he,  in  1798,  matriculated  at 
the  Royal  Naval  Academy,  and  in  the  following  year 
presented  to  the  minister  of  marine,  who  was  then  Don 
llodrigo  de  Souza  Coutinho  (afterwards  Count  of  Linhares), 
a  translation  of  the  part  of  the  course  of  mathematics  by 
the  Abb6  Marie,  which  comprehends  arithmetics  and  the  ele- 

-  284  — 
ments  of  algebra,  which  being  examined  by  the  Academy 
deserved  much  praise. 

At  the  examinations  at  the  end  of  the  year  he  received 
a  prize,  and  in  the  following  year  obtained  from  the  Admir- 
alty council  the  appointment  of  aspirante  de  piloto. 

Such  was  his  poverty,  and  so  well  proved  was  his  merit, 
that  in  1799  government  granted  him  a  pension  of  fifty 
mil  reis  a  year  as  long  as  he  continued  to  study  in  the 
Royal  Naval  Academy. 

Having  finished  the  academical  course,  on  presenting 
the  respective  documents  to  the  minister,  he  was  im- 
mediately appointed  assistant  professor  of  the  same  aca- 
demy, and  was  promised  promotion  to  the  rank  of  first- 
lieutenant  in  the  navy,  the  same  favor  having  been  granted 
to  the  assistant  professors  who  had  preceded  him;  but 
a  new  minister  of  marine  taking  office,  refused  to  sign  the 
decree  regarding  his  promotion,  thus  causing  this  distin- 
guished Brazilian  a  loss  of  seven  years  and  a  half  in  his 
military  career. 

Manoel  Ferreira  lectured  the  second  and  third  years  of 
the  course,  worked  at  the  military  society  of  which  he  was 
a  member,  published  a  translation  of  the  Analyse  de  Cou- 
sin', always  wrestling  with  poverty.  He  obtained  leave 
of  absence  and  went  to  Bahia,  where  the  Count  of  Ponte, 
governor  and  captain-general,  received  him  in  his  house  and 
took  him  under  his  protection.  In  vain,  however,  did  he  beg 
for  a  prolongation  of  his  leave,  until  the  transmigration  of 
the  royal  family  of  Portugal  to  Brazil  and  the  great  in- 
fluence of  the  Count  of  Linhares  ameliorated  the  condition 
of  the  illustrious  Brazilian. 

In  Rio  de  Janeiro,  to  where  Manoel  Ferreira  had  passed, 
he  was  made  captain  of  the  corps  of  engineers,  and  was 

-  285- 

charged  by  the  Military  Academy  with  the  translation  and 
publication  of  Legendre's  geometry. 

After  some  literary  labors  in  the  Naval  Academy,  he 
opened  the  course  of  this  school  on  the  1st  of  March,  1809. 
In  1811  he  was  passed  to  the  Military  Academy,  for 
which,  he  wrote  the  compendium  of  astronomy  and  geo- 

In  1812  he  lost  his  friend  and  protector,  the  Count 
of  Linhares,  in  whose  honor  he  composed  an  epicedium 
which  was  printed  and  deserved  much  praise. 

In  1813  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major,  and  in 
the  same  year  commenced  to  edit  the  Gazeta  do  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  and  the  Patriota,  a  most  interesting  periodical 
now  much  sought,  but  extremely  rare. 

In  1821  her  was  a  brevet-colonel,  and  obtained  his  super- 
annuation in  the  Military  Academy.  In  the  same  year  he 
abandoned  the  G^a^eto,  and,  being  devoted  to  the  cause  of 
the  independence,  he  commenced  to  publish,  in  October,  1822 
the  ^eriodicsil  Espelho,  advising  and  encouraging  resistance 
against  the  Portuguese  troops. 

When  General  Jorge  de  Avilez  was  at  Praia-Grande 
with  the  corps  under  his  command,  Manoel  Ferreira  had 
published  a  pamphlet  with  the  title  Urn  cidaddo  do  Rio 
de  Janeiro  d  divisdo  auxUiadora  Luzitana,  which  pro- 
duced considerable  effect. 

In  1823  he  took  his  seat  in  the  Brazilian  constituinte 
assembly  as  deputy  for  Bahia,  and  served  in  the  army  and 
navy  committee. 

That  the  importance  of  the  services  which  he  rendered 
his  country  may  be  estimated,  it  is  suflScient  to  mention 
the  other  duties  and  tasks  entrusted  to  him. 

In  1823  he  was  appointed  deputy  to  the  junta  of  direc- 
tors of  the  Military  Academy;  in  1824  he  served  in  the 

junta  of  inspection  of  the  National  printing  office ;  in  1826 
he  again  took  up  the  Gazeta  do  Rio  de  Janeiro,  which 
he  had  left  in  April,  1830. 

He  had  gradually  been  promoted  to  the  rank  of  brevet- 
brigadier  in  the  corps  of  engineers,  and  went  on  half  pay 
with  that  rank,  and  leave  to  reside  in  his  province  in  Jan- 
uary, 1831.  He  was  a  chevalier  of  the  Imperial  Order 
of  the  Cruzeiro,  and  a  commander  of  that  of  S.  Bento  de 

In  Bahiahe  did  not  rest.  On  the  4th  of  March,  1834,  the 
provincial  government  obliged  him  to  accept  the  appoint- 
ment of  professor  of  geometry  and  mechanics  applied  to 
arts,  a  class  annexed  to  the  naval  arsenal,  for  which  he 
immediately  translated  the  Geometry  and  mechanies  ap^ 
plied  to  the  arts,  of  Baron  Dupin. 

He  was  a  working  and  distinguished  member  of  the  first 
provincial  assembly  of  Bahia. 

A  most  cruel  blow,  however,  had  been  reserved  for  his 
old  age. 

On  the  7th  of  November,  1837,  the  republican  revolt,  which 
was  crushed  in  March  of  the  following  year,  broke  out  in 
Bahia.  Brigadier  Manoel  Ferreira  continued  faithful  to  the 
legal  government ;  but  his  son.  Major  Innocencio  Eustaquio, 
unfortunately  was  induced  to  become  involved  in  the  revolt, 
the  crime  being  enhanced  by  the  fact  of  his  belonging  to 
the  army. 

Major  Innocencio  was  tried  by  a  court-martial  on  the  23d 
of  June,  1838,  for  the  defense  appeared  his  old  father,  Brig- 
gadier  Manoel  Ferreira. 

The  defense  was  most  eloquent :  sciencie  argued  and 
nature  inspired  ;  the  judges  themselves  shed  tears. 

—  287  — 

At  last  the  father  stopped  extenuated  and  in  tears. 

But....  Major  Innocencio  was  condemned. 

Brigadier  Manoel  Ferreira  de  Araujo  Guiraaraes  could 
no  longer  support  life,  and  after  some  months  of  suffering 
died  on  the  24th  of  October  of  the  same  year,  1838. 

^^I     OF     :b^aLAJElCfH, 



Don  Francisco  de  Assis  Mascarenhas  was  born  in  Lisbon 
on  the  30th  of  September,  1779.  He  was  the  legitimate  son 
ofDonJosdde  Assis  Mascarenhas,  Count  of  Olinda,  Sabu- 
gal  and  Palma,  and  of  Dona  Helena  de  Lima,  the  countess, 
daughter  of  the  Marquis  and  Marchioness  of  Ponte  de 

Favoring  his  natural  inclination,  his  parents  sent  him  to 
Coimbra,  where  after  finishing  the  study  of  humanities^  he 
matriculated  in  the  faculty  of  law,  which  he  attended  dur- 
ing two  years,  being  taken  from  the  University  to  enter 
immediately  the  king's  service. 

In  1804,  at  the  age  of  twenty-five,  Don  Francisco  was 
VOL.  I  37 

—  290  — 
appointed  governor  and  captain-general  of  the  capitania  of 
Goyaz,  which  he  administered  with  prudence  and  tact, 
calming  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  who  were  excited  and 
distrusful.  He  economized  the  public  monies,  reducing  the 
expenses  of  the  administration  ;  he  encouraged  commerce 
with  Par4  through  the  river  Aruguaya,  and  proposed  and 
obtained  the  creation  of  a  new  circuit,  thatofS.  JoSo  das 
Duas  Barras. 

In  November,  1808,  he  left  Goyaz  to  take  charge  of  the 
government  of  the  capitania  of  Minas  Geraes,  of  which 
he  was  governor  and  captain-general  till  tlie  11th  of 
April,  1814.  He  there  organized  presidial  colonies  to  pre- 
vent the  attacks  of  the  savages  on  the  inhabitants  of 
the  interior,  and  also  to  invite  the  Indians  to  civilized 

As  a  reward  for  his  services  the  prince  regent,  Don 
Jo3o,   created  him  Count  of  Palma. 

In  the  same  year,  1814,  the  Count  of  Palma,  in  the 
capacity  of  governor  and  captain-general,  went  to  admin- 
ister the  capitania  of  S.  Paulo,  and  in  1818  that  of 
Bahia.  His  administration,  was  every-where  mild  and  ben- 
eficial, especially  in  Bahia  where  he  bettered  the  con- 
dition of  those  who  had  been  imprisoned  in  consequence 
of  the  republican  revolt  of  Pernambuco  in  1817,  and  who 
were  by  him  allowed  to  receive  assistance  and  consolation 
from  their  families. 

On  the  10th  of  February,  1821,  the  action  of  the  troops 
and  the  people  in  favor  of  the  revolution  of  Portugal  was 
the  cause  of  the  creation  of  the  first  junta  of  the  provis- 
ional government  of  Bahia.  But  the  Count  of  Palma  was  so 
much  esteemed  that  he  was  named  president  of  the  junta, 
a  post  which  he  refused,  retiring  shortly  after  to  Rio 
de  Janeiro. 

-  291  - 

King  Don  JoSo  VI,  who  did  not  succeed  in  making  him 
accept  the  post  of  viceroy  of  the  Portuguese  Indies, 
gave  him  the  grand  cross  of  the  Order  of  Christ  and 
named  him  president  of  the  Dezembargo  do  Pago,  Rer 
gedor  da  ji^tiga,  and  a  councilor  of  state. 

In  1822  the  Count  of  Palma  adhered  to  the  cause  of 
Brazil,  and  was  present,  as  constable,  at  the  coronation 
of  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  I,  who  created  him  Marquis 
of  S.  JoSio  da  Palma,  and  named  him  his  grand  cham- 

At  the  elections  for  the  first  senators  in  1826  his 
name  was  presented  by  four  provinces,  and  the  Emperor 
chose  him  for  that  of  S.  Paulo. 

In  1829  he  was  sent  to  Europe  on  a  special  mission; 
•and  having  fulfilled  it  returned  to  Brazil,  but  abstained 
from  taking  any  active  part  in  public  affairs,  being  grieved 
by  the  abdication  of  Don  Pedro  I,  whose  friend 
he  was. 

He  was  generally  esteemed  for  his  benevolence,  gen- 
erosity, great  loyalty  and  disinterestedness.  He  died  in  the 
city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the   6th  of  March,  1843. 

"vn  OF  is^A.:Rai^ 



The  fourth  in  the  very  irregular  order  of  the  first 
viceroys  of  Brazil,  Vasco  Fernandes  Ge2ar  de  Menezes, 
afterwards  Count  of  Sabugoza,  after  having  governed  India, 
arrived  at  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia,  and  governed 
the  principality  of  Brazil  from  the  23d  of  November,  1720, 
to  the  11th  of  May,  1735,  when  he  was  relieved. 

In  his  administration  he  had  to  overcome,  in  the  city  and 
capitania  of  Bahia,  two  scourges  of  adifierent  nature.  After 
a  slight  earthquake  which  lasted  two  or  three  seconds  on 
the  4th  of  January,  1724,  a  disastrous  drought  which  lasted 
four  years,  was  immediately  succeeded  by  an  extraor- 

*-  294  — 
dinary  winter  {rainy  season)  which  lasted  the  same  time.  It 
is  not  therefore  surprising  that  that  viceroy  should  not  have 
left  a  na'ne  renowned  for  great  works  and  improvements. 
The  capital  of  Brazil,  however,  owed  him  some  protection 
vouchsafed  to  the  few  cultivators  of  letters  which  then 
existed  there,  and  the  first  essay  to  propagate  literature  in 
Portuguese  America. 

Nearly  two  centuries  had  passed  since  the  Academia  dos 
Humidos  had  been  initiated  in  Florence,  having  been  suc- 
cessively imitated  in  France,  in  England,  in  Spain,  and  in 
Portugal  with  regard  to  the  extravagance  and  bad  taste  of 
the  pseudonyms,  when  the  viceroy,  Vasco  FernandesCezar, 
de  Menezes,  established  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  an  academy 
of  the  same  pedantic  nature.  But  bad  as  it  was,  there  was 
no  better,  nor  even  its  equal  in  Brazil,  which  till  then  had 
never  had  any. 

Vasco  Fernandes  established  the  literary  society  in  his 
palace  on  the  afternoon  of  the  7th  of  March,  1724,  with 
seven  members  invited  by  him,  who,  with  his  consent, 
chose  the  sun  for  their  emblem  with  the  motto :  Sol  oriens 
in  occiduOj  and  named  the  society  the  Academia  dos  Es- 

The  seven  academic  founders  were  (their  names  are  given 
with  the  pseuponyms  they  were  bound  to  take) :  Father 
Gongalo  Soares  de  Franca — Obliging ;  the  judge  of  the  court 
of  appeal,  Caetano  de  Brito  e  Figueiredo — Nubilose  ;  the 
civil  judge,  Luiz  de  Siqueira  Gama —  Occupied  ;  the  judge 
Dr.  Ignacio  Barboza  Machado  -Laborious;  Colonel Sebastiao 
da  Rocha  Pitta  ^Vague  ;  Captain  Joao  de  Brito  Lima— 
Unhappy  ;  and  Jos6  da  CunhaCardozo  Fortunate. 

The  Academia  dos  Esquecidos  held  several  sessions  in 
which  poetical  pieces  in  Portuguezes  and  Latin,   and  dis- 

-  295  — 
courses  on  different  subjects  abounded,  as  well  as  lyrical 
challenges,  sometimes  on  the  most  extravagant  subjects. 

As  may  be  supposed  the  viceroy  was  the  constant  object 
of  the  flattery  of  the  academics  :  Sol  oriens  in  occidtco. 

The  Academia  dos  Esquecidos  appears  not  to  have 
lasted  more  than  a  year.  There  exists  no  notice  of  it  after  its 
eighteenth  conference  on  the  4th  of  February,  1725. 

The  instructive  paper  on  this  Academy  presented  to  the 
Historical  Institute  of  Brazil  by  its  first  secretary,  Canon 
Dr.  J.  Fernandes  Pinheiro,  from  which  this  information 
is  summarized,  concludesd  with  this  just  appreciation  : 

**  Being  a  lineal  descendant  of  the  Italian,  Spanish,  and 
Portuguese  academies,  the  Academia  Brazilicados  Esque-- 
cidos  was  the  legitimate  representative  of  the  futile  spiiit 
and  of  the  tropological  incontinence  which  so  much 
harmed  its  predecessors.  The  men,  however,  who  conse- 
crated their  leisure  to  the  cultivation  of  the  intellect, 
though  wrongly  directed,  at  a  time  when  so  few  aspira- 
tions were  left  to  letters,  deserve  the  applause  of  the 
country,  and  their  memory  ought  to  be  religiously  kept  in 
the  urn  of  the  respect  and  veneration  of  prosterity.  " 

^^TII      OF     IwIA-RCH 



Fifteen  years  have  passed  since  a  corpse  was  interred, 
the  passions  have  been  allayed,  and  it  is  time  to  do  justice 
to  the  memorj'^  of  a  praiseworthy  citizen  and  to  examine  it 
free  from  the  bias  of  political  storms. 

Francisco  Jos6  Scares  de  Andrea,  Baron  of  Cagapava,  a 
marshal  in  the  army,  councilor  of  state  and  of  war,  grand 
cross  of  the  Order  of  S.  Bento  de  Aviz,  an  officer  of  the  Im- 
perial Order  of  the  Cruzeiro,  and  a  commander  of  that  of  the 
Rose,  was  born  in  Lisbon  on  the  29th  of  January,  1781. 
Being  destined  to  a  military  career  he  enlisted  in  the  second 
regiment  of  infantry  on  the  14th  of  December,  1796,  and 
VOL.  I  38 

—  298  — 

on  the  18th  of  February  of  the  following  year  he  was  a 
cadet.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  course  of  engineering 
and  navigation,  which  he  completed.  He  served  through 
the  campaign  of  1801  in  the  artillery  and  was  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  ensign  in  1805.  He  came  in  the  same  ship  0{ 
war  which  conveyed  to  Brazil  the  prince  regent,  afterwards 
King  Don  Jo5o  VI,  and  arrived  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  7th 
of  March,  1808,  being  made  a  lieutenant  on  the  follow- 
ing day. 

The  8th  of  March,  1808,  the  day  on  which  he  landed  at 
the  capital  of  the  new  empire,  that  of  his  promotion,  that 
of  his  auspicious  future  in  Brazil,  which  he  adopted  for  his 
country,  deserves  to  be  chosen  as  the  date  for  heading  his 
biography  necessarily  summarized  here. 

From  1808  to  1817  he  was  employed  in  the  military 
archives,  and  afterwards  as  engineer  in  the  surveys  of  th9 
road  projected  from  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  to  Rio  Preto, 
in  levelling  the  same  capital,  in  draining  the  swamps  of 
the  quinta  of  Boa  Vista  and  in  other  works. 

In  1817  he  served  in  the  expedition  of  General  Luiz  do 
Rego  against  the  republican  revolution  of  Pernambuco, 
being  secretary  of  the  government  and  charged  with  the 
organization  of  the  military  division  of  that  capitania.  He 
there  rendered  valuable  administrative  services,  and  had 
the  honor  of  displeasing  the  cruel  algada,  by  interfering 
more  than  once  in  favor  of  victims  destined  for  punish- 

In  July,  1822,  he  was  charged  with  the  fortification  of 
the  island  of  Santa  Catharina.  In  the  same  year  he  adhered 
to  the  independence  of  Brazil.  On  returning  to  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro, the  government  ordered  him  to  construct  several 
fortifications  and  to  finish  the  light-house  at  Raza  island, 
which  had  been  commenced. 

—  299  — 

On  the  12th  of  October,  1826,  he  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  brevet-brigadier.  He  served  in  the  Cisplatine  war, 
and  was  present  at  the  battle  of  Ituzaingo  on  the  20th  of 
February,  1827,  as  adjutant-general  of  the  army. 

In  1828  he  fortified  tho  town,  afterwards  city  of  Rio 
Grande,  and  the  bar  of  the  port,  where  he  projected  and 
built  a  light-house. 

He  then  went  to  Montevideo  as  military  commandant, 
and  remained  there  till  the  place  was  surrendered.  Thence 
he  passed  in  the  same  post  to  the  province  of  Santa  Cathar- 
ina,  and  afterwards  to  that  of  Pari,  where  on  the  22d  of 
May,  1831,  he  received  the  news  of  the  abdication  of 
Don  Pedro  I,  exercising  the  military  command,  despite  the 
irritation  of  the  liberals  who  exacted  his  deposition,  until 
the  16th  of  July,  when  the  new  president  and  the  military 
commandant,  named  by  the  provisional  regency  of  the  Em- 
pire, arrived. 

The  events  ofthe  month  of  March,  1831,  when  the  unheard 
of  insolence  of  a  great  number  of  Portuguese,  on  the  nights 
called  das  garrafadas,  inflamed  the  national  pride  and 
greatly  compromised  the  Emperor,  Don  Pedro  I,  rekindled 
international  antagonism  and  injured  General  Andrea  who 
had  been  born  in  Portugal,  and  being  a  severe  disciplinar- 
ian, had  always  been  addicted  to  the  Emperor's  cause. 

Andrea  arrived  from  Pari,  and  being  distrusted  by  the 
party  in  power,  remained  unemployed. 

Andrea  became  still  more  suspected  as  he  was  an  influen- 
tial member  of  the  Sociedade  Militar,  which  frankly  op- 
posed the  opinions  of  the  government  of  the  7th  of  April, 
and  he  was  accused  of  conspiring  for  the  restoration  of  Don 
Pedro  I. 

General  Andr6a  was  persecuted;  he  had  to  appear  before 
a  court-martial  for  ordering  the  arrest  of  a  lieutenant  of 

—  300  — 
militia  in  Pari.  He  was  absolved,   but,  in  virtue  of  a  sen- 
tence of  the  supreme  military  court,  a  new  prosecution 
was  commenced  but  was  not  proceeded  with. 

The  government  wanted  to  have  him  away  from  the 
capital,  where  he  was  feared  as  one  of  the  (real  or  sup- 
posed) chiefs  of  the  caramuru  or  restoration  party,  and 
finding  him  disobedient,  ordered  him  to  be  arrested  at  day- 
break of  the  14th  of  December,  1833,  and  sent  him  on  the 
27th  of  the  same  month  to  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio 
Grande  do  Sul,  where  he  was  charged  with  difi*erent  mil- 
itary works.  On  the  25th  of  January  of  the  following 
year  General  Andrea  was  relieved  from  that  commission, 
and  on  the  17th  of  February  he  was  sent  to  S.  Jos6  do  Norte 
to  remain  there  till  he  received  further  orders  from  the 

These  violent  measures  were  of  a  political  character, 
and  evidently  the  consequence  of  those  popular  riots,  tol- 
erated by  government,  which  broke  out  in  the  capital ; 
the  rioters  attacking  the  house  of  the  Sociedade  Militar, 
and  some  opposition   printing   offices. 

In  Rio  Grande  General  Andrda  spontaneously  rendered 
services  as  an  engineer,  and  being  set  at  liberty  by  the 
president  of  the  province  on  the  17  th  of  November,  1824, 
he  undertook  other  works  until  he  was  recalled  to  the 
capital  in  March  1834,  being,  in  November  of  the  same 
year,  named  president  and  military  commandant  of  Pari, 
which  since  1832  had  been  wrestling  with  a  terrible  revolt, 
and  which,  having  lost  its  political  character,  was  bur- 
ning with  ferocious   instincts. 

The  capital  and  nearly  all  the  province  were  in  the 
power  of  the  rebels.  General  Andrea  took  the  capital,  and 
reconquered  the  province.  In  the  great  work  of  re- 
establishing order  he  was  sometimes  arbitrary,  and  in  sub- 

—  301  — 
duing  resistance  or  punishing  acts  of  atrocity  he  beaame 
dreaded  for  his  rigor. 

In  1839  he  left  the  government  of  Pari,  and  taking 
his  seat  in  the  chamber  as  a  deputy,  he  was  accused  of 
abuses  and  of  committing  crimes  which  had  made  him  the 
terrible  Verres  of  that  province. 

The  general  defended  himself  completely.  He  did  not 
deny  ;  but  shewed  the  necessity  of  rigor,  and  of  the  acts 
for  which  he  was  most  severely  censured. 

The  rebels  of  Rio-Grande  do  Sul  had  invaded  the  pro- 
vince of  Santa  Catharina,  and  had  taken  the  town  of 
Laguna  in  order  to  have  a  sea-port. 

In  that  same  year  Andrea  received  the  appointment 
of  president  and  military  commandant  of  the  province  of 
Santa  Catharina. 

He  arrived  at  the  city  of  Desterro  in  August,  1839.  The 
rebels  being  defeated  retired  from  Laguna,  and  evacu- 
ated the  province   which  they  had  invaded. 

In  1840  General  Andrea  is  president  and  military  com- 
mandant of  Rio  Grande  do  Sul.  There  he  operates  with 
prudence  for  want  of  forces,  and  employs  able  strategy 
against  the  rebels  ;  but  at  the  end  of  four  months,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  poiitical  opinions  of  the  first  cabinet  (lib- 
eral^ of  the  Emperor,  declared  of  age,  he  was  substituted 
by  another  president  and  military  commandant. 

In  1841  he  was  commissioned  to  draw  up  the  project  for 
the  organization  of  the  army,  and  was  appointed  to  the 
command  of  the  corps  of  engineers  in  1842,  in  which 
year  he  also  took  his  seat  in  the  chamber  as  a  deputy 
for  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

In  1843  he  was  president  of  the  province  of  Minas  Ge- 
raes,  just  after  the  great  revolt,  and  conducted  himself 
in   a  manner   that,  whilst  he  did  not  displease  the  party 

—  302  — 
which  had  triumphed  and  was  in  power,   he  acquired  the 
gratitude  of  the  vanquished. 

In  December  1845  he  was  appointed  president  of  the  prov- 
ince of  Bahia,  which  he  ably  administered  till  the  27th 
of  July,  1846. 

In  1848  he  was  named  president  and  military  comman- 
dant of  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul, 
which  was  in  a  delicate  position  owing  to  what  was  pass- 
ing in  the  Republic  of  Uruguay,  where  Oribe,  a  creature 
of  Rozas,  the  dictator  of  Buenos-Ayres,  was  besieging 
the  city  of  Montevideo,  and  as  he  commanded  all  the  in- 
terior of  the  Republic,  permitted  his  followers  often  to 
cross  the  frontiers  of  the  empire. 

Awaiting  the  possibility  of  a  war,  General  Andrea  de- 
termined the  position  for  the  encampment  of  large  forces ; 
he  designed  Ca^apava  as  the  depot  for  the  necessary  ma- 
terial for  twenty  thousand  men,  and  took  other  measures 
as  an  able  strategist  and  as  a  consummate  administrator. 

Whilst  employed  in  these  and  other  important  works, 
his  successor  was  sent  to  Rio  Grande  do  Sul. 

On  returning  to  the  capital  other  commissions  were 
entrusted  to  him;  but  being  nearly  seventy  years  of  age 
he  requested  to  be  put  on  the  half-pay  list  with  the  rank 
of  a   marshal  of  the  army. 

War  breaks  out,  Rozas  is  defeated  and  exiled,  the  Re- 
public of  Uruguay  is  saved,  the  Argentine  Confederation 
is  liberated,  and  Brazil,  the  generous  conqueror,  signs  a 
treaty  of  limits  with  the  Republic  of  Uruguay,  and  it 
became  necessary  to  mark  them. 

The  old  marshal,  Andr6a,  was  the  chief  of  the  committee 
of  limits,  and  in  that  post  he  displayed  the  force  of  his 
enlightened  intelligence,  his  respect  for  equity,  and  his 
energy  as  a  zealous  patriot. 

—  303  - 

The  news  of  the  serious  illness  of  his  consort  called 
Marshal  Andrea  suddenly   to  the   capital. 

The  heart  has  also  its  rights.  The  old  marshal  arrived 
in  time  to  receive  the  last  sigh  of  his  companion  of  nearly 
half  a  century. 

The  Emperor  at  that  time  created  him  Baron  of  Ca- 

Covered  with  mourning,  and  afflicted  by  his  loss,  the 
Baron  of  Ca^apava  returns  to  his  duty  on  the  prairies  of 
the  south. 

The  limits  were  marked  out;  a  few  accessories  and  some 
unimportant  questions  had  yet  to  be  resolved,  when  the 
angel  of  death  said— enough ! 

The  Baron  of  Cagapava  became  dejected,  he  felt  that  his 
end  was  drawing  near,  and  contrite,  calm  and  serene  he 
died  on  the  2d  of  October,  1858. 

At  the  age  of  seventy-five  he  died  in  the  service  of  the 
country  which  he  had  adopted. 

ix:   OF   i^-ca-hoh: 


Antonio  Ferreira  FranQa  was  born  on  the  14th  of  Jan- 
uary, 1771,  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia.  He  was 
the  legitimate  son  of  Joaquim  Ferreira  Franca,  a  Portu- 
guese, and  of  Donna  Anna  Ignacia  de  Jesus  Franca,  a  native- 
of  Minas  Geraes.  He  was  piously  and  carefully  educated  by 
his  parents. 

Antonio  Ferreira  Franga  studied  humanities  in  Bahia, 
displaying  great  comprehension  and  remarkable  intelli- 
gence. He  was,  besides,  of  an  excellent  disposition,  and 
very  good-hearted;  but  he  also  revealed  that  strong  will, 
that  independence  of  character,  and  that  openness  of  sen- 
timents, of  which  all  through  life  he  gave  proofs,  simply 
and  without  ostentation. 

VOL.  I  30 

—  306  — 

He  wished  to  go  to  Coimbra,  and  as  his  father  opposed 
him  in  this,  he  one  day  got  on  board  a  vessel  leaving  for 
Lisbon.  He  had  neither  a  passport,  nor  letters  of  intro- 
duction, neither  leave  from  his  family,  nor  money !  The  cap- 
tain, who  had  no  idea  that  such  a  passenger  was  on  board, 
and  only  discovered  him  after  leaving  the  port,  put  back 
and  landed  him  again. 

This  fact  can  not  be  explained  as  a  youthful  extrava- 
gance, neither  was  it  considered  as  disrespectful  to  paternal 
authority.  There  was  in  the  student  a  certain  natural 
originality  which  impelled  him  to  do  firmly  and  resolutelv 
what  he  thought  was  good  and  just,  without  taking  the 
consequences  into  consideration. 

He  insisted  on  going  to  Coimbra;  his  mother  and  his  god- 
mother, good  honest  ladies,  entered  into  a  most  laudable 
and  fortunate,  domestic,  and  loving  conspiracy.  They 
joined,  and  made  him  up  the  sum  requisite  for  his  journey, 
and  having  kissed  him  and  seen  him  depart,  they  returned 
to  announce  to  the  husband  and  gossips  what  they 
had  done.  Joaquim  Ferreira,  instead  of  reproving  the  act, 
immediately  ordered  an  allowance  to  be  given  to  his  son 
and  afterwards  sent  him  another  of  his  sons,  Glemente 
Ferreira  Franga  (afterwards  Marquis  of  Nazareth),  as  a 
companion  at  the  University. 

Antonio  Ferreira  Franga  was  a  wonderful  student  in 
Coimbra.  He  studied  the  courses  of  philosophy,  mathema- 
tics and  medicine,  taking  prizes  every  year  of  the  three 
courses!...  He  gained  the  affection  of  his  professors,  one 
of  whom,  the  celebrated  mathematician  Jose  Monteiro  da 
Rocha,  when  the  celebrated  student  had  to  study  astron- 
omy,  opened  his  class  for  him  who  was  his  only  pupil. 

Having  taken  his  degree.  Dr.  Franga  was  offered  a  pro- 

-  307  — 
fessor's  chair  at  the  University.   He,  however  answered 
that  his  services  belonged  by  right  to  Brazil. 

He  left  Goimbra  with  the  reputation  of  a  young  man  of 
irreprehensible  conduct,  and  profound  in  science,  but  he 
brought  from  Coimbra  that  same  originality  which  he 
had  taken  with  him.  His  enlightened  spirit  being  always 
occupied,  he  only  cared  for  the  scrupulous  cleanliness  of 
his  body;  being  an  absolute  stranger  to  fashion  or  to  the 
skill  of  tailors  in  dress. 

Whenever  he  spoke  it  was  like  a  man  of  science,  with 
precision  and  profoundness;  with  no  ornaments  of  eloquence 
but  with  the  greatest  clearness.  He  was  the  Cicero  of 
oratorial  simplicity. 

He  married  in  Coimbra  a  most  virtuous  lady,  who  was 
his  best  treasure  in  life.  He  was  appointed  professor  of 
geometry  in  the  capital  of  Bahia,  where  he  also  for  many 
years  occupied  the  post  of  physician  at  the  Santa  Casa  da 
Misericordia  and  at  the  military  hospital.  As  a  professor 
he  was  idolized  by  his  pupils,  who  were  captivated  by  his 
mildness,  and  charmed  by  his  learning  full  of  modesty. 
As  a  practitioner  he  was  an  angel  of  charity. 

When  the  first  school  of  medicine  was  organized  in 
Bahia,  Dr.  Franca  was  appointed  professor,  and  became 
professor  of  the  academy  of  medicine  when  a  reform  estab- 
lished a  new  plan  of  studies.  This  post  he  occupied  until 
he  was  superannuated. 

Dr.  Franca  was  a  member  of  the  municipal  council  of 
the  city  of  Bahia  when  the  conflicts  took  place  between 
the  patriots  on  one  side,  and  General  Madeira  and  the  Por- 
tuguese troops  on  the  other  ;  and,  whilst  every  one  trem- 
bled, and  fighting  was  going  on,  whilst  the  Bahia  patriots 
retired  to  the  interior,  he  being  devoted  to  the  indepen- 
dence of  his   country   and   zealous  of  his   duties  as  a 

-  306  - 


member  of  the  municipal  council,  was  always  at  his 
post  regardless  of  the  Portuguese  bayonets,  which,  how- 
ever, always  respected  him. 

He  was  a  peaceful  man,  always  opposed  to  disorders  and 
to  appeals  to  arms.  But  he  was  a  firm  patriot,  deaf  to  the 
clang  of  arms,  indifferent  to  danger,  and,  firmly  and  un- 
moved, did  his  duty  with  sublime  serenity. 

In  1823  he  was  elected  a  deputy  to  the  Brazilian  consti- 
tuinte  assembly  by  his  provi  nee,  which  again  from  1826  to 
1837  elected  him  three  times  a  member  of  the  general  as- 

In  the  constituinte  he  pr  esented  the  project  of  the  feder- 
ation of  the  provinces.  In  the  ordinary  sessions  he  offered 
projects  on  public  education,  for  the  gradual  abolition  of 
slavery,  and  a  remarkable  one,  that  serious  international 
questions  should  be  decided  by  a  congress  of  the  powers. 
He  was,  and  always  show  ed  himself  frankly,  a  republican; 
but  a  peaceful  republican  who  only  appealed  to  the  con- 
quests of  intelligence  and  civilization.  In  1833  when  the 
project  for  the  banishment  of  the  ex-Emperor  Don  Pedro  1 
was  being  discussed,  he,  the  republican,  said  in  parliament : 
«  If  Don  Pedro,  the  founder  of  the  Empire,  come  to  Brazil, 
I  shall  be  the  first  to  open  the  doors  for  him.  » 

In  the  second  ^ordinary  legislature  one  of  his  sons  sat  in 
parliament  with  him,  the  illustrious  and  upright  Ernesto 
Ferreira  Fran^.  In  the  secon  d  legislature  he  had  as  col- 
leagues, besides  this  one,  anot  her  of  bis  sons.  Councilor 
Cornelio  Ferreira  Franca,   who  fortunately  is  still  living- 

Dr.  Antonio  Ferreira  Fr  anga,  enjoyed  immense  popular- 
ity as  a  deputy.  He  was  distinguished  for  his  courage  in 
emitting  frankly  his  most  advanced  liberal  opinions,  for 
the  eloquent  simplicity  of  his  speeches,  and  for  his  eccen- 
tric ways. 

—  309  - 

He  was  short  and  thin,  but  his  clothes  would  fit  a  tall  and 
stout  man ;  he  used  to  tie  his  neckcloth  so  loosely  that  he 
could  hide  his  face  up  to  his  nose  in  it.  The  people,  by  whom 
he  was  loved,  used  to  call  him  Francinhay  little  Fran^. 

Though  of  ardent  opinions,  Dr.  Ferreira  Franga  could 
curb  himself  in  discussion ;  but  none  exceeded  him  in  se- 
rene courage.  When  the  impeachment  of  the  minister  of 
war,  Oliveira  Alvares,  was  under  discussion  in  the  chamber, 
he  was  hooted  and  insulted  by  the  military  men  who  occu- 
pied one  of  the  galleries,  but  he,  cool,  in  the  same  tone, 
and  with  the  most  perfect  indifference,  being  twice  inter- 
rupted by  shouts  and  menaces,  repeated  three  times,  with 
the  greatest  calmness,  the  proposition  which  had  provoked 
the  violent  and  inordinate  outbreak. 

Nevertheless,  when  his  son  Ernest  spoke,  and  as  a  young 
liberal  became  excited  in  his  attacks  on  the  government, 
old  Dr.  Franga  used  to  pull  the  tail  of  his  coat,  and  say  : 
<  Prudence,  Mr.  Ernest !  » 

He  sometimes  uttered  most  witty  epigrams  and  sar- 

A  deputy  attacked  the  creation  of  a  class  of  Greek  as 
useless  and  as  a  burthen  on  the  treasury.  Dr.  Franga  rose 
and  begged  leave  of  the  president  of  the  chamber  to  ask 
the  deputy  a  question.     On  leave  being  granted,  hea^ked : 

«  Does  Y.  E.  know  Greek,  or  did  Y.  E.  ever  study  or 
attempt  to  learn  the  Greek  language  ?  > 

«  No ;  »  replied  his  colleague. 

«  Mr.  President !  >  said  Dr.  Franga,  «  I  have  answered  the 
noble  deputy's  speech.  » 

And  he  sat  down  amidst  the  laughter  of  the  chamber, 
which  voted  the  6l*eation  of  the  Greek  class. 

Dr.  Antonio  Ferreira  Franga  was  for  some  time  physician 
to  the  Emperor,  and  in  the  palace  he  was  always  the  same 

—  310  — 
man  of  science  and  witty  eccentricity.  On  one  occasion, 
being  at  the   bedside  of  the  Emperor  Don  Pedro  I  who  was 
ill,  H.  M.  asked  for  a  glass  of  water.  He  rose  to  go  for  it. 
but  the  chamberlain  in  waiting  immediately  took  the  glass 
from  his  hand,  saying  that  the  honor  of  that  service  did  not 
belong  to  him.  Dr.  Franga  immediately  begged  his  pardon, 
confessing  his  utter  ignorance  of  court  etiquette.    On  the 
following  day,  when  alone  with   his  august  patient,   the 
Emperor  expressed  the  desire  to  make  water.  Dr.  Franca, 
instead  of  assisting  him,  to  obey  a  call  of  nature  ran  to  the 
door  of  the  room  and  began  calling  in  aloud  voice : «  Where 
is  the  gentleman  of  the  chamber  pot?...  let  the  gentleman  of 
the  chamber  pot  appear  !... 

The  Emperor  burst  out  laughing. 

Dr.  Antonio  Ferreira  Franga,  was  more  than  once  includ- 
ed in  triple  lists  for  senator,  but  was  never  chosen. 
Losing  his  seat  in  parliament  in  the  fourth  legislature,  he 
retired  from  politics.  But  in  his  province  he  occupied  the 
professor's  chair  of  Greek,  and  of  Director  of  the  Bahia  Ly- 
ceum, in  the  former  of  which  he  displayed  great  capa- 

He  died  surrounded  by  his  children  and  virtuous  consort 
on  the  9th  of  March,  1848. 

OF    ls^£A.TiajEI. 


Like  many  other  illustrious  Brazilians,  who  flourished  in 
the  first  two  centuries  of  the  existence  of  colonial  Brazil 
and  even  in  the  eighteenth  century,  Jos6  Pires  de  Carva- 
Iho  Albuquerque  barely  escaped  the  oblivion  in  which  the 
memory  of  many  was  buried. 

It  is  known  that  Jos6  Pires  was  bom  in  1701  in  Bahia, 
and  that  his  family  belonged  to  the  nobility  of  the  capital 
of  Brazil. 

In  his  time  he  was  considered  a  remarkable  poet,  and  a«s 
such  he  distinguished  himself. 

In  1757  Josd  Pires  de  Carvalho  Albuquerque  published  a 
poem,  Conceigdo  de  Nossa  Senhora. 

His  name  is  here  registered  arbitrarily  under  the  date 
10th   of  March,  for  lack  of  a  precise  and  known  date. 

OF  i^ATi.aja: 

B.  JOSE  imm  JlISriNIANO  mascarems  castello  branco 

Jos^  Joaquim  Justiniano  Mascarenhas  Castello  Branco, 
the  legitimate  son  of  JoEo  de  Mascarenhas  Castello  Branco 
and  of  Donna  Anna  Theodora,  was  born  on  the  23d  of  Au- 
gust, 1731,  in  the  city  of  S.  Sebastiao  do  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and 
there  received  primary  education,  and  studied  humanities 
in  the  classes  of  the  society  of  Jesuits.  In  1750  he  went 
to  Coimbra  assisted  by  his  uncle.  Father  Ignacio  Manoel  da 
Costa  Mascarenhas,  vicar  of  the  parish  of  Candelaria. 

In  the  University  he  took  the  degree  of  licentiate  in  the 
faculty  of  canons,  and  in  1754  he  took  orders  of  presbyter 
in  Lisbon. 

His  enlightened  intelligonce  and  his  acknowledged  virtues 
proved  his  merit  in  ecclesiastical  charges  and  benefices.  He 
was  appointed  deputy  of  the  inquisition  in  Evora,  and  short- 
ly after  accuser  in  the  same  court.  In  1765  he  obtained 
VOL.  I  40 

—  314  - 

the  decanal  dignity  in  the  See  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  there 
occupied  the  second  chair  of  the  inquisition  till  1769,  when 
he  went  to  Lisbon  in  the  same  capacity. 

In  1773  he  was  appointed  coadjutor  and  future  successor 
to  the  bishopric  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  confirmed  by  the  bull 
of  Clement  XIV  of  the  20th  of  December  of  the  same  year, 
being  consecrated  in  the  chapel  of  the  regent  cardinal  Don 
Joto  da  Gunha. 

Don  Josd  Joaquim  Justiniano  Mascarenhas  Gastello  Bran- 
CO  entered  the  port  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  15th  of  April, 
1774,  and  landed  on  the  following  day  as  proprietor  of  the 
mitre  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Friar  Don  Antonio  do  Desterro 
having  died  on  the  5th  of  December  of  the  previous 

The  new  bishop  by  a  pastoral  of  the  11th  of  March,  1775, 
convoked  the  clergy,  both  secular  and  regular,  to  be  exam- 
ined in  moral  theology,  and  had  to  overcome  the  disobe- 
dience of  the  religious  corporations,  especially  of  the 
Capuchins,  who  maintained  that  they  enjoyed  privileges 
granted  by  the  sovereign  Pontiffs  to  their  Order,  and  only 
obeyed  when  menaced  with  the  greater  excommunication. 

The  great  end  of  the  venerable  pastor  was  to  instruct 
and  moralize  the  clergy ;  and  to  this  end  he  instituted 
lectures  for  the  benefit  of  the  old  and  the  irew  ecclesiastics, 
under  the  direction  of  the  Franciscan  friar,  JoEo  Capistrano 
de  S.  Bento,  and  forbade  that  any  priest  should  be  admitted 
to  be  examined  as  confessor  who  did  not  present  certificates 
of  attendance  at  the  classes  of  moral.  He  also  established, 
in  the  seminary  of  S.  Jos6,  classes  of  rhetoric,  philosophy, 
geography,  cosmology,  and  natural  history,  and  in  the 
same  seminary  and  in  that  of  S.  Joaquim  classes  of  music, 
which  produced  most  able  chanters. 

As  a  result  of  these  measures  the  clergy  of  the  diocese 

—  315  — 

of  the  bishop  was  worthy  of  the  service  of  God,  and  very 
useful  to  the  civilization  of  the  country . 

In  1784  he  was  appointed  Visitor-General  and  Apostolic 
Reformer  of  the  Carmelite  monks  of  the  province  of  Rio 
de  Janeiro.  During  the  six  years  in  which  he  exercised 
these  functions  he  corrected  lamentable  abuses,  paid  many 
debts,  and,  if  the  Carmelites  found  him  severe,  they  never 
had  reason  to  tax  him  with  injustice. 

On  his  visits  to  the  parishes  of  his  diocese,  this  bishop 
never  allowed  the  parishioners  to  bear  the  expenses  of 
his  passing  residence,  and  still  less  did  he  receive  hospi- 
tality from  any  of  them. 

Besides  ably  governing  his  diocese  he  rendered  other 
services  which  deserve  to  be  remembered.  He  used  every 
means  to  promote  the  culture  of  indigo,  which  prospered 
remarkably,  and  contributed  to  the  propagation  of  the 
then  nascent  culture  of  the  coffee  tree,  receiving  seed 
from  the  Italian  Capuchins,  which  he  distributed,  with 
minute  instructions,  to  Fathers  JoSo  Lopes  and  Couto,  the 
former  in  the  parish  of  S.  Gongalo,  and  the  latter  on 
the  road  to  Rezende,  where  he  had  an  estate,  from  which 
came  the  seed  and  the  plants  which  have  produced  such 
immense  wealth. 

The  28th  day  of  February,  1805,  marks  the  last  day  of 
the  life  of  Bishop  Don  Josd  Joaquim  Justiniano  Masca- 
renhas  Castello  Branco,  who  was  interred  in  the  tomb 
which  he  himself  had  had  prepared  in  the  chapel  of  the 
episcopal  palace.  On  the  stone  which  coversd  his  mortal 
remains,  we  read : 

«  Santa  Maria,  ora  pro  nobis.  » 

ZS.1X  o-p  a^^Aitoia: 


It  was  Friar  Henrique,  a  Franciscan  who  accompanied 
Pedro  Alvares  Gabral,  who  celebrated  the  first  masses  in 
Brazil,  on  the  26th  of  April  and  on  the  1st  of  May,  1500. 

The  Society  of  Jesus  entered  Brazil  by  sending  with  the 
governor-general,  Thom6  de  Souza  in  1549,  its  first  mission- 
aries to  this  country. 

In  1558  a  Franciscan,  friar,  Pedro  de  Palacios  on  arriv- 
ing at  the  capitania  of  Espiri  to  Santo,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  colonists  raised  a  chapel  consecrated  to  Nossa  Se- 
nhora  dos  Prazeres,  which  many  years  later  served  as 
the   basis  for  establishing  a  convent. 

In  the  year  1584,  the  religious  orders  of  the  Benedic- 
tines and  of  the  Carmelites  founded  their  first  convents, 
those  of  the  cities  of  S.  Salvador  and  of  Olinda. 

Though  civilization  in  the  Portuguese  colony  of  America 

-  318  — 
progressed  but  slowly,  it  owed  much  to  those  religious 
communities ,  which  were  its  fountains  of  light,  and  of 
which  that  of  the  Franciscans  was  not  the  least  civilizing. 

The  (religious)  province  of  Santo  Antonio  of  Brazil  pro- 
duced, since  the  seventeenth  century,  great  sacred  orators, 
poets,   and   men  of  profound  learning. 

Among  these  Friar  Francisco  Xavier  de  Santa  Thereza 
must  be  remembered.  He  was  bcrn  in  Bahia  on  the  12th 
of  March,  1686. 

He  was  a  Franciscan  monk  of  the  above-mentioned 
province,  becoming  afterwards  incorporated  in  that  of  Por- 
tugal to  where  he  passed. 

In  traveling  through  (different  countries  of  Europe  he 
enriched  his  intellect  by  study  and  observation. 

He  embarked  in  the  fleet  which  the  King  Don  Joao  V 
sent  to  assist  the  pope,  Clement  XI,  in  reconquering  the 
isle  of  Corfu  which  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Turks.  In 
1717  he  was  severely  wounded  in  the  battle  of  Passavi, 
and  had  to  undergo  the  amputation  of  his  left  leg. 

He  was  lecturer  on  theology,  and  penitentiary  general  to 
the  Seraphic  Order,  and  a  member  of  the  Royal  Academy 
of  History.  He  cultivated  letters  and  poetry,  wrote  Latin 
prose  and  verse,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Arcadia  Ro- 

He  appears  to  have  been  a  distinguished  preacher  ;  hav- 
ing been  often  chosen  to  preach  at  the  funeral  of  impor- 
tant persons,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  list  of  his  works  given 
by  the  Bib :  of  Barboza,  and  by  Mr.  Innocencio  Francisco 
da  Silva  in  his  Diccionario  Bibliographico  Portuguez. 

The  date  of  the  death  of  Friar  Francisco  Xavier  de  Santa 
Thereza  is  unknown. 




Jos6  Martins  Pereira  de  Alencastre  was  born  in  the  parish 
ofRioFundo,  province  of  Bahia,  on  the  19th  of  March,  1831 ; 
he  was  nursed  in  poverty,  but  even  so  he  succeeded  in 
obtaining,  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador,  besides  primary 
education,  some  preparatory  training. 

He  was  talented  and  diligent,  but  for  want  of  means  he 
was  obliged  to  interrupt  his  regular  course  of  studies,  being 
forced  to  work  for  his  daily  bread. 

Nevertheless  he  continued,  to  study  in  the  solitude  of 
his  chamber. 

In  the  province  of  Piauhy,  to  which  he  had  to  pass, 
advantage  was  immediately  taken  of  his  habilities,  and 
Alencastre  served  successively  as  crown  lawyer,  ad  inter- 
im, in  Oeiras,  as  fiscal  attorney  of  the  treasury,  as  super- 
numerary clerk  of  the  provincial  government,  and  finally. 

—  320  — 
as  public  professor  of  the  Portuguese  language  at  the 
Lyceum  of  the  capital. 

Longing  for  a  wider  sphere  for  the  flights  of  his  talent,  he 
came  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  August,  1857,  and  in  October  of 
the  same  year  he  obtained  the  appointment  as  officer  of 
the  naval  Intendancy.  He,  however,  had  hardly  commenced 
his  duties  when  he  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  govern- 
ment of  the  province  of  ParanA,  where  on  the  following 
year  he  received  the  decree  which  named  him  a  second 
officer  in  the  naval  council  which  had  been  then  created. 

He  served  as  secretary  to  the  government  of  the  province 
of  S.  Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul  from  April,  1859,  till  the 
end  of  January,  1861,  when  he  was  entrusted  with  a  more 
important  commission  by  the  imperial  government,  being 
sent  as  president  to  the  province  of  Goyaz,  and  two  months 
later,  though  absent,  being  appointed  chief  of  section  in 
the  department  of  Agriculture,  Commerce  and  Public  Works, 
which  had  been  created  that  year. 

Being  relieved,  at  his  own  request,  of  the  presidency  of 
the  province  of  Goyaz,  he  devoted  himself  with  zeal  to  his 
new  employment,  until  in  1866  he  was  again  called 
away  to  preside  the  province  of  Alag6as,  which  during 
his  administration  had  the  glory  of  sending  to  the  Para- 
guayan war  two  corps  with  116  men,  besides  60  others  for 
the  imperial  navy.  A  year  after  Alencastre  returned  to 
the  capital  of  the  Empire  and,  as  a  reward  for  his  services, 
was  made  a  commander  of  the  Order  of  Christ. 

From  1867  forward  Alencastre  devoted  himself  exclu- 
sively to  his  duties,  which  he  scrupulously  discharged  as  a 
public  functionary,  and  to  study  and  important  labors, 
which  undoubtedly  hastened  his  death. 

He  left  his  compatriots  a  most  useful  and  eloquent  exam- 
ple of  the  triumph  of  application,  diligence,  and  activity. 

—  321  — 

The  history  of  his  life  is  a  voice  which  teaches,  and  to  those 
who  are  discouraged  by  poverty  or  by  the  humility  of  their 
birth,  it  cry  s  :  «  Work  !...  Aspire!...  and  you  will  rise 
through  merit.  > 

It  was  convinced  of  this  truth  that  Alencastre  worked, 
aspired,  and  rose.  Of  a  weak  complexion,  sickly,  but  of  en- 
ergetic will,  his  spirit  reacted  against  the  weakness  of  the 
body,  triumphed,  gained  the  laurels  of  victory,  and  became 
excited  ;  but  spent  his  life  too  fast... 

A  year  before  his  demise,  death,  at  a  more  or  less  remote 
period,  was  apparent  in  an  incurable  and  fatally  progres- 
sive disease,  and  the  condemned  man,  with  the  precipita- 
tion of  one  who  knows  that  he  has  but  little  time  left,  made 
no  question  of  a  few  months,  and  did  double  work. 

Death  appears,  in  its  way,  to  have  pitied  the  martyr  of 
work,  and  on  the  13th  of  March,  1866,  his  mortal  remains 
were  interred. 

Jo86  Martins  Pereira  de  Alencastre  left  the  following 
works  published : 

Lagrimas  e  Saudades  —  poetic  pieces  —  Bahia,  1852 — 1 
vol.,  large  8vo. 

Memoria  chronological  historica  e  coreographica  da 
provincia  de  Piauhy  —  published  in  the  Review  of  the  Bra- 
zilian Historical  and  Geographical  Institute — vol.  XX. 

VOL.  I  41 

3CIV     O^P    ^/LA.JEi.Clc^ 



Eusebio  de  Mattos,  the  son  of  Gregorio  de  Mattos  and 
of  his  wife,  Donna  Maria  da  Guerra,  and  brother  of  the  in- 
corrigible satyrical  poet  Gregorio  de  Mattos  Guerra,  was  born 
in  Bahia  in  the  year  1629.  He  was  gifted  with  most  won- 
derful talent  and  was  early  attracted  to,  and  taken  by,  the 
Jesuits,  who  in  the  cleverness  and  admirable  comprehension 
of  the  boy,  gu  )ssed  the  genius  of  the  man,  by  observing  him 
in  his  fii  st  lessons. 

The  1  ith  of  March,  1644,  marks  the  date  of  his  eutrauce 
i  to  the  Society. 

Brother  Eusebio  made  extraordinary  progress  in  the 
study  of  humanitijs.  He  had  for  his  professor  in  philos- 
ophy, the  celebrated  Father  Antonio  Vieira,  whom  he  af- 
terwads  succeeded  in  the  chair,  in  which  he  distinguished 
himself.  Father  Manoel  de  S4,  a  most  competent  authority, 

said  that  not  only  was  he  profound  in  other  branches  of 
learning,  but  was  also  an  excellent  Latin  scholar,  and 
a  good  poet. 

In  the  pulpit  in  Bahia  father  Eusebio  was  a  rival  of 
Vieira,  and  of  Antonio  de  Si,  which  is  saying  a  great 

Grieved  and  offended,  at  the  end  of  some  years  he  ex- 
changed the  tunic  for  the  carmelite  frock,  taking  the  name 
of  friar  Eusebio  da  Soledade. 

Father  Antonio  Vieira,  on  returning  to  Bahia  in  1861, 
found  friar  Eusebio  a  carmelite,  and  knowing  that  the 
priests  of  the  society  were  the  cause  of  this,  exclaimed, 
in  the  style  of  his  times;*  So  ill  have  they  done,  that 
it  will  be  long  before  other  Mattos  (forests)  witl  grow 
for  the  society!...  »  They  replied  that  Mattos  had  love 
intrigues  and  had  a  son,  and  that  it  had  been  necassary  to 
punish  the  scandal ;  but  Vieira  replied :  «I  believe  this  to 
be  a  plot,  but  were  it  not  so,  father  Eusebio  is  a  man  of 
so  much  merit,  that  it  would  be  better  for  the  society 
to  keep  him  with  his  children  than  to  lose  so  important  a 
soldier.  » 

Brother  Eusebio  da  Soledade,  or  Eusebio  de  Mattos  was 
a  prodigy :  nature  had  lavished  on  him  its  most  precious  gifts 
with  a  prodig  al  hand. 

Brother  Eusebio  was  every  thing  he  wished  to  be  in 
letters  and  fine  arts. 

In  literature  he  equalled  the  most  conspicuous  men 
of  his  time;  he  was  destinguished  in  ecclesiastical  science^; 
in  the  pulpit  he  rivalled  Vieira,  considered  the  first 
preacher  in  Portugal ;  as  a  poet,  his  contemporaries  con- 
sidered him  inspired. 

He  was  a  great  musician  and  composed  religious  hymns, 
and  melodious  profane  music  to  verses  of  h^s  own ;   he 

—  325  — 

played  the  harp,  and  still  better  the  guitar ;  he  drew 
beautifully,   and  perfectly  imitated  ingravings. 

Of  the  works  of  this  great  and  illustrious  Brazilian 
the  greater  part  were  lost,  only  the  following  remai- 

Ecce  HomOy  that  is,  his  sermons  on  the  Thorns,  the 
Purple,  the  Ropes,  the  Cane,  the  Wounds,  and  the 
Title  of  Man,  a  monument  of  style  and  a  fount  of 

Funeral  oration,  recited  on  the  15th  of  June  1672,  on 
the  bishop,  Don  EstevSo  dos  Santos. 

Sermon  of  the  Soledade,  printed  during  his  life. 

Sermons  (fifteen)  posthumous  forming  the  first  volume 
of  the  collection  which  his  colleague  friar  Jo9o  de  Santa 
Maria,  intended  to  publish,  from  the  fragments  found  in 
his  cell,  but  did  not  continue. 

The  poetic  pieces  of  Eusebio  de  Mattos  have  almost 
all  disappeared.  Some  of  them  are  perhaps  attributed  to 
his  brother  Gregorio  de  Mattos  being  found  among  his 
disordered  papers.  He  however  had  a  copious  muse ;  though 
a  Carmelite,  having  been  a  Jesuit,  he  was  also  a  profane 
poet,  and  sometimes  a  witty  one. 

Mr.  Varnhagen,  now  Viscount  of  Porto  Seguro,  con- 
siders as  authentic  the  parody  of  ten  stanzas  of  octave 
rhyme,  addressed  by  Gregorio  de  Mattos  to  his  cherished 
Donna  Brites,  in  ten  other  stanzas  which  Eusebio  de  Mattos 
composed,  preserving  the  last  word  of  each  verse  paro- 

No  other  proof  is  required  of  the  poetic  talent  of  Eusebio 
de  Mattos ;  this  effort  of  art,  gives  at  least  an  idea  of 
the  capacity  of  the  poet  in  the  free  and  ample  flights 
of  his  genius. 

^V    OF    2«<d:^XlCXX 


^On  this  day  of  the  year  1816,  Antonio  4a  Costa  was 
born  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  He  was  the  legiti* 
mate  son  of  a  surgeon  of  the  same  name,  and  of  Donna  Ger- 
trudes Mathilde  da  Silva  e  S&. 

He  studied  humanities  in  the  city  of  his  births  and 
having  a  decided  inclination  for  his  fathir*s  honorable 
profession,  he  matriculated  in  1831  at  the  old  medico- 
surgical  school  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  in  which  the  celebrated 
Dr.  Marques  was  professor  of  anatomy,  he  who  taught  so 
many  who  afterwards  became  professors. 

In  1833  Antonio  da  Gosta  went  to  France,  he  com- 
menced to  s'udy  in  Paris,  but,  for  the  benefit  of  his  health, 
hft  went  to  Montpellier,  where  in  1837  he  graduated  as 
Doctor    of  medicine;   returning  to  ?aris  he  passed  some 

months  attending  the  hospitals  and   the  practise  of  the 
most  celebrated  operators. 

On  the  6th  of  February,  1838,  he  returns  from  France 
to  his  mother  country,  on  the  following  year  he  defends 
theses  at  the  Faculty  of  medicine  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and 
commencing  to  exercice  his  profession  he  is  discovered  to 
be  not  only  an  able  physician  but  a  most  skilful  surgi- 
cal operator. 

To  the  perfect  knowledge  which  he  had  of  the  human 
body,  in  which  he  could  read  as  a  good  geographer  on 
a  carefully  drawn  up  toopographical  map  of  a  well  stu- 
died and  known  country,  he  joined  perfect  imperturbabi- 
lity, firmness  of  hand,  rapidity  in  his  movements,  and  the 
clear  appreciation  of  the  consequences  of  his  operations.  In 
a  short  time  he  obtained  the  confidence  of  the  public,  and 
gained  laurels  in  the  city  where  flourished  Manoel  Feli- 
ciano  Pereira  de  Garvalho,  the  great  and  illustrious,  Brazil 
ian  surgeon. 

To  shine  at  the  side  of  Manoel  Feliciano  he  must  needs 
have  been  a  luciferous  planet. 

After  seventeen  years  of  surgical  triumps  Dr.  Antonio 
da  Costa,  returns  to  Europe,  presents  several  important 
papers  to  the  Academy  of  medical  sciences  of  Lisbon,  and 
afterwards  to  the  Imperial  medical  academy  of  Paris,  the 
most  important  of  which  was  a  memoir  written  in  French, 
entitled — Siooteen  years  of  surgical  practise  in  Brazil, 
in  which  he  related  numerous,  and  some  very  curious, 
observations,  and  facts  of  his  practise  as  surgeon,  and 
described  the  progress  and  the  state  of  surgery  in  Brazil, 
with  its  history   sinre  1808. 

Having  been  connected  with  the  surgical  celebrities  of 
Paris,  enriched  by  fresh  knowledge  acquired,  leaving  a 
good  reputation  in  the  proud  capital  of  France,  Dr.  Anto- 

—  329  — 
nio  da  Costa  returned  to  bis  country  and  devoted  himself 
to  his  large  and  most  difficult  practice,  with  which  he 
was  exclusively  occupied  from  1856  forward. 

Jealous  of  the  credit  of  his  name,  and  of  that  of  his 
country,  he  frequently  sent  observations  to  the  medical 
publications  and  to  the  medical  academy  of  Paris. 

At  the  age  of  forty  four,  in  the  vigor  of  manhood,  and 
whilst  going  the  rounds  of  the  infirmaries  in  the  hospital 
of  the  Santa  Casa  da  Misericordia  of  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
Dr.  Antonio  da  Costa  felt  unwell.  The  generous  warrior 
had  been  mortally  struck  in  the  field  of  the  most  holy 
battles.  The  conqueror  in  a  thousand  bloody,  but  humani- 
tarian, charitable  and  pious  campaigns,  retired  badly 

The  utmost  efforts  of  science,  the  most  tender  care  of 
his  family  were  of  no  avail,  they  could  not  arrest  the  im- 
placable and  progressive  development  of  the  desease. 

Dr.  Antonio  da  Costa  died  on  the  7th  of  July,    1860. 

He  was  a  doctor  of  medicine  by  the  faculties  of  Mont- 
pellier  and  Rio  de  Janeiro,  honorary  surgeon  to  H.  M. 
the  Emperor  of  Brazil,  a  commander  of  the  order  of  Christ, 
and  chevalier  of  the  Imperial  Oi*der  of  the  Rose  of  Brazil;  a 
chevalier  of  the  orders  of  Christ  and  ConceigEo  of  Portu- 
gal, and  of  the  order  of  the  legion  of  honor  of  France,  a 
surgeon  of  the  hospitals  of  the  Santa  Casa  da  Misericordia, 
of  the  third  order  of  Mount  Carmel,  and  of  Providencia 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  He  was  medical  attendant  of  the  French 
Benevolent  Society,  and  of  the  French  legation  in  the 
capital;  member  of  the  Historical  and  Geographical  Ins- 
titute of  Brazil,  of  the  anatomical  society  of  Paris,  of 
the   society   of    medical  sciences  of  Lisbon,  and  others. 

Besides  all   these  titles  flattering  to  man  on  earth,  let 
VOL.  I  42 

—  380  - 
no  one  forget   the  most  noble  of  his  titles,  that  which 
recommended  him  most  in  heaven  before  God. 

Dr.   Antonio  da  Costa  was  a  serviceable  and  charitable 
benefactor  of  mankind. 

His  name  shines  among  those  of  the  most  skilful  and 
able  Brazilian  surgeons  and  operators. 

His  memory  is  worthy  of  the  gratitude  of  his  country 
which  he  honored. 

:XVT    OF    Is^AJSlCm. 


The  grant  of  one  league  of  land  along  the  sea-shore, 
with  a  depth  of  two  leagues  towards  the  interior,  made  to 
Martin  Aflfonso  de  Souza,  the  famous  Indian  Ararigboia,  is 
dated  this  day  of  the  year  1568.  The  grant  was  on  the 
other  side  of  the  bay,  in  front  of  the  new  city  of  S.  Sebas- 
tiSo  do  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Ararigboia  was  a  praiseworthy  savage. 

In  1555  an  expedition  of  French  calvinists  commanded 
by  Nicolas  Durand  Villegaignon,  a  chevalier  of  Malta,  and 
vice-admiral  of  Britany,  settled  in  the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janei- 
ro, and  commenced  by  occupying  and  fortifying  the  small 
island  to  which  they  gave  the  name  of  the  admiral  their 
protector  in  France  —  Coligny,  but  which  took  and  preser- 
ves that  of — Villegaignon. 

—  332  — 

Religious  quarrels  induced  the  chief  of  the  expedition  to 
return  to  France  in  1558. 

Yillegaignon  deserted  the  calvinists  and  embraced  the 
cause  of  the  Duke  of  Guise. 

But  the  French  colony  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  had  received 
reinforcements  and  they  were  so  sure  of  the  future,  that 
they  had  adopted  the  name  of  Antarctic  France  for  their 
dominions  in  Brazil,  and  that  of  Henriville  for  the  capital 
they  intended  to  found. 

In  1560  Mem  de  S&  third  governor  general  of  Brazil  left 
the  city  of  S.  Salvador  with  a  small  force  which  he 
collected,  and  entering  the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  routed 
the  French  who  fled  from  the  island  and  took  refuge  on 
the  continent,  where  the  Tamoyo  Indians  their  allies, 
received  them  in  the  forests ;  as  however  the  governor  had 
not  a  sufficient  force  to  leave  on  the  island  permanently 
established,  the  vanquished  returned  to  the  island  as  soon 
at  the  conquerors  retired. 

In  1565  Estacio  de  SA  arrived  from  Portugal  having  been 
commissioned  to  expel  the  French  from  Rio  de  Janeiro  and 
found  there  a  city :  from  his  uncle,  the  governor  Mem  de 
Sa,  he  received  the  auxiliaries  he  could  get,  and  arriving 
at  the  capitania  of  Espirito  Santo  he  succeeded  in  obtaining 
the  assistance  of  the  morubixaba  or  ch»ef  Ararigboia,  and 
his  tribe  of  Tupimind  Indians. 

The  name  which  he  had  adopted  Ararigboia  (fierce 
serpent)  describes  what  this  chief  was  in  battle. 

Estacio  de  S&  entered  the  bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  landed, 
and  taking  up  a  position  between  the  PSo  d'Assucar  and 
the  Praia  Vermelha,  there  laid  the  foundations  of  the  city, 
to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  S.  SebastiSo;  because  Sebas- 
tiSo  was  the  name  of  the  king  of  Portugal. 

The  French  had  also  raised  fortifications  on  the  conti- 


nent,  assisted  by  a  large  number  of  Tamoyos,  but  neither 
could  they  rout  the  Portuguese,  nor  could  these  rout  the 

The  year  1556  was  spent  in  partial  and  sterile  combats, 
in  which  Ararigboya  displayed  admirable  skill  and 

On  the  18th  of  January  of  the  following  year  Mem  de 
S4  arrived  to  aid  his  nephew,  on  the  20th  S.  Sebastian's 
day,  he  gave  battle,  and  at  the  first  attack,  of  Urucumi" 
rim,  Ararigboia,  the  enemy  of  the  Tamoyos,  astonishes 
every  one  by  his  daring  and  horrifies  by  the  slaughter  he 
inflicts  in  the  ranks  of  those  savages ;  in  that,  and  in  the 
following  combats,  half  the  honor  of  the  victories  belongs 
to  him.  The  Fierce  Serpent  was  worthy  of  his  name. 

There  are  no  longer  any  French  or  Tamoyos  on  the 
island  or  on  the  continent  of  Rio  de  Janeiro ;  those  who 
could  escape  fled  terrorstriken. 

Estacio  de  Si  dies  in  consequence  of  an  arrow  wound  in 
the  face.  Mem  de  S&  transfers  the  seat  of  Sebastianspolis 
to  the  hill  called  do  Castello,  from  which  it  descended 
occupying  its  present  vast  and  picturesque  situation. 

In  the  foundation  of  the  city  Ararigboia  was  of  great 
assistance  to  Mem  de  Si,  who  by  friendly  solicitations 
succeeded  in  making  him  remain  there,  as  a  herculean 
arm  on  which  he  could  depend  to  aid  his  other  nephew 
Salvador  Corr^a  de  S4  who  he  leaves  as  governor  of  the 
new  administrative  capitania  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Martin  Afibnso  de  Souza,  Ararigboia,  settled  with  his 
Indians  on  a  hill  which  was  aftewards  called  S.  Lourengo, 
a  historical  place,  now  almost  forgotten,  in  the  city  of  Nic- 
theroy,  an  eminence  which  commands  a  beautiful  pano- 

Ararigboia  leaves  this  place  on  one  occasion   to  assist 

—  834  - 

Salvador  Correa  de  Si  in  attacking  the  French  who  had 
arrived  at  Cabo  Frio  and  were  attempting  to  form  an  alli- 
ance with  the  Tamoyos  ;  a  fight  takes  place  in  ca- 
noes and  other  small  craft ;  Salvador  Correa  falls  into  the 
sea,  and  Ararigboia  saves  him,  catching  him  by  the  waist 
and  snatching  him  from  the  waves  which  were  about  to 
swallow  him.  Victory  crowns  the  efforts  and  the  bravery 
of  the  savage  chief. 

Later  on  the  Tamoyos  and  the  French,  thirsting  for  re- 
venge, attack  the  settlement  of  the  Tupiminos  chief ;  Sal- 
vador Correa  sends  him  thirty  five  soldiers,  and  Ararigboia, 
despizing  the  resources  of  a  defensive  war,  descends  from 
his  hill  and  attacks  the  unsuspecting  enemy  who  had  lan- 
ded ;  the  flght  took  place  during  the  night,  and  at  day 
break  Ararigboia  covered  with  the  blood  of  the  French 
and  of  the  Tamoyos.  proudly  sees  flying  at  a  distance  the 
canoes  and  craft  carrying  the  rest  of  his  enemies,  those  who 
had  escaped  his  savage  fury. 

From  that  day  forward  neither  French  nor  Tamoyos  again 
dared  to  attack  the  Fierce  Serpent. 

The  king  Don  SebastiSo  as  a  proof  of  the  value  ;he  set  on 
his  exploits  sent  Martin  Affonso  de  Souza  —  Ararigboia  a 
present  of  a  complete  suit  of  clothes  of  his  own  use,  ap- 
pointed him  capit^o  m6r  of  his  settemement  with  an  an- 
nity  of  twelve  mil  r6is,  and  created  him  chevalier  of  the 
order  of  Christ. 

From  these  titles  and  rewards  an  idea  may  be  formed 
of  the  services  rendered  by  the  intrepid  and  famous  In- 

Martin  Affonso  de  Souza  met  with  a  disastrous  death, 
being  drowned  near  the  island  of  MocanguS-mirim. 

The  light  of  his  glory  was  extinguished  in  the  sea, 
and  in  the  ungrateful  indifferance  of  several  generations ; 

-  335  — 

but  revives  and  shines  in  history,  which  ought  to  perpe- 
tuate his  exploits. 

Ararigboia  {Fierce  Serpent)  has  iu  his  life  one  only 
dark  spot :  the  fleree  rage,  the  sanguinary  revengefulness 
the  tigrish  fury  which  in  combat  empelled  him  to  give 
no  quarter  to  his  enemies  ;  he,  however,  was  a  savage,  he 
was  a  fierce  serpent ;  he  was  a  heroe  from  the  forest,  a 
man  of  the  woods,  and  it  oould  not  be  expected  that  he, 
Ararigboia  should  be  a  heroe  nursed  by  civilization. 

It  is  enough  for  his  greater  renown  that  he  should  have 
abandoned  canibalism,  a  habit  of  his  brother  savages  in 
the  impetus  of  atrocious   revenge. 

2CVII      OF     ^-^A-ROH 


Jos6  da  Natividade  was  born  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro on  the  19th  of  March  1669;  he  became  a  Benedictine 
monk  and  in  the  respective  monastery  acquired  profound 
learning  not  only  in  theology  but  in  philosophy  and  in 
literature  ;  he  was  an  eloquent  preacher,  and  in  reasoning 
he  displayed  such  resources,  so  much  tact  and  hability 
that   he  was  nicknamed  o  subtil  (the  snbtle). 

He  was  already  known,  and  admired  when  he  went  to 
Portugal  and  took  his  degree  as  doctor  of  theology  at  the 
tfniversity  of  Coimbra. 

On  returning  to  Brazil  he  became  abbot  of  the  Bahia 
monastery,  and  aftewards  provincial. 

He  was  often  consulted  on  ecclesiastical  subjects,  and 
his  opinions  were  received  with  the  highest  conside- 

VOL.  I  43 

*  338  ' 

He  died  on  the  9th  of  April  1715,  at  the  monastery  of 
S.  Bento,  whilst  serving  as  provincial.  His  funeral  pa- 
negyric wBs  recited  by  friar  Matheus  da  Encarna^ao,  who 
will  be  mentioned  in  another  article. 

Frias  Jos^  da  Natividade,  though  a  great  and  celebrated 
preacher,   only  printed  three  of  his  sermons. 

He  left  a  book  in-folio  of  canonical  regular,  and  moral 

xrvni  OF  i^JijRan 

ml  mm  n  mm 

Up  to  the  end  of  the  last  century  the  noblest  and  most 
wealthy  families  both  of  Brazil  and  Portugal,  considered 
it  an  honor  to  dedicate  to  the  priesthood  some  of  their 
members,  and  the  most  modest  and  poor  made  sacrifices 
to  have  a  son,  or  some  relation,  a  priest. 

Jos6  Borges  de  Barros,  son  of  captain  JoSo  Borges, 
who  distinguished  himself  in  the  war  against  the  Dutch, 
and  of  Maria  de  Barros,  was  born  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador 
da  Bahia  on  the  18th  of  March,  1657.  He  was  the  eldest 
son,  and  wished  to  enter  the  Society  of  Jesus;  but  six  years 
experience  proved  that  his  weak  health,  and  his  infirmi- 
ties would  not  allow  his  observance  of  the  Religious  Insti- 
tute; on  leaving  it,  however,  he  went  to  the  university  of 
Coimbra,  in  which  he  took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts 
and  batchelor  of  sacred  canons. 

-  340  — 
'  In  Brazil  he  was  school  master  of  the  cathedral  of 
Bahia,  judge  of  the  ecclesiastical  court  of  appeal,  vicar 
general,  and  judge  of  the  probate  court,  and  on  returning 
to  Goimbra  occupied  there  the  post  of  provisor  and  vicar 
general,  and  prior  of  the  orders  of  Santa  Maria  de  Arezede, 
and  of  S.  JoSo  de  Almedina,  and  of  archdeacon  of  C^a.  Ha- 
ving defended  the  jurisdiction  of  the  prelate  of  the  diocese 
of  Goimbra,  whose  conduct  had  displeased  the  king  Don 
Pedro  II,  he  had  to  go  to  Lisbon  where  the  arch-bishop  of 
Evora  Don  SimSo  da  Gama  named  him  his  provisor  and 
vicar  general;  as  a  reward  for  his  services  he  afterwards 
obtained  a  canonicate  in  the  cathedral  of  Evora. 

In  order  to  receive  the  cowl,  Jos6  Borges  retired  to  the 
oratory  of  S.  Felippe  Nery,  of  the  town  of  Estremoz,  anp 
died  on  the  10th  of  March,  1719,  with  signs  of  predestina- 
tion, according  to  the  Bibliotheca  LuzitanUy  whence  this 
information  is  taken. 

This  illustrious  Brazilian  shone  as  paofessor,  teaching 
theology  and  philosophy,  and  in  the  pulpit  as  an  elegant 
evangelical  orator  in  Bahia,  in  Goimbra,  in  Evora,  and 
in  Lisbon;  in  his  works  he  left  the  proofs  of  an  excellent 

He  was  endowed  with  a  prodigious  memory:  after  hea- 
ring a  sermon,  he  would  go  home,  and  at  the  end  of  a  few 
hours  he  would  send  it  written  out  to  the  person  who 
had  preached  it.  Hearing  a  thousand  words  recited,  he 
would    recite  them  in  their  proper  order,  or  backwards. 

His  hand-writing  was  admirable,  not  only  on  account  of 
the  beauty  and  perfection  of  the  characters,  but  because 
he  imitated  with  astonishing  perfection  the  best  and 
worst  writing. 

He  sometimes  amused  himself  writing  with  two  pens  in 
one  hand  two  lines,  unlike  one  another. 

—  341  — 

He  modestly  cultivated  poetry. 

He  was  a  man  of  graceful  presence,  of  a  jovial  disposi- 
tion, and  of  recognized  virtues. 

He  left  the  following  works. 

Tractatus  de  Prceceptis  Decatogi,  4**,  M.  S. 

Pratica  judical  como  o  FormiUario  do  provisor  eviga- 
rio  geral,  Fol,  M.  S. 

Tratado  pratico  das  materias  heraficiaes,  4^. 

Sermdes  variosy  2  vols,  4'. 

Arte  de  memoria  illi^trada. 

A  Constancia  como  triumpho,  comedy. 

Concltisoes  amorosas,  M.  S. 

:xxx    OF   i^^A^ncia: 

m    DA    SUVA    .UACHADO 


The  worthy  baron  of  Antonina  expired  on  the  19th  of 
March,   1875,  at  the  age  of  eighty  six. 

JoSo  da  Silva  Machado  was  his  baptismal  name,  and 
that  of  his  family ;  he  was  born  in  the  province  of  S. 
Pedro  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul  in  1782;  his  cradle  was 
humble  and  poor.  His  life  was  honored  by  labor,  by 
probity,  and  by  many  years  of  services. 

Silva  Machado  commenced  as  an  active  dealer  in  cattle, 
mules,  and  horses  which  he  sold  in  the  province  of  S. 
Paulo ;  being  laborious  and  economical,  and  enjoying 
credit  owing  to  his  probity,    he  succeeded  in  forming  a 

—  344  — 

capital  with  which  he  enlarged  his  business;  he  had 
already  same  means  when  he  married  a  lady  of  consi- 
derable fortune,  in  the  district  which  afterwards  become 
the  province  of  Parani ;  by  his  marriage  he  not  only 
aquired  considerable  wealth,  but  also  domestic  happiness. 

The  man  of  toil  then  became  the  element  of  progress, 
and  his  important  services  deserve  the  graatitude  of  his 
country.  At  his  own  expense  he  opened  long  roads,  ex- 
plored the  solitudes  of  the  rivers  Tibagy  and  Parana- 
panema,  established  two  Indian  settlements,  one  on  the 
banks  of  the  river  Verde  and  another  on  those  of  the 
ltarar6;  he  became  a  guide  to  civilization,  though  he 
had  not  the  science   whfch  is  aquired  in  academies. 

Being  an  intelligent  man,  he  cultivated  his  spirit  by 
select  realing,  and  in  the  society  of  learned  men ;  he 
possessed   the  treasure  of  good  sense  in  a  high  degree. 

For  many  years  the  province  of  S.  Paulo  elected  him 
member  of  its  provincial  assembly,  and  and  of  the  cham- 
ber of  deputies.  H.  M.  created  him  Baron  of  Antonina 
as  a  reward  for  the  services  rendered  during  the  S. 
Paulo  revolution  in  1842. 

The  province  of  Parani  having  been  created.  Baron 
of  Antonina  was  elected  in  the  first  triple  list  for  se- 
nators offered  by  the  province  to  the  crown,  whose  choice 
fell  upon  this  worthy  citizen  on  the  13th  of  July,  1854. 

The  Baron  of  Antonina  was  a  grandee  of  the  em- 
pire, a  senator,  major  dono  to  H.  M.  the  Empress,  a 
grand  dignitary  of  the  imperial  order  of  the  Rosa,  a  che- 
valier of  that  of  the  Cruzeiro,  and  colonel  and  superior 
commander  of  the  nacional  guard. 

XIX:     OF    3SdLA.TlOH 


this  day  does  not  rememorate  any  of  those  proud 
spartan  like  and  rude  half  caste  women  of  S.  Paulo, 
mothers  and  wives  of  the  war-like  back-woodsmen,  of 
whom  tradition  says  that,  in  1708,  they  refused  to 
receive  the  sons  and  husbands  routed  in  Minas  Geraes 
by  the  emboaba  or  foreigners  (Portuguese,  their  rivals 
in  the  exploration  of  mines),  telling  them,  with  one  accord, 
<return  and  revenge  yourselves,  and,  as  conquerors,  and 
revenged,   we  will  receive  you*. 

This  day  rememorates,  and  on  it  the  memory  of  a  young 
and  delicate,  but  heroic,  lady  of  S.  Paulo,  aught  to  be 

Rosa  Maria  de  Siqueira  was  born  in  the  town,  aftervards 
city,  ofS.  Paulo,  in  the  year  1690;  she  was  cradled  in 
silk  and  gold;  her  parents  Francisco Luiz  Castello  Branco, 
VOL.  I  44 

—  346  - 
and  Donna  Isabel  Costa  e  Siqueira  were  rich,  and  of  noble 
families,  and  employed  every  means  to  give  her  the  best 
education  then  possible  in  the  colony. 

Beautiful,  distinguished,  and  fortunate  D.  Maria  de  Si- 
queira married  desembargador  Antonio  da  Cunha  Souto 
Maior,  who  took  her  to  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia, 
and  thence  in  December  1714  they  took  their  passages  for 
Lisbon  on  board  the  ship  of  war  Nossa  SenJiora  do  Carmo 
e  S.  Elias. 

The  ship  carried  twenty  eight  guns,  and  had  on  board, 
besides  the  crew,  one  hundred  and  nineteen  persons,  in- 
cluding men,  women  and  children,  and  some  unfortunate 
jews  sent  to  the  court  of  the  inquisition. 

The  force  of  the  ship  is  remarkable ;  but  at  that  time 
the  Algerine  pirates  infested  the  ocean,  taking  vessels, 
robbing  the  cargoes,  and  carrying  the  men  and  the  women 
to  the  moorish  slave  markets. 

On  the  20th  of  March,  1714,  15  leages  to  seaward  of 
the  Berlengas,  on  the  coast  of  Lisbon,  three  Angeline 
ships  were  seen  bearing  down  upon  the  Portuguese  ship; 
it  was  three  to  one,  the  smallest  of  the  three  carried 
twenty  six  guns,  the  nesxt  forty  four,  and  the  lasgest, 
the  lag  ship,  fifty  two. 

At  seven  o'  clock  in  the  morning  commenced  a  most 
unequal  combat,  and  when  as  its  height  the  jews  who 
preferred  captivity  ander  the  Argelines,  to  the  tortures 
of  the  inquisition,  commenced  to  cry  out  against  the 
temerity  of  the  captain,  who  was  provoking  the  revenge 
of  the  conquerors  thus  discouraging  seamen  and  soldiers. 

It  was  then  that,  ardent  and  sublime,  Rosa  ]\Iaria  de  Si- 
queira appeared. 

Young  (she  was  only  twenty  four  years  old),  delicate, 
beautiful  and  mild,  tender  in  appearance  and  in  manners, 

-  347  — 

she  rose  in  the  midst  of  the  combatants,  crying:  viva 
a  fe  de  Christo  ( hurrah  for  the  Christian  faith). 

And  completely  exposed  to  the  fire  of  the  enemies 
ships,  running  from  the  crew  of  one  gun  to  that  of  ano- 
ther, carrying  powder  for  one,  arms  for  another,  encou- 
raging all,  and  constantly  crying:  viva  a  fe  deChristo! 

The  beautiful  and  delicate  young  lady,  in  the  midst  of 
the  projectiles,  and  of  the  fury  of  death,  displayed  so 
much  courage  that  the  soldiers  and  sailors,  who  had 
commenced  to  waver,  became  invincible  heroes. 

The  combat  lasted  all  day,  being  interrupted  only  at 

There  were  no  more  cartridges  on  board  the  Portu- 
guese ship;  Donna  Rosa  Maria  de  Siqueira  assisted  by 
two  African  slaves  and  two  old  Indian  women  who  had 
gone  with  her,  worked  till  day-light,  and  prepared  three 
hundred  cartridges. 

In  the  mean  time  the  crew  repaired,  as  best  they  could, 
the  damage  done  to  the  ship. 

The  fight  continued  on  the  following  day.  Five  times 
did  the  Algerines  attempt  to  board  the  Portuguese  ship, 
and  five  times  were  the  infidels  repulsed,  many  being 
killed  and  thrown  into  the  sea,  and  in  the  midst  of  this 
hand  to  hand  fight,  did  the  heroine,  by  her  example, 
convert  every  soldier  into  an  Alcides.  Those  who  could 
not  see  her,  heard  her,  for  her  silver  voice  was  heard 
above  the  din  of  battle,  always  crying  out:  viva  a  fi  de 

On  the  21st  of  March  the  escape  of  the  ship  was  due  to 
the  protection  of  God,  through  the  instrumentality  of  the 
young  and  delicate  Rosa  Maria  de  Siqueira,  who  fought 
with  intrepidity  and  inspired  the  soldiers  with  prodigious 

—  318  - 

The  combat  is  again  interrupted;  night  comes  on  and 
again  Rosa  de  Siqueira,  spends  it  working  in  the  prepa- 
ration of  cartridges  for  the  combat  which  would  again 
continue  as  soon  as  daylight  appeared. 

But  at  break  of  day  the  Portugueze  saw  the  three  Al- 
gerine  ships,  with  sails  set,  and  favored  by  the  breeze, 
already  at  some  distance,  having  abandoned  the  combat. 

The  danger  had  passed.  The  heroine  disappeared. 

On  arriving  in  Lisbon,  Donna  Rosa  Maria  de  Siqueira, 
became  confused  on  finding  herself  the  object  of  the  curio- 
sity and  admiration  of  every  one,  and  young,  beautiful, 
and  courted,  but  modest,  and  retiring  she  eluded  the 
martial  glory,  which,  only  exceptionally,  can  belong  to  her 
sex,  and  devoted  herself,  in  her  domestic  circle,  to  the 
love  of  her  hnsband,  and  to  her  family. 

?C7rT     OF    ^OLAlRaH. 



Domingos  Borges  de  Barros,  legitimate  son  of  Captain- 
major  Francisco  Borges  de  Barros  and  D.  Luiza  Borges  de 
Barros,  was  born  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia. 

Possessing  a  brilliant  intellect,  a  lively  imagination,  a 
generous  character,  an  enthusiastic  Ion*  ing  for  the  acqui- 
sition of  new  ideas  and  for  penetrating  the  mysteries  of  the 
future,  and  a  fondness  for  study  produced  by  his  thirst  for 
information,  Domingos  Borges,  as  may  be  easily  under- 
stood, completed  in  Bahia  the  study  of  the  humanities  in  a 
manner  that  could  not  fail  to  be  very  gratifying  to  his 
parents  and  to  inspire  1  hem  with  the  mo^t  hopeful  expec- 
tations of  the  future. 

—  350  - 

In  Coimbra,  where  he  next  prosecuted  his  studies,  he 
formed  a  part  of  the  phalanx  of  students,  and  graduated 
as  doctor  of  laws. 

Talented  and  wealthy  by  birth,  he  was  not  content  with 
his  collegiate  honors,  but  was  assiduous  in  the  study  of 
philosophy  and  cultivated  his  natural  poetical  talent  and 
his  taste  for  literature  with  great  ardor,  courting  the  inti- 
macy of  the  principal  Lisbon  poets  of  the  time,  such  as 
Francisco  Manoel  (Filinto  Elysio),  Bocage,  Nicolao  Tolen- 
tino  and  Agostinho  dv*  Macedo. 

He  afterwards  employed  his  time  in  studyng  agriculture 
and  poetry,  probably  attracted  to  the  former  by  his  flowers 
and  to  the  latter  undoubtedly  by  the  influence  of  that 
genius  of  inspiration  called  woman. 

A  fiiend  to  Felinto  Elysio  and  to  Hyppolito,  editor  of 
tli^  Correio  Braziliense,  he  was  ardently  attached  to  lib- 
eral principles  and  underwent  persecution  on  account  of  his 
intimacy  with  the  former  and  his  enthusiasm  for  the  latter. 

The  Portuguese  revolution  broke  out  in  1820,  and  in 
1821  the  constituent  assembly  met  in  Lisbon.  Domingos 
Borges  de  Barros,  who  represented  Bahia  in  this  assembly, 
advocated  the  concession  of  political  liberty  to  woman,  but, 
though  unconvinced,  was  obliged  to  yield  to  the  overwhelm- 
ing majority  against  his  measure  which,  to  regard  it  in 
the  most  favorable  light,  was  certainly  not  well-timed. 

A  thorough  patriot  and  Brazilian,  he  left  the  assembly 
to  plead  before  the  French  court  for  the  recognition  of 
Brazil  as  an  independent  State.  His  diplomatic  career,  how- 
ever could  not  withdraw  him  from  his  poetical  labors,  for 
during  the  time  of  this  mission,  he  published  two  precious 
volumes  of  «  Poems  dedicated  to  the  Brazilian  Ladies,  by 
a  Native  ofBahiay  »  a  collection  of  fine  productions  which 

honor  the  author  and  display  the  character  as  erotic  but  not 

Elected  on  the  senatorial  list  and  chosen  senator,  he 
rarely  attended  the  sittings  of  the  legislative  body  to 
which  he  belonged. 

A  thorough  Brazilian  in  feeling,  he  had  acquired  certain 
European  habits  th?.;  bound  hihi  to  the  old  world. 

But  in  Europe  he  i  endered  good  service  to  his  country. 

He  had  already  he^iH  made  Baron  of  Pedra  Branca  when 
he  was  charged  with  the  delicate  and  confidential  mission 
of  arranging  thu  ina.riage  between  the  Princess  Amelia  de 
Leuchtenberg  ;ind  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  I.  For  his  services 
in  this  respect  he  v/as  decorated  with  the  grand-cross  of 
the  Imperial  Order  of  Christ,  and  was  shortly  afterwards 
raised  from  tho  rank  of  Baron  to  that  of  Viscount  of  Pedra 
Branca  and  liiadd  grand  dignitary  of  the  Imperial  Order 
of  the  Rose. 

After  having  visited,  either  as  a  diplomat  or  a  tourist,  the 
principal  courts,  he  returned  in  his  old  age  to  his  country, 
where  he  continued  to  render  important  services.  He  de- 
voted himself  particularly  to  agricultural  improvements 
which  he  had  studied  with  interest  and  to  great  advantage. 

He  died  in  Bahia  on  March  21,  1855. 

He  had  distinguished  himself  principally  as  poet  and 

An  indefatigable  worker,  he  wrote  a  great  deal  and 
sedulously  cultivated  the  art  of  poetry.  But  of  all  his 
works  the  only  ones  now  extant  in  print  are  his  Poems 
dedicated  to  Brazilian  Ladies y  and  a  poem  called  The  Tombs^ 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Brazilian  Historical  and  Geo- 
graphical Institute  and  of  several  European  scientific  and 
literary  societies. 

•X"?rTT    OF    li/LATlCXEX. 


The  present  sketch  is  a  legend  of  an  uncanonized  saint 
worthy  of  being  called  the  Brazilian  St.  Francis  of  Assis. 

Joaquim  Francisco  da  Costa  was  the  legitimate  son  of 
Sergeant-  major  Thoniaz  Francisco  da  Costa  and  D.  Marianna 
Jacintha  da  Victoria. 

He  was  born  in  the  city  of  Desterro,  capital  of  the  pres- 
ent province  of  Santa  Catharina,  on  Holy  Friday,  March 
22,  1751. 

He  was  at  first  supposed  to  be  dumb,  for  he  was  six  years 
old  before  he  began  to  pronounce  the  first  words. 

At  the  primary  school  his  disposition  soon  revealed  its 
two  principal  characteristics,  devotion  and  charity.  Studi- 
ous and  talented,  he  made  good  progress  in  his  studies,  but 
the  greater  part  of  his  time  was  taken  up  in  teaching  his 
backward  school-fellows,  and  in  play-hours  he  neglected 
VOL.  1  45 

—  354  — 
everything  else- to  sing  hymns  before  oratorios  of  his  own 

The  presents  which  he  received  from  his  mother  and  god- 
father he  gave  to  the  poor. 

His  father,  who  was  a  merchant,  caused  him  to  enter  his 
business  house  at  the  age  of  twelve.  This  was  not  agreeable 
to  Francisco  Joaquim  who  felt  no  inclination  whatever  for 
mercantile  pursuits ;  but  he  submitted  with  the  most  per- 
fect obedience,  andattheendoffive  or  six  years  he  re- 
ceived permission  to  follow  the  profession  which  suited  him. 
His  father  had  become  convinced  that  he  had  no  vocation 
for  a  mercantile  life. 

Francisco  Joaquim  abandoned  the  shop  whenever  the 
sound  of  the  bell  called  the  faithful  to  accompany  the  holy 
sacrament,  and  was  extremely  devout  and  assiduous  in  his 
attendance  at  church.  His  father  could  not  reprehend  him 
for  this. 

But  besides  this  he  gave  away  all  he  possessed. 

The  monthly  allowance  given  by  his  father  to  encourage 
him,  his  clothes  and  the  pocket-money  which  he  occa- 
sionally received  from  his  mother,  all  went  to  succor  the 

To  cure  him  of  excessive  charity,  his  parents  reduced 
his  allowance  to  what  was  strictly  necessary  for  his  sub- 
sistence, ceasing  altogether  to  give  him  money ;  but  the 
boy,  in  default  of  anything  else,  gave  away  the  sheets 
and  blankets  of  his  bed. 

Abandoning  his  commercial  career  at  the  age  of  16  or 
18,  he  took  charge  of  the  oratory  which  his  father  had 
caused  to  be  constructed  in  his  house  and  which  was  de- 
dicated to  our  Lady  of  Livramento,  changing  his  surname 
at  the  same  time  for  that  of  Livramento. 

The  young  man  was  delighted  with  the  field  of  labor 

—  355  — 
placed  before  him*  At  early  dawn  he  might  be  seen 
sweeping  the  church  and  decorating  the  altars,  and  after- 
wards assisting  at  mass  as  an  acolyte.  On  leaving  church 
and  before  returning  home  he  visited  the  most  needy  of 
the  poor  and  assisted  as  much  as  he  could.  He  was  the 
nurse  of  the  sick,  and  with  his  own  hands  washed  the 
most  loathsome  ulcers,  at  the  same  time  soothing  their 
spirits  with  words  of  consolation. 

When  the  vicar  hastened  to  a  death-bed  he  found  Joa- 
quim  do  Livramento  seated  thereby  with  the  Redeemer's 
image  in  his  arms,  breathing  words  of  consolation  and 
softening  the  pangs  of  death. 

These  works  were  accompanied  by  the  purest  and  holi- 
est mode  of  life. 

One  day  he  conceived  the  idea  of  establishing  an  asyl- 
um for  the  admission  and  treatment  of  the  indigent  sick. 
Donning  a  brown  woolen  robe  (he  never  afterwards  used  a 
shirt)  he  bound  a  cord  around  his  waist  and  adorning  his 
breast  with  a  representation  of  a  cup  and  waver,  in  token 
of  the  holy  sacrament,  he  went  forth  to  ask  alms  for  the 
asylum  which  he  proposed  to  found. 

Thenceforward  he  was  by  everyone  simply  called 
Brother  JoaqiUm, 

Brother  Joaquim  traveled  on  foot  over  his  province  and 
that  of  Rio  Grande,  and  at  the  end  of  a  year  returned 
well  pleased  with  the  fruit  of  his  labors,  and  caused  his 
charity  hospital  to  be  erected  on  lands  contiguous  to  the 
chapel  of  Menino  Deus,  which  had  been  built  by  the  vir- 
tuous D.  Joanna  de  GusmEo. 

Brother  Joaquim  acted  as  nurse  in  the  hospital  he  had 
founded,  and,  it  is  unnecessary  to  state,  with  zeal,  ardor 
and  devotion  he  attended  to  the  wants  of  the  poor  who 
were  treated  within  its  walls. 


The  expenses  were  heavy  and  the  hospital  had  no  fund. 
Brother  Joaquim  went  to  Lisbon  and  obtained  from  the 
Queen  D.  Maria  I  an  annual  donation  of  three  hundred 

Returning  to  Santa  Catharina,  he  continued  his  mission 
of  charity  until  somewhere  between  1796  and  1800  when  he 
placed  the  hospital  in  charge  of  the  brotherhood  of  Senhor 
Jesus  dos  Passes,  formed  in  the  chapel  of  Menino  Deus, 
and  embarked  for  Bahia.  He  never  returned  to  his  native 
province,  which  he  abandoned  for  motives  that  have  not 
been  made  known. 

At  Bahia  he  began  to  ask  alms  for  founding  a  school 
for  unprotected  children,  and,  his  efforts  being  blessed  by 
God,  he  founded  the  S.  Joaquim  Orphan  Seminary  in  which 
a  large  number  of  indigent  children  were  maintained 
and  educated. 

He  again  went  to  Lisbon  and  obtained  for  the  seminary 
the  same  assistance  which  he  had  obtained  for  the  hospital 
in  Santa  Catharina,  returning  to  S.  Salvador  in  1803  and 
continuing  to  ask  alms  for  the  establishment. 

At  this  time  he  received  a  letter  announcing  the  death 
of  his  father  and  calling  him  to  receive  his  inheritance. 
This  he  ceded  to  his  poorest  sister,  though  he  was  at 
that  time  living  on  alms. 

Seeing  the  seminary  fully  established  and  prosperous, 
he  went  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  where  the  prince-regent,  D.  John, 
sent  for  him,  received  him  with  great  demonstrations  of 
friendship  and  entrusted  him  with  the  education  of  several 
orphans.  But  Brother  Joaquim  was  not  in  his  element  at 

His  travels  on  foot  over  the  provinces  of  Santa  Catha- 
rina and  Rio  Grande  had  left  him  afflicted  with  a  swelling 
of  the  legs  and  feet  which  gave  him  great  pain  and  which 


could  never  he  cured  on  account  of  his  being  perpetually 
in  movement,  collecting  alms  for  the  poor. 

Notwithstanding  the  aggravation  of  his  disease  he 
set  out  on  foot  in  1809  for  S.  Paulo  where,  preceded  by 
the  fame  of  zeal  and  virtues,  he  met  a  favorable  recep- 
tion and  collected"  an  abundance  of  alms  with  which  he 
founded  two  seminaries,  one  at  Itu  and  the  other  on  the 
old  Jesuit  plantation  at  Sant'Anna. 

As  he  was  fond  of  sketching  the  picturesque  landscapes 
which  he  found  on  his  travels,  one  day  Brother  Joaquim 
was  seated  all  alone  under  the  shade  of  a  tree  engaged  in  this 
occupation,  when  he  was  arrested  as  a  foreign  spy  and 
carried  in  irons  from  S.  Paulo  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  without 
regard  to  his  protestations  of  being  innocent  or  to  the 
evangelic  patience  with  which  he  submitted  to  the  rough 
and  insulting  treatment  to  which  he  was  subjected. 

Arriving  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  was  presented  to  the 
police  intend  ant  who  on  seeing  him  opened  his  arms  to 
receive  him,  exclaiming  : 

^  Why,   it's  Brother  Joaquim  !  » 

And  he  caused  the  irons  to  be  at  once  taken  off,  and, 
after  embracing  Brother  Joaquim,  carried  him  home,  where 
he  treated  him  with  the   utmost  care  and  solicitude. 

As  soon  as  he  had  rested.  Brother  Joaquim  set  out  for 
Angra  dos  Reis  to  hasten  the  completion  of  the  Semin- 
ary of  Jacuecanga  which  he  had  founded  on  his  journey 
to  Sao  Paulo. 

Returning  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  learned  that  his  be- 
loved hospital  at  Santa  Gatharina  had  been  converted  into 
a  military  barrack,  and,  almost  weeping,  he  sought  the 
Marquis  of  Lavradio  to  make  his  complaint. 

The  latter,]  seeing  him  from  the  window,  hastened  to 

—  358  — 

meet  him,  consoled  him  and  on  the  following  day  sent  an 
order  for  the  building  to  be  restored  to  its  original  use. 

The  seminary  of  Jacuecanga  was  the  last  of  the  char- 
itable enterprises  of  Brother  Joaquim  who  by  con- 
stant solicitude  was  pei^mitted  to  see  it  in  a  flourishing 
state  and  attended  by  a  large  number  of  pupils,  some 
of  whom  afterwards  became  learned  and  distinguished 

In  1822,  by  his  request,  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  I  appoint- 
ed to  the  rectorship  of  the  seminary  Father  Vicoso, 
afterwards  the  venerable  bishop  ofMarianna,  a  virtuous 
prelate  and  a  sublimelj-  eloquent  orator,  whose  teachings 
were  understood  and  followed  by  the  people. 

Brother  Joaquim  continued  to  obtain  alms  and  to  im- 
prove the  Jacuecanga  seminary,  which  he  visited  assi- 
duously, always  setting  an  example  of  religious  and  pious 

When  rustic  festivals,  dances  or  entertainments  were 
announced  in  the  vicinity,  he  always  attended  them, 
whether  invited  or  not,  and  bj'-  his  presence  and  the  re- 
spect felt  for  his  virtues  kept  the  pleasures  within  just 
])ounds,  mingling  religious  services  with  innocent  amuse- 
ments and  promoting  enjoyment  without  immorality. 

Sometimes  he  would  venture  out  in  a  small  canoe 
during  stormy  weather  on  the  bay  of  Angra  dos  Reis  for 
the  purpose  of  aiding  the  sick  and  consoling  the  dying; 
and  on  such  occasions  he  might  be  heard  singing  hymns 
amid  peals  of  thunder  and  the  roar  of  the  waves. 

Finding  that  he  was  becoming  feeble  and  that  his  end 
was  approaching,  Bix)ther  Joaquim,  anxious  to  confide  his 
seminary  of  Jackiccanga  to  the  priests  of  the  missionary 
congi^gation,  took  courage  to  make  a  third  trip  to  Eu- 
n>l>o  in  183tK 

—  359  - 

Well  received  in  Portugal  by  D.  Miguel,  he  was, 
however,    disappointed  in  his  expectations. 

He  proceeded  to  Rome,  but,  finding  himself  growing 
worse,  he  determined  to  return  for  the  purpose  of  dying 
in  his  own  country. 

Reaching  Marseilles,  he  there  expired  in  1829,  at  sixty- 
eight  years  of  age. 

His  life  was  a  unclouded  horizon,  an  azure  sky  illu- 
mined by    a   brilliant  sun. 

As  a  child,  he  was  an  angel;  as  a  young  man,  a  high- 
priest  of  charity;  and  throughout  his  whole  life,  an  exam- 
ple of  brotherly  love. 

He    was    a  nurse  to  the  sick,  and  a  death-bed  consoler. 

The    poor  and  the  orphans  were  his  adopted  children. 

Entirely  destitute  and  consecrated  to  poverty,  he  spent 
his  life  in  asking  alms,  and  with  the  alms  of  the  faith- 
ful he  founded  a  hospital  for  the  poor  in  Santa  Catha- 
rina,  a  seminary  for  orphan  and  unprotected  children  in 
Bahia,  two  in  S.  Paulo  and  a  fourth  in  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
And  all  this  he  accomplished,  clothed  in  a  coarse  and 
simple  robe,  with  a  hand  extended  to  receive  the  mite 
of  charity  and  with  his  Savior's  example  and  teachings 
always  in  his  heart  and  soul. 

Such  is  the  legend  of  Brother  Joaquim. 



Estella  Sezefreda  was  a  native  of  Rio  Grande  do  Sul, 
where  she  was  born  on  January  14,  1810.  At  12  years 
of  age  she  came  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  company  with  some 
of  her  relatives. 

A  few  years  afterwards  she  entered  the  ballet  corps 
of  the  theatre  S.  Pedro  de  Alcantara. 

Her  skill  in  dancing  did  not  exceed  mediocrity,  and 
she  pleased  the  audience  more  by  her  graceful  and  win- 
some figure  than  by  her  perfection  in  the  art  of  Terpsi- 

The  theatre  was  undoubtedly  her  vocation;  but  the 
laurels  she  was  destined  to  win  were  certainly  not 
to  be  obtained  in  the  ballet  corps,  from  which  she  retired 
shortly  before  the  year  1831. 

A  genius  discovered  her   wonderful  talent.  JoSoCae- 
VOL.  I  46 

tano  dos  Santos,  afterwards  her  legitimate  husband,  intro- 
duced her  to  the  drama. 

She  made  her  debut  in  1833  in  the  little  theatre  of 
Vallongo,  in  the  play  of  Camilla  ou  o  Subterraneo,  in 
which  she  performed  the  part  of  Camilla. 

Jodlo  Caetano,  Estella  and  the  rest  of  the  company  then 
proceeded  to  Mangaratiba ;  and  such  was  their  poverty 
that  they  traveled  as  far  as  Guaratiba  oh  foot. 

Returning  to  Rio,  Joao  Caetano  took  charge  of  the 
company  at  the  theatre  of  S.  Pedro  de  Alcantara. 

Joao  Caetano  had  little  education  and  less  dramatic 
teaching,  but  the  secrets  of  the  art  were  illuminated  by 
the  flame  of  genius  within  him,  and  besides  he  was  gifted 
with  all  the  physical  qualities  essential  to  an  actor. 

Estella  was  not  a  genius.  She  could  divine  the  secrets 
of  the  art,  and,  although  possessed  of  a  graceful  and  attrac- 
tive figure,  she  did  not  possess  the  precious  gift  of  ex- 
pressive eyes  that  would  lighten  up  in  scenes  of  great  dra- 
matic power.    This  defect  was  greatly  against  her. 

She  also  had  not  been  trained  in  a  proper  school,  for 
there  was  no  one  to  teach  her.  But  in  compensation  she 
was  very  intelligent,  which  enabled  her  to  perfect  herself 
gradually  and  constantly  in  the  dramatic  art,  acquiring 
little  by  little  fresh  rules  for  her  guidance  by  reading  the 
best  French  and  Portuguese  writers  on  this  subject. 

About  this  time  the  poets  Magalhaes  (now  Viscount  of 
Araguaya)  and  Porto  Alegre  (now  Baron  of  Santo  Angelo) 
returned  from  Europe  and  exerted  themselves  to  regen- 
erate the  Brazilian  stage,  especially  Magalhaes  who,  avail- 
ing himself  of  the  genius  of  Joao  Caetano  and  the  in- 
telligence of  Estella,  succeeded  almost  immediately  in 
banishing  from  the  stage  the  heavy,  monotonous  declam- 
atory style  then  in  vogue,    in    subjecting  the  attitudes, 

—  363  — 

movements  and  gestures  of  the  actors  to  the  true  precepts 
of  art,  and  in  initiating  in  the  S.  Pedro  theatre  the  French 
romantic  school,  generally  adopted  in  Europe,  but  hither- 
to unknown  In  Brazil. 

It  was  then  that  the  great  actress  began  to  approach 
the  zenith  of  her  fame. 

She  gave  an  original  and  correct  interpretation  of  the 
characters  of  Catharine  Howard,  of  Margarida  in  the 
Torre  de  Nesle,  of  Desdemona  in  Othelo,  of  Marianna  in 
Antonio  Jose,  of  Clotilde  in  the  play  of  the  same  name, 
(one  of  her  greatest  triumphs)  of  the  mad  mother  in  La 
Grace  de  Dxeu,  and  of  fifty  other  dramatic  personages,  in 
all  of  which  she  was  rewarded  with  the  most  flattering 

She  was  the  star  of  the  Romantic  School  in  Brazil. 

The  radiant  intelligence  and  consummate  art  of  Estella 
was  the  complement  of  the  wonderful  genius  of  Joao  Caeta- 
no  ^"^ho  was  unable  to  write  his  own  language  correctly.  It 
is  said  that,  at  least  during  the  first  years,  she  used  to  read 
over  to  her  husband  the  speeches  belonging  to  his  roles, 
and  with  the  most  refined  womanly  delicacy  would  in- 
sinuate rather  than  express  what  she  considered  the  pro- 
per accent,  modulations,  tones  and  gestures  to  be  employed 
in  the  different  scenes,  skillfully  hiding  her  purpose  so  as 
not  to  wound  the  sensitive  pride  of  her  husband  who  would 
not  have  brooked  anything  castng  the  least  doubt  on  the 
power  and  discrimination  of  his  dramatic  genius. 

Undeniably  JoSo  Caetano  was,  from  the  inexhaustible 
wealth  of  his  prodigious  natural  talent,  an  actor  far  supe- 
rior to  Estella  Sezefreda  dos  Santos ;  but  the  latter  was 
superior  as  an  artist  and  in  her  knowledge  of  histrionic 
rules  and  principles. 

In  1851  Estella,  beginning  to  grow  old  and  suffering  in 

—  aet- 
her health,  felt  herself  to  be  on  the  decline  and  avoided 
roles  for  which  she  considered  her  age  inappropriate.  But 
she  unhesitatingly   accepted  the  part  of  an  old  idiotic 
woman  in  the  Mysteries  of  Paris. 

This  drama,  entirely  without  merit,  was  an  eloquent 
proof  of  the  corruption  of  a  school*which  in  its  greatest 
splendor  never  possessed  qualities  to  render  it  enduring. 
This,  however,  is  foreign  to  the  subject. 

On  the  night  of  the  first  appearance  of  the  Mysteries 
of  Paris,  one  of  the  boxes  was  occupied  by  two  friends 
and  their  wives.  One  of  them  was  Porto  Alegre  (now 
Baron  of  Santo  Angelo)  whose  friendly  intercourse  with 
Joao  Caetano  and  Estella  had  been  broken  oflF  for  a 
number  of  years. 

At  last  she  came  to  the  act  or  scene  in  which  the 
idiotic  woman  appears  on  the  stage. 

She  does  not  speak  except  a  word  or  two  to  express 
hunger.  A  few  inarticulate  sounds  indicate  her  sufferings, 
especially  when  she  burns  her  hands  at  the  light  used 
at  his  work  by  her  son,  a  poor  and  honest  lapidary. 

Far  from  being  a  principal  part  of  the  play,  it  is  merely 
a  secondary  one  in  a  single  scene. 

But  so  well  was  it  managed  by  Estella  Sezefreda  that 
it  saved  the  play  from  a  well-deserved  fiasco.  The  look 
which  she  assumed  was  a  wonderful  imitation  of  idiocy ; 
and  pain  and  suffering  were  expressed  with  unsurpassable 
eloquence  in  the  contraction  of  the  muscles  of  her  face. 
The  cry  of  hunger  and  the  inarticulate  sounds  which 
issued  from  her  mouth  penetrated  every  heart. 

The  theatre  shook  with  applause. 

Porto  Alegre,  greatly  moved,  said  to  his  friend  : 

«  Among  the  most  celebrated  actresses  whom  I  have 

—  365  — 

seen  in  Paris  there  was  not  one  who  could  surpass  Estella 
in  this  role — not  a  single  one  !  » 

The  celebrated  artist,  after  this  great  triumph,  avoided 
the  stage  more  and  more,  and  in  1863,  the  year  of  her 
husband's  death,  abandoned  it  altogether. 

Living  a  poor  and  retired  life  with  her  daughters, 
Estella  Sezefreda  prolonged  her  feeble  existence  for  eleven 
years,  enduring  painful  physical  sufferings  with  admir- 
able patience  and  pious  resignation. 

She  finally  found  relief  and  repose  in  the  last  earthly 
rest,  expiring  on  March  13,  1874. 

The  Brazilian  stage  has  never  possessed  another  actress 
that  could  equal  her. 

321X1 V     OF    lsa:ATiaJB3L 


On  March  30,  1816,  there  arrived  at  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
from  Portugal,  a  body  of  troops  which  took  the  name  of 
the  King's  Volunteers,  composed  of  four  battalions  of 
riflemen  who  presented  themselves  on  dress  parade  on 
April  4,  the  4th  battalion  being  commanded  by  Lieut.-Gol. 
Joao  Chrysostomo  Callado. 

He  was  born  on  March  24,  1780,  in  the  city  of  Elvas, 
Portugal,  being  the  legitimate  son  of  Colonel  Manoel 
Joaquim  Callado  and  D.  Maria  Joaquina  Nobre. 

He  enlisted  in  an  infantry  regiment  and  was  recognized 
as  a  cadet  on  March  26,  1795. 

After  fighting  against  the  Spaniards  in  the  year  1801, 
he  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  mathematics  during  the 
ensuing  peace.  He  had  risen  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant 
^hen  the  French  invaded  Spain  and  Portugal. 

Under  the  command  of  the  Spanish  general,  D.  Antonio 
de  Arce  and  his  adjutant,  he  served  in  all  the  campaigns 
up  to  1814.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  action  of 
March  5,  1811  and  was  brevetted  Major,  being  promoted 
to  a  full  majority  at  the  battle  of  S.  Munhoz.  He  was  offi- 
cially eulogized  for  other  deeds^  and  at  the  end  of  the  war 
rewarded  with  the  Cross  of  S.  Bento  de  Aviz  and  the  cor- 
responding pension. 

On  the  adoption  of  the  plan  of  the  campaign  for  the 
occupation  of  the  Banda  Oriental,  he  organized  and  drilled 
the  4th  battalion  of  riflemen,  came  to  Brazil  with  the 
command  under  Gen.  Lecor  (afterwards  Viscount  of  La- 
guna)  and  reaching  Rio  on  March  30,  181f6,  accompanied 
his  command  to  Rio  Grande  do  Sul ;  entered  into  active 
operations  the  same  year,  and  for  his  valuable  services  in 
this  campaign  was  rewarded  with  the  cross  of  Tort^e  e 

In  1822,  being  in  command  of  the  2d  brigade  of  Royal 
Volunteers,  he  declared  in  favor  of  the  cause  of  Brazilian 
independence  of  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  I,  withdrew  from 
Montevideo,  which  was  under  the  control  of  the  Portu- 
guese general,  D.  Alvora  da  Costa,  and  defeated  the  latter's 
forces,  for  which  his  property  in  Montevideo  was  confis- 

After  the  capitulation  and  withdrawal  of  D.  Alvaro, 
Callado  came  to  Rio  to  report  to  the  Emperor  what  had 
taken  place,  and  was  sent  back  to  the  Cisplatine  province 
with  the  rank  of  brevet  brigadier-general. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  which  took  the  name  of 
this  province,  and  which  terminated  in  August,  1828,  with 
the  recognition  of  its  independence,  Callado  continued  to 
render  important  services  which  were  duly  acknowledged 
and  rewarded  by  the  government.    On  February  20, 1827, 

at  the  battle  of  Ituzaingo,  where  he  commanded  the  2d  di- 
vision of  the  Brazilian  army,  he  succeeded,  at  a  heavy  sac- 
rifice, in  saving  it  from  destruction.  Forming  it  into  an 
impenetrable  square,  he  received  with  a  destructive  fire 
the  advancing  mass  of  fugitives  and  pursuers,  killing  among 
other  brave  Brazilian  soldiers  the  heroic  Baron  of  Serro 
Lage  who,  swept  away  from  the  battle-field  by  his  fugitive 
troops,  was  pursued  by  over  two  thousand  of  the  enemy's 

In  this  dreadful  contest,  Callado  displayed  coolness,  brav- 
ery and  skill  for  which  he  was  justly  eulogized. 

In  1828  he  was  appointed  commander  of  the  military 
district  of  Santa  Catharina  where  the  greater  part  of  the 
army  was  stationed. 

But  General  Callado,  not  being  willing  to  be  made  a  tool 
of  by  certain  authorities  in  their  cruzade  in  favor  of  absolute 
government,  charges  were  preferred  against  him,  and  he 
was  brought  before  a  court-martial,  but  was  unanimously 
acquitted.  The  supreme  military  court,  confirming  the 
sentence,  declared  that  his  conduct  was  not  only  irrepre- 
hensible,  but  praiseworthy. 

The  Emperor  bestowed  upon  him  the  cross  of  knight 
commander  of  the  Order  of  Aviz,  and  the  Imperial  govern- 
ment appointed  him  commander  of  the  military  district  of 
Bahia  at  a  time  when  the  whole  Empire,  and  especially 
that  province,  was  in  a  ferment  of  revolutionary  agita- 

On  April  4  and  5  the  mutinous  troops  and  a  disorderly 
and  riotous  mob  of  people  threatened  public  order.  The 
military  commander  wished  to  use  repressive  measures,  but 
the  president  of  the  province,  Luiz  Paulo  de  Araujo  Bastos, 
hoping  to  avoid  the  effusion  of  blood  and  to  restore  quiet  by 
conciliatory  action,  relieved  him  of  his  command.    Callado 

VOL.  1  ^T^ 

—  af7o  — 

reluctantly  obeyed  and  embarked  for  Rio  de  Janeiro.  On  his 
arrival  at  this  city  he  learned  that  D.  Pedro  I  had  abdicated, 
and  he  was  ordered  to  report  himself  in  arrest  at  the  For- 
tress of  Yillegaignon. 

Without  fear  of  the  political  passions  then  let  loose,  he 
immediately  demanded  a  court-martial.  On  July  20,  1831, 
he  was  acquitted,  the  sentence  being  at  once  confirmed  by 
the  supreme  military  court  whose  laudatory  decision  com- 
pensated him  for  the  mortification  of  unjust  imprison- 

Callado  left  Brazil  and  spent  two  years  in  the  River 

Returning  to  his  adopted  country  he  was  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  marshal,  and  in  1838  was  placed  by  the  regency 
in  command  of  the  troops  sent  to  reduce  the  city  of  Bahia 
which  had  been  in  the  hands  of  the  insurgents  since  No- 
vember 7,  1837. 

He  commanded  the  attacking  forces,  but  the  defense  was 
kept  up  for  three  days !  What  bravery  thrown  away  and 
wasted  in  fratricidal-  strife  ! 

On  March  16,  1838,  Marshal  Callado  planted  the  victo- 
rious national  banner  in  the  Praga  da  Piedade. 

The  loyal  citizens  of  Bahia,  as  a  token  of  gratitude, 
raised  a  large  subscription  to  ofier  him  a  suitable  present. 
But  Marshal  Callado  requested  to  be  excused  from  accep- 
ting it,  and  suggested  that  the  product  of  the  subscription 
be  applied  for  the  benefit  of  the  widows  and  orphans  of  the 
brave  soldiers  who  had  fallen  in  defense  of  the  legal  cause. 
The  general  conquered  in  this  conflict  of  generous  senti- 
ments, but  his  victory  was  short-lived,  for  his  wife  was  not 
permitted  to  reject  the  ofi'er  made  her  of  a  handsome  jewel 
containing  a  likeness  of  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  II,  (then  in 
his  boyhood)  and  inscribed  with  the  words  :— «  To  Marshal 

-  371  — 

Callado  as  a  token  of  gratitude  of  the  People  of  Bahia, 
in  1838.  » 

The  regency  promoted  Callado  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant- 
general,  and  appointed  him  member  of  the  supreme  mili- 
tary court. 

In  1840  Lieut.-Gen.  Callado,  during  the  exciting  scenes  in 
parliament  during  the  days  preceding  the  decree  proclaim- 
ing D.  Pedro  II  of  age,  remained  at  the  palace  of  S.  Chris- 
tovao  and  had  the  honor  of  escorting  the  Emperor  to  the 
senate  chamber  in  July  23. 

In  1841  he  was  appointed  councilor  of  war,  and  was  al- 
lowed to  retire  from  active  service. 

Throughout  his  life  he  was  fortunate  in  the  month  of 
March.  During  his  final  illness  his  death  was  momentarily 
expected ;  but  he  survived  till  the  month  was  finished  and 
only  died  on  the  first  day  of  April. 

He  was  lord-in-waiting  of  the  Imperial  Household,  knight 
commander  of  the  Orders  of  Aviz  and  the  Rose,  companion 
of  the  Order  of  the  Cruzador,  councilor  of  war  and  lieuten- 
ant-general, and  had  been  decorated  with  several  campaign 

X.'Xr^     Oy      Ts^^J^-ROJE^ 


With  the  biographical  article*  of  this  day,  commenceH 
the  list  of  the  young  and  boy  heroes,  who  became  immor- 
talized in  the  tremendous  Paraguayn  war. 

Antonio  Augusto  de  Araujo  TorreSo,  the  legitimate  son 
of  dezembargador  Bazilio  Quaresma  TorreSo,  and  of  Donna 
Josepha  de  Araujo  Torreko,  was  born  in  Pernambuco  on 
the  25th  of  .March  1845;  accompanying  his  father,  then 
juiz  de  direito,  who  had  been  removed  to  Rio  Grande  do 
Norte,  he  there  received  his  primary  education,  and  after- 
wards studied  humanities  in  MaranhSo,  completing  these 
studies  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  to  where  his 
grandfather  had  brought  him  to  matriculate  in  the  naval 

He  was  received  as  a  naval  cadet  on  the  38tb  of  Feb- 
ruary,  1801. 

—  374  — 

TorreSo  loved  and  cultivated  belles-lettres  and  music; 
but  he  had  a  decided  inclination  for  a  sea  life;  he  distin- 
guished himself  in  the  studies  at  the  naval  school,  and 
on  the  26th  of  November,  1863,  he  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  a  midshipman,  starting  for  Europe  in  December  of 
the  same  year  on  board  the  corvette  Bahiana  on  a  voyage 
of  instruction,  and  on  his  return  in  October,  1864,  he  pas- 
sed his  examination  in  the  practise  of  navigation,  there 
completing  the  regular  studies  of  a  naval  oflScer. 

He  finished  them  in  time.  The  war  was  inviting  brave 
men  to  the  fight.  TorreSo  full  of  contentment  and  enthu- 
siasm went  in  the  steamer  Mearim  to  his  post  in  the 
Brazilian  fleet  in  operations  at  the  River  Plate. 

Brazil  having  been  surprised  by  the  Paraguayan  war, 
commenced  it  with  a  hastily  raised  army  of  volunteers, 
employing  its  old  vessels,  some  of  which  had  been  hur- 
riedly repaired. 

The  terrible  day  of  Riachuelo  arrived;  terrible,  but 
full  of  heroism  and  of  glory  for  the  Brazilian  navy. 

This  battle  will  be  so  often  mentioned  in  this  book,  that, 
to  avoid  repetitions,  a  rapid  sketch  of  it  is  reserved  for 
the  11th  of  June,  the  day  on  which  it  was  fought. 

Eight  Paraguayan  steamers  .  and  as  many  flatboats, 
surround  and  attack  nine  Brazilian  steamers,  against 
which,  from  the  high  bank  of  the  river  (the  Parani)  forty 
pieces  of  artillery,  belched  forth  destruction  and  death. 

The  battle  is  horrible ,  the  Jequitinhonha,  aground, 
became  a  target  for  a  shower  of  balls ;  the  Pamahyba, 
has  her  deck  inundated  with  blood  and  with  heaped-up 
bodies  of  heroes,  and  before  the  Amazonas  with  unheard 
of  audacity  comes  to  decide  the  action  almost  lost,  the 
other  Brazilian  steamers  fight  desperately  to  prevent  the 
attempts  made  to  board  them. 

—  375  — 

In  the  small  steamer  Mearim,  the  commander,  officers 
and  men,  show  the  utmost  gallantry  and  ability  in  maneuv- 
ering, struggling  brilliantly  and  preventing  the  attempts 
made  at  boarding;  but  in  the  midst  of  so  many  brave  men, 
the  young  midshipmen,  TorreSo,  distinguished  himself  by 
his  enthusiasm  and  by  the  skill  with  which  he  commands 
one  of  the  guns :  fearless,  almost  laughing,  and  with 
flaming  eyes,  his  voice  rings  firmly  and  electrifyingly, 
shouting — Fire! — but  an  enemy's  ball  stretches  dead  at 
his  feet  the  chief  gunner,  and  Torreao,  rushes  to  the  gun 
and  takes  his  place,  and  at  the  moment  in  which  he  was 
stopping  the  vent-hole  of  the  piece  to  charge  it,  another 
Paraguayan  ball  fakes  his  hand  off  and  wounds  him 

The  brave  TorreSo  falls  on  the  breach  of  the  piece 
and  still  shouts— Fire ! — His  blood  spurts  in  jets  from 
his  arteries,  and  a  short  time  afterwards  he  expires, 
murmuring  : — Country. . . 

Nor  had  he  the  consolation  of  hailing  the  grand  victory 
of  the  country  in  Riachuelo. 

XrXVT    O-P    3i^  Alton 


Manoel  Odorico  Mendes,  the  legitimate  son  of  Fran- 
ciscoRaymundo  da  Cunha,  and  of  Donna  Maria  Rayraunda 
CorrSa  de  Faria,  was  born  in  the  city  of  S.  Luiz  do  Ma- 
ranhao,  on  the  24th  of  January  1799 ;  he  assumed  the 
name  of  his  uncle,  god-father,  and  adoptive  father  Ma- 
noel Mendes  da  Silva,  who  presented  him  at  the  baptismal 
font  on  the  26th  of  March  of  the  same  year. 

Haying  finished  some  studies  of  humanities,  in  MaranhSo, 
he  left  for  Portugal,  intending  to  graduate  in  medicine  ; 
he  passed  the  course  of  philosophy  in  Coimbra,  and  was 
there  the  companion,  and  intimate  friend,  of  Manoel  Alves 
Branco,  and  of  Almeida  Garret,  both  being  afterwards 
created  viscounts,  and  more  than  viscounts,  glories  of 
their  countries. 

For  some  unknown  reason,  Odorico  interrupted  hi^ 
▼OL.  I  48 

-  378  — 

studies,  and  returned  to  Maranhao  in  1824 ;  he  was  then 
twenty  Ave  years  old,  and  an  ardent  liberal,  and  fin- 
ding Brazil  agitated  by  the  dissolution  of  the  constUuirUef 
he  became  an  exhalted  politian;  in  the  same  year  he  edited 
the  A?^gos  da  Lei,  in  Maranhao  ;  he  was  elected  deputy 
for  his  province  in  the  first  legislature,  and  in  1836,  in 
the  first  session  he  allied  himself  to  Paula  Sonza,  Feij6, 
and  Costa  Carvalho  (afterwards  viscount,  and  Marquis  of 
Monte-Alegre)  in  the  opposition  ;  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  he 
wrote  for  a  small  periodical,  of  which  a  Frenchman, 
called  Pedro  Chapuis,  was  editor  ;  he  was  one  of  the  foun- 
ders of  the  Astrea  ;  in  S.  Paulo,  he  at  the  commencement 
edited  the  Pharol  Paulistano,  with  Costa  Carvalho,  and 
in  parliament,  and  in  the  press  he  maintained  adTanced 
opinions,  being  numbered  among  the  republicans  ;  in  the 
second  legislature,  however,  he  became  the  intimate  friend 
of  Evaristo,  and  commenced  to  feel  the  influence  of  that 
patriot,   who  was  the  symbol  of  good  sense. 

On  the  17th  of  March,  1831,  he  was  one  of  those  signed  who 
the  famous  representation  of  the  23  members  of  the  legis- 
lative corps  ;  and  on  the  6th  of  April  following  he  was  one 
of  the  leaders  of  the  people  at  the  campo  de  Sant'Anna » 
immediately  after  the  abdication  of  Don  Pedro  I,  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  by  his  eflForts  to  establish  order  and  mo- 
deration, and  ill  June,  1831,  he  gave  a  fine  example  of  mo- 
desty and  disinterestedness,  in  refusing  to  be  a  member  of 
the  i)ermanent  regency,  and  in  getting  Joao  Braulio  Muniz 
olocted  in  his  stead. 

The  people  of  Maranhao  punished  this  error,  or  refused 
to  honor  this  virtue.  Odorico  was  not  reelected  in  the  third 
legislature,  and  uncomplaining,  hedevoted  himself  to  study 
in  retirement. 

In    1R39  he  again  became  editor,   and    with  Aureliano 

—  379  — 
de  Souza  e  Oliveira  Coutinho,  afterwards  Viscount  of  Sepi- 
tiba,  wrote  the  Liga  Americana,   a  patriotic  dream  inspi- 
red by  the  resentment  for  an  offence  to  the  national  honor. 

He  was  for  some  years  inspector  of  the  treasury  of  the 
province  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  in  which  office,  ho  was  super- 

In  1844  he  returned  to  the  chamber  of  deputies,  having 
been  elected  by  the  province  of  Minas  Geraes,  and  with 
Paulo  Barboza  da  Silva,  drew  up  the  project  of  electoral 
reform,  which,  with  some  modifications,  was  adopted,  and 
offered  guarentee  and  resources  to  all  political  parties. 

In  1847  Odorico  retired  to  Europe,  and  devoted  himself 
entirely  to  literature. 

He  was  an  excellent  poet ;  but  slow  in  composition,  his 
writings  were  well  meditated,  and  corrected  before  publish- 
ing ;  Odorico,  therefore,  left  but  few  original  compositions; 
but  his  Hymno  d  Tarde  is  an  admirable  piece,  full  of 
sweetness,  of  charm,  of  melancholy,  and  of  truth,  which 
will  be  preserved  through  ages. 

Odorico  shines  most  as  a  first  rate  translator  poet ;  a 
faithful  devotee  of  the  classic  school,  his  idols  were  Virgil 
and  Homer  ;  he  had  however,  before,  paid  his  tribute  to 
Voltaire,  translating,  in  a  masterly  manner,  his  tragedies 
— Tancrede  and  Merope. 

In  1854  Odorico  gave  to  the  learned  world  the  Eneiia 
BrazUeira,  or  rather  the  magnificent  translation  of  Virgil's 
Eneid,  and  in  1858,  the  Brazilian  Virgil  containing  the 
second,  and  much  improved,  edition  of  the  other,  and  the 
Bucolic  and  Georgics  translated  in  the  same  masterl} 

When  already  old,  and  careworn,  he  studied  Greek,  lie 
read,  he  examined,  he  compared  all  the  translations  which 
had  bee»  mad^  of  Homer,  be  studied  deeply,  he  cleared  up 

—  380  - 
interpretations,  and  left  in  M.  S.  his  translation  of  the  I  Iliad, 
which  the  province  of  Maranhao  received  as  a  glorious  le- 
gacy, and  had  it  published. 

Don  Pedro  I,  Emperor  of  Brazil,  was  the  friend  of  Odo- 
rico,  and  always  encouraged  him,  with  his  protection,  in 
great  translations. 

The  translations  of  Odorico  are  classic  in  the  Portuguese 
language,  and  aie  enriched  by  archeologic  researches  of 
great  value. 

As  a  translator  poet,  Odorico  throws  himself  into  the 
shade  as  a  politicion,  though  his  influence  was  great,  du- 
ring three  or  four  years. 

This  man,  who  refused  to  be  a  member  of  the  regency  of 
the  Empipe,  who,  though  out  of  oflBce,  governed  from  1831 
to  1833,  lived  without  privations  ;  but  in  honorable  com- 
petency, which  barely  exempted  him  from  the  suflferings  of 
hard  poverty,  died  poor  in  France  in  the  year,  1864.  OF   isa:A.Fiaj^ 


— ooX^$o«— 

Thom6  de  Souza  resided  in  Brazil  only  four  years  and 
four  months.  Yet  so  important  was  the  task  he  here 
performed  and  so  conspicuous  the  services  he  rendered 
that  he  can  not  fail  to  be  ever  remembered  as  one  who 
deserved  well  of  the  nation  which  he  endowed  with  its 
first  regularly  organized  government. 

Interested  in  colonizing  his  American  possessions,  King 
John  III  divided  them  into  extensive  captaincies  which  ho 
distributed  among  donees,  bestowing  on  the  latter,  as  an 
incentive,  extraordinary  privileges.  The  captaincies  were 
hereditary  and  independent,  subject  only  to  the  jurisdiction 
of  their  respective  donees  who,  clothed  with  sovereign 
powers,  executed  justice  and  otherwise  exercised  their 
authority  as  they  deemed  proper,  rendering  an  account  of 

-  382  - 

their  acts,  in  case  of  serious  accusations,  only  to  the  king 
in  person. 
Thus  was  feudalism  planted  in  Portuguese  America. 

Several  captaincies  having  been  founded,  the  king  soon 
perceived  the  inconveniences  of  this  system,  and,  resolving 
to  reform  it  radically,  ordained  the  organization  of  a  gen- 
eral goverment.  To  the  governor-general  the  donees,  shorn 
of  their  vast  powers,  were  rendered  subject,  their  captain- 
cies being  deprived  of  their  independence. 

For  the  execution  of  this  difficult  and  important  work 
the  royal  choice  fell  upon  Thom6  de  Souza,  a  prudent  and 
enlightened  officer  and  statesman,  who  had  achieved 
renown  in  the  wars  of  Africa  and  India. 

Charged  with  organizing  the  general  government  of 
Brazil,  whose  seat  was  to  be  fixed  at  the  city  destined  to 
be  founded  on  the  Bay  of  Todos  os  Santos  (All-Saints), 
Thom6  de  Souza  set  sail  from  Lisbon  on  the  2d  of  February, 
1549,  with  a  squadron  of  six  vessels  conveying  on  board  a 
thousand  men,  including  the  persons  of  his  retinue, 
colonists,  convicts,  several  artillery  officers,  engineers, 
mechanics,  and  finally,  the  principal  sub-directors  of  tiie 
projected  administration,  and,  for  the  purpose  of  christian- 
izing the  Indians,  six  Jesuits  under  the  lead  of  Father 
Manoel  da  Nobrega. 

On  the  27th  of  March  Thome  de  Souza  beheld  from  afar 
the  bay  of  Todos  os  Santos,  and,  assembling  his  vessels, 
entered  the  harbor  on  the  29th,  carrying  with  him  tiie 
elements  of  social  order  and  consequently  the  bases  of 

The  aged  Diogo  Alvares  (Caramuru),  the  hero  of  the 
land,  hastened  to  welcome  the  newly-arrived   governor- 

-  383  -- 

general,  acd  the  Tupinambds  threw  down  their  bows  and 
arrows  in  token  of  peace  and  friendship. 

There  already  existed  the  commencement  of  a  Portuguese 
settlement  which  had  been  initiated  by  the  unfortunate 
donee  of  Bahia,  Francisco  Pereira  Coutinho  who,  having 
been  shipwrecked  on  the  island  of  Itaparica,  was  put  to 
death  and  devoured  by  his  mortal  enemies,  the  Ttipt- 

At  half  a  league's  distance  from  this  settlement,  Thom^ 
de  Souza  founded  a  city  on  a  steep  elevation  near  the  beach. 
To  this  city  he  gave  the  name  of  Salvador,  afterwards 
changed  to  SSo  Salvador.  The  assistance  received  from 
numerous  parties  of  Ti^nambds  under  the  lead  of  Cara- 
muru  hastened  the  progress  of  building.  The  principal 
edifices  commenced  were  the  cathedral,  the  custom-housey 
the  governor's  palace  and  the  Jesuit  college,  and  at  the 
end  of  four  months  100  houses  had  been  completed,  with 
grounds  enclosed  and  planted. 

In  the  meanwhile  ThomS  de  Souza  had  inaugurated  his 
government,  appointing  a  chief-justice  to  preside  over  the 
judiciary  afiairs,  a  major-domo  charged  with  the  financial 
administration,  a  chief  coast-guard  to  whom  was  entrusted 
the  duty  of  providing  for  maritime  defense,  and  afterwards 
a  chief  alcaide  who  was  subdirector  of  the  land  forces. 

On  the  1st  of  November,  1549,  the  growing  city  had  its 
municipal  council  which  registered  the  governor-general's 
commission  and  administered  to  him  with  due  solemnity 
the  requisite  oath  of  office. 

Thom^de  Souza,  the  fortunate,  and  deservedly  fortunate, 
founder  of  the  city  of  Bahia,  and  creator  of  the  general 
government  of  the  colony,had  great  difficulties  to  overcome; 
cautious  but  energetic,  just  and  at  times  severe,  honest 
and  upright   in  his  administration,  he  was  neglectful  of 

-  3^4  - 
nought  save  himself,  and,  in  the  execution  of  his  duties^ 
braved  unhesitatingly  both  toils  and  dangers. 

Imposing  his  authority  upon  the  Indians,  he  v>on 
good-will  by  his  kindness  and  by  favors,  and  iutiiJ.i'Liioil 
them  with  the  fear  of  the  condign  punishiuc:-  v.  liich 
transgressors  suffered  at  his  hands.  A  cannibal,  i^.  iii>iance, 
detected  in  the  act  of  feeding  on  the  bodyoi  r-  .  ^etched 
Portuguese  whom  he  had  murdered,  wa  condi  iuned  to 
be  blown    to  pieces  at  the  cannon's  mouth. 

He  repressed  the  abuses  and  corruption  of  the  secular 
clergy  which  in  the  captaincies  had  .spotted  unchecked 
the  purity  and  holiness  of  the  religion  it  professed. 

Visiting  the  captaincies  he  regulated  their  administra- 
tion, strengthened  the  action  of  his  superior  authority  in 
their  borders  and  established  therein  the  sway  of  law 
and  justice.  In  that  of  Sao  Viconte  he  raised  to  the  rank 
of  a  town,  on  condition  of  establishing  defensive  works, 
the  enterprising  village  of  Santo  Andr6  (afterwards  fallen 
into  decay)  founded  by  John  Ramalho  and  controlled  by 
the  influence  of  the  fiery  Mu/nelukes,   his  sons 

After  so  many  and  such  arduous  toils,  Thom<J  de  Souza 
took  his  departure  from  Brazil  in  1553.  He  left  his  name 
perpetuated  here  by  his  services,  in  the  prosperous  devel- 
opment and  comparative  wealth  of  the  city  of  Sao  Sal- 
vador, in  the  growth  of  the  captaincies,  in  the  adminis- 
trative order  which  he  established  and  zealously  main- 
tained, in  the  civilization  which  he  had  planted  on  Bra- 
zilian soil,  and  above  all  in  the  fame  he  had  acquired 
of  being  a  just,  upright  and  disinterested  magistrate  and 
an   honest  man,  worthy  in    every  sense  of  the  word. 

Thom6  de  Souza,  the  fortunate  founder  of  the  general 
government  of  Brazil,   was  in  this  vast  country  the  nour- 

—  385  — 

isher  of  civilization,  the  most  ancient,  the  first  and  ablest 
administrative  organizer,  and  the  introducer  of  social  or- 
der into  the  Portuguese  possessions  in  America. 

ThomS  de  Souza  is  like  a  father;  to  his  memory  is  due 
the  utmost  veneration  of  all  Brazilians. 

YOL.  I  49 



Antonio  Carlos  de  Mariz  e  Barros  was  born  in  the  city 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  7th  of  March,  1835.  He  was  the 
legitimate  son  of  Yice-Admiral  Joaquim  Josd  Ignacio  de 
Mariz  e  Barros  and  his  wife  D.  Maria  Jos6.  His  grand- 
father on  the  father's  side  was  the  second-lieutenant  Josd 
Yictorino  de  Barros,  and  his  maternal  grandf  ather  was 
Captain  Pedro  Mariz  de  Souza  Sarmento. 

Son  and  grandson  to  valiant  and  daring  sailors,  he  was 
bom  for  the  sea  and  received  in  the  cradle  the  lofty  ins- 
pirations which  serve  to  constitute  the  hero.  And  a  hero 
he  showed  himself,  even  in  early  childhood,  in  which  he 
began  to  display  courage,  fortitude,  generosity  and  elevat- 
ed and  enthusiastic  sentiments. 

Having  finished  his  preparatory  studies,  he  was  admit- 
ted into  the  Naval  School  on  the  14th  of  June,  1849. 

Being  at  that  time  fourteen  years  of  age,  he  had  already 
won  admiration  for  the  gallantry  and  skill  which  he  had 
displayed  while  assisting  in  the  extinction  of  fires  in  the 
capital  of  the  Empire. 

The  naval  cadet  of  1849  had  become  first-lieutenant 
in  1857.  He  commanded  the  hiate  Parahybano,  the 
gun-boat  Campista,  the  steam  corvettes  Belmonte  and 
Recife  and  afterwards  the  iron-clad  Tamandare. 

He  made  two  voyages  to  Europe,  one  to  the  Pacific, 
one  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  one  to  the  island  of  Trini- 
dade,  and  a  voyage  of  instruction  to  the  Upper  Amazon, 
of  which  he  presented  an  interesting  report. 

He  accompanied  His  Majesty  the  Emperor  on  his  visit  to 
the  Northen  Provincesof  the  Empire,  and  was  decorated 
with  the  cross  of  the  Imperial  Order  of  the  Rose. 

He  assisted  in  saving  a  French  barque  that  was  in 
danger  of  being  wrecked  on  the  rocks  oflf  the  fortress  of 
Lage,  and  for  this  act  was  made  Chevalier  of  the  Legion 
of  Honor. 

One  day,  while  passing  along  the  Itapuca  beach  near 
Nictheroy,  he  heard  cries  of  distress,  and  on  approaching 
the  spot  whence  theyproceded  beheld  a  negress  struggling 
vainly  with  the  waves. 

He  immediately  threw  himself  into  the  sea,  dressed  as 
he  was,  and  succeeded  in  saving  the  life  of  the  poor  slave. 

Before  there  had  occurred  a  circumstance  which  dis- 
played his  courage  as  a  naval  officer. 

In  command  of  the  gun-boat  Campista  he  was  cruising 
ofif  Ilha-Orande  for  the  purpose  of  preventing  the  land- 
ing of  Africans  from  vessels  engaged  in  the  slave  trade. 
Seeing  a  vessel  that  was  making  off  and  which  had  a 
suspicious  appearance,  he  gave  orders  to  crowd  on  all 
sail  and  give  chase.  The  Campista  flew  before  the  wind 

like  a  bird,  but  before  coming  up  with  the  strange  vessel 
the  breeze  slackened  and  was  soon  succeeded  by  a  calm. 
Mariz  e  Barros  did  not  hesitate  a  moment. 

—  «  Man  the  boats,  *  he  cried,  and  the  crew  obey- 
ing, armed  for  boarding,  rowed  heartily  towards  the 
stranger.  On  reaching  the  latter,  Mariz  e  Barros,  who 
was  in  the  foremost  boat,  gave  orders  for  boarding,  when 
the  commanding  officer  of  the  stranger  appearing  on  deck 
gave  three  lusty  cheers  which  were  repeated  by  his  crew, 
at  the  same  time  running  up  the  British  colors. 

The  strange  ship  was  an  English  brig. 

Behold  him  finally  in  battle.  He  is  before  the  fort  of 
Paysandu,  commanding  a  redoubt  thrown  up  under  his 
orders  in  the  most  appropriate  position  for  bombarding  the 
enemy,  and  the  most  exposed  to  their  fire,  and  his  brave 
men  are  falling  fast  around  him. 

So  close  was  his  redoubt  to  the  enemy's  position  that 
it  was  within  range  of  their  musketry.  The  soldiers  of 
Leandro  Gomez  called  Mariz  e  Barros  the  invulnerable. 

The  bombardment  lasted  fifty-two  hours  until  the  fort, 
in  which  every  house  was  converted  into  a  fortress,  was 
enclosed  and  taken  and  the  green-and-gold  banner, 
hoisted  by  Marcilio  Bias,  waved  in  triumph  over  the  church 
tower  of  the  place. 

At  Paysandu  heroism  was  displayed  by  many  officers 
and  soldiers  ;  but  among  them  all  it  was  Mariz  e  Barros 
who  won  by  his  deeds  the  glorious  title  of  the  Lion 
of  the  fray.  Marcilio  Dias,  the  Hercules  who  fought  by  the 
Lion's  side,  said  of  him  with  the  rude  simplicity  of  a  sol- 
dier : 

—  «  The  devil  of  a  boy  fights  like  a  demon.  > 

Mariz  e  Barros,  commander  of  the  express  steamer 
dispatched  to  convey  to  Rio   de  Janeiro  the  news  of  the 

victory,  was  taken  from  on  board  and  carried  in  tri- 
umph to  the  Merchant'sExchangeand  to  his  father  resi- 

The  Emperor  gave  the  hero  the  medal  of  Chevalier  of 
the  Order  of  the  Crusador. 

At  the  close  of  the  Uruguayan  campaign,  that  of  Par- 
aguay was  begun. 

The  first  Brasilian  iron-clad  (built  in  a  Brazilian  dock ) 
received  the  name  of  Tamandari,  an  infallible  incentive 
to  a  glorious  career.  Mariz  e  Barros  was  chosen  to  com- 
mand it,  and   gallantly  set  sail  for  the  seat  of  war. 

Whether  running  the  gauntlet  of  the  Paraguayan  forts 
and  encampment  at  Passo  da  Patria  on  the  River  Parani, 
or  sounding  the  river  under  a  deadly  fire  of  the  enemy, 
Mariz  e  Barros  performed  prodigies  of  valor  and  daring 
maintaining  through  all  dangers  and  exciting  scenes  an 
imperturbable  calmness. 

On  the  27th  of  March,  1866,  the  Paraguayan  fort  and 
flat-boats,  having  attempted  to  hinder  the  passage  of  the 
steamer  Henrique  Dias  which  had  been  sent  on  an  ex- 
pedition up  the  Parani,  the  TamandarS  and  the  Brazil 
opened  on  them  a  fire  which  lasted  from  10  A.  M.  to  5 
P.  M.  The  flat-boats  were  destroyed  or  sunk,  and  the  fort 
was  completely  silenced. 

It  was  time  to  rest ;  the  steamers  were  retiring  when 
a  ball  from  the  fort  entering  the  porthole  of  the  casemate 
in  the  bow  of  the  Tamandar6,  shattered  the  chains  by 
which  the  latter  was  protected  and,  ricocheting  along 
the  wall  of  the  casemate,  wounded  34  persons.  Mariz  e 
Barros,  unmoved  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight,  now  has- 
tens in  distress  to  the  spot,  accompanied  by  his  officers. 
Suddenly  another  ball,  entering  the  same  porthole,  causes 
havoc  in  the  group. 

-391  - 

Horrible  sceoe  !  Besides  the  poor  soldiers  and  sailors 
slain,  the  brave  Vassimon,  the  Purser  Accioliand  the  Clerk 
Alpoim  lie  extended  on  the  floor,  horribly  mutilated. 

The  first-lieutenant  Josd  Ignacio  da  Silveira  is  still  alive 
and  able  to  speak,  having  lost  an  arm  and  a  leg. 

Calm  and  serene,  he  recounts  without  a  groan  what  had 
taken  place  to  the  Viscount  of  Tamandard  who  has  at  once 
sought  the  scene  of  disaster,  and,  finishing  his  sublime 
narrative,  murmurs  «  fare  well  »  and  expires. 

From  among  mutilated  bodies  of  the  dead  and  dying 
Mariz  e  Barros  is  lifted,  his  leg  shattered  below  the  knee 
(which  is  also  injured)  and  only  hanging  by  the  tendons. 
Severing  this  frail  connection,  Mariz  e  Barros  casts  aside 
the  useless  member,  turning  a  smiling  countenance  to 
Councilor  Francisco  Octaviano  de  Almeida  Rosa,  Brazilian 
Minister  Plenipotentiary,  who  being  at  that  time  with 
the  squadron  has  accompanied  the  admiral  to  the  spot 
where  his  country,  draped  in  mourning,  bewails  the  death 
and  agony  of  her  heroic  sons. 

On  the  following  day,  in  the  cabin  of  the  hospital-ship 
Onze  de  Jidho,  Mariz  e  Barros,  in  the  arms  of  the  Viscount 
ofTamandard,  with  Councilor  Octaviano  in  front  and  his 
friends  and  comrades  gathered  around  him,  endeavors  to 
encourage  them  by  his  cheerful  manner  and,  alluding  to 
the  surgeon,  jestingly  inquires : 

<  Where  is  the  man  who  takes  the  helm  ?  » 

It  is  necessary  to  amputate  his  leg  above  the  knee. 

The  surgeons  appear  and  ofier  him  chloroform. 

He  smiles  and  says : 

«  I  prefer  a  cigar.  » 

Calmy  and  quietly  he  smokes  it  while  the  operation 

When  this  is  finished  he  ceases  to  smile,  and  says  with 
emotion,  but  without  depression  of  spirits  : 

«  Tell  my  father  that  I  have  always  honored  his 
name.  » 

His  eyes  close :  he  seems  to  sleep. 

It  is  March  28th,  1866,  and  the  day  is  but  twenty  min- 
utes old. 

Antonio  Carlos  de  Mariz  e  Barros — the  Lion — ^has  ceased 
to  exist. 

•^TTCIX     OF    Tsa^A.:RCm. 

mt  mm  ribeiro  dk  abrkd  uia 

In  the  beginning  of  the  last  quarter  of  the  18th  cent- 
ury Jos6  Ignacio  Ribeiro  de  Abreu  Lima,  legitimate  son  of 
Francisco  Ignacio  Ribeiro  de  Abreu  Lima  and  D.  Rosa  Maria 
de  Abreu  Grades,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Recife,  in  Pernam- 
buco,  where  he  began  the  study  of  the  humanities,  display- 
ing remarkable  intelligence  and  an  independent  and  some- 
what adventurous  spirit. 

He  entered  the  Carmelite  Order,  but  some  time  after- 
wards apostatized  and  left  his  native  city. 

He  spent  several  years  in  Europe,  and  underwent  perse- 
cution in  Goimbra,  as  may  be  inferred  from  a  note  in  a  slight 
biographical  sketch  among  the  manuscripts  of  General 
Abreu  e  Lima.  He  traveled  through  various  countries, 
stopping  at  Rome,  whence  he  returned  to  his  native 

VOL.  I  50 

—  394  — 

In  Pernambuco  he  declared  that  he  had  obtained  from 
the  Pope  his  secularization  and  his  appointment  to  holy 
orders.  His  son,  General  Abreu  e  Lima  says  that  he  was 
a  Bachelor  of  Divinity  and  consecrated  knight  of  the  Order 
of  Christ,  the  latter  part  of  which  statement  agrees  with 
that  made  in  the  work  entitled  « The  Pernambuco  Mar- 
tyrs. » 

In  his  travels  through  Europe,  and  particularly  during 
his  stay  in  Rome,  Josd  Ignacio  completed  the  study  of  the 
humanities  :  he  was  well  acquainted  with  Latin,  under- 
stood Greek  and  several  modern  languages.  As  he  had 
visited  the  eternal  city,  and  was  accustomed  to  speak  of  it, 
he  was  nicknamed  «  Padre  Roma  »  (Father  Rome). 

He  professed  ultra-liberal  principles,  and  was  not  parti- 
cularly noted  for  his  prudence. 

He  practiced  law  in  Pernambuco  and  was  appointed  crown 
lawyer  of  the  ecclesiastical  court. 

In  the  short  and  incomplete  manuscript  notes  of  General 
Abreu  Lima  we  are  told  that  JosS  Ignacio,  hearing  of  the 
intended  coming  of  the  Portuguese  royal  family  to  Brazil, 
assembled  his  friends  and  proposed  to  them  that  the  Prince 
Regent  D.  John  should  not  be  received  unless  he  prom- 
ised to  grant  the  country  a  constitution ;  a  proposal  which 
was  not  accepted. 

In  1817  Jos6  Ignacio  took  part  in  the  republican  revolu- 
tion which  broke  out  in  Pernambuco,  and  offered  his  services 
to  go  Alagoas  and  thence  to  Bahia  for  the  purpose  of  for- 
warding the  revolutionary  movement  in  those  two  prov- 
inces. In  the  performance  of  this  delicate  and  dangerous 
commission  he  was  very  successful  in  Alagoas.  Availing 
himself  of  an  opportunity  which  appeared  suitable,  he 
chartered  a  vessel  at  Macei6  and  sailed  for  Bahia  where 
existed  a  vast  conspiracy  whose  purposes  were  of  the  same 

nature  as  those  of  the  revolutionary  movement  in  Pernam- 

He  carried  with  him  proclamations  and  letters  implicat- 
ing various  persons,  but  as  if  seized  with  a  presentiment,  he 
threw  all  these  papers  overboard. 

On  landing  he  was  arrested  and  carried  to  the  city. 

Inexperienced  and  imprudent,  he  had  taken  no  steps  to 
hide  his  purpose  and  movements,  and  was  not  even  dis- 
guised. The  Count  of  Arcos,  captain-general  of  Bahia, 
expected  his  arrival  and  easily  effected  his  capture. 

He  was  tried  by  court-martial  and  condemned  to  be  exe- 

He  had  been  arrested  on  the  night  of  March  26,  and  on 
the  29th  he  was  shot  on  the  grounds  called  Campo  da 
Polvora,  meeting  death  with  courage  and  resignation. 

In  his  biograhical  notes  General  Abreu  Lima  says  that 
Father  Josd  Ignacio  Ribeiro  de  Abreu  Lima  left  many 
works,  particularly  in  regard  to  agricultural  improve- 
ments, and  also  a  Commentary  on  the  Statute  Law  of  Por^ 
tugaly  which  Dr.  Caldas,  owner  of  the  Larangeirasplan- 
tation,  considered  the  best  exposition  of  the  laws  of  the 
country;  but  none  of  these  works  are  now  extant. 

:X^2^    OF    ly^AUCH 


Even  though  this  citizen  had  no  other  claim  to  distinc- 
tion, his  glory  would  have  been  suflSciently  established  by 
the  part  which  he  took  in  the  cabinet  of  Aug.  31,  1864, 
of  which  Councilor  Francisco  Jos6  Furtado  was  premier, 
a  cabinet  that  improvised  a  navy  and  created  an  army 
of  volunteers  for  the  Paraguayan  war. 

Joao  Pedro  Dias  Vieira  was  born  on  the  30th  of  March, 
1820,  in  the  town  of  GuimarSes.  Neither  from  his  father, 
Manoel  Ignacio  Yieira,  a  militia  captain,  nor  from  his 
mother,  D.  Dyonisia  Maria  Dias  Vieira  did  he  inherit 
wealth  or  station  to  obtain  the  political  influence  which  he 
was  destined  to   wield   in  his  native  province. 

In  the  capital  of  that  province  he  went  through  the 
preparatory  studies,  entered  the  law-school  of  Olinda,  and. 

—  398  — 
leaving  it  for  that  of  S.  Paulo,  completed  his  edacation  in 
1841,  receiving  the  diploma  of  Bachelor  of  Laws. 

In  1842  he  was  appointed  prosecuting  attorney  in  the 
capital  of  his  province,  but,  connecting  himself  with  the 
liberal  opposition  in  which  some  of  his  old  friends  and 
fellow  students  were  in  charge  of  the  press,  he  shortly 
received  his  dismissal.  He  then  opened  a  lawyer's  office 
and  continued  to  practice  law  for  two  years,  being  appoint- 
ed in  1846  prosecuting  attorney  of  the  judicial  district  of 

Elected  several  times  to  the  provincial  assembly  of  Ma- 
ranhao,  he  was  noted  for  his  moderation,  and  was  dis- 
tinguished as  an  orator  by  an  easy  flow  of  language,  clear- 
ness of  expression,  precision  and  skill  in  argument  and  a 
complete  freedom  from  lofty  flights  of  impassioned  elo- 

In  the  capital  of  the  province  he  acted  provisionally  as 
municipal  judge,  and  from  1851  to  1855  exercised  consider- 
able influence  over  the  provincial  administration.  In  1852 
he  was  appointed  solicitor  of  the  provincial  treasury,  and 
two  years  later  director-general  of  the  provincial  land- 
office.  At  the  same  time  he  served  as  professor  of  philosophy, 
rhetoric  and  geography  in  the  Episcopal  Seminary,  a  place 
which  he  resigned  only  after  his  election  to  the  Sen- 

In  1855  he  was  appointed  President  of  Amazonas  which 
he  governed  till  January  4th,  1857. 

By  the  election  which  was  held  in  the  last-named  year 
he  obtained  a  seat  in  the  chamber  of  deputies,  and  in  1861 
was  not  only  re-elected  but  also  honored  by  his  province 
with  a  place  in  the  list  of  three  names  submitted  to  the 
Emperor  for  the  selection  of  a  Senator  and  was  chosen  by 
the  Crown   to  represent  his  province  in  the  Senate. 

Having  been  appointed  vice-president  of  MaranhSo,  in 
the  absence  of  the  president  he  was  entrusted  with  the 
government,  and  during  his  administration  displayed  great 
interest  in  promoting  the  navigation  of  the  rivers  of  the 
province,  giving  all  lawful  assistance  to  a  company  which 
shortly  before  had  been  formed  for  that  purpose.  In  ac- 
knowledgment of  the  favors  received,  the  company  gave 
to  one  of  its  steamers  the  name  of  Bias  Vieira, 

On  the  15th  of  January,  1864,  he  was  entrusted  with 
the  portfolio  of  Minister  of  the  Navy  in  the  cabinet  organ- 
ized by  Councilor  Zacharias  de  G6es  e  Vasconcellos, 
exchanging  it  on  the  15th  of  March  for  that  of  Foreign 
Affairs.  At  the  head  of  this  department  he  was  called  upon 
to  maintain  a  prudent  reserve  in  the  midst  of  exciting  dis- 
cussions in  the  Chamber,  having  not  only  to  encounter  the 
attacks  of  the  Conservative  opposition,  but  also  to  restrain 
the  impetuosity  of  the  bellicose  faction  of  his  own  party 
which  demanded  prompt  and  energetic  action  against  the 
Montevideo  government.  This  government  had  treated 
with  levity  the  serious  complaints  and  demands  for  repar- 
ation made  by  Brazil  on  account  of  the  insults  and  injus- 
tice suffered  by  its  subjects;  and  now,  when  the  latter,  in 
order  to  make  a  last  effort  for  peace,  adopted  the  gener- 
ous, dignified  and  conciliatory  expedient  of  sending  Coun- 
cilor Saraiva  on  a  special  mission  to  Montevideo,  its  repre- 
sentations were  met  with  the  utmost  neglect. 

On  the  31st  of  August,  1864,  the  new  ministry,  organ- 
ized by  the  meritorious  Councilor  Furtado,  assumed  the 
reins  of  government,  and  a  few  days  thereafter  Dias 
Yieira,  who  had  accompanied  his  colleagues,  returned  to 
his  old  position  at  the  head  of  the  department  of  foreign 

The  conspicuous  services  performed  by  the  Furtado  min- 

-  400  — 

istry  which  found  itself  without  an  army,  navy  or  mu- 
nitions of  war,  forced  into  a  gigantic  struggle  in  order  to 
wipe  out  the  insults  offered  to  the  country,  will  be  for- 
ever engraved  on  the  brighttsst  pages  of  Brazilian  history. 

Besides  the  ministry  which  guided  the  destinies  of  the 
country  immediately  after  its  declaration  of  independence 
there  has  been  none  more  eminently  patriotic  than  the 
Furtado  ministry. 

In  this  cabinet  Das  Vieira  performed  thoroughly  the 
duties  imposed  by  patriotism. 

His  services  afterwards  in  the  Naval  Board  were 
eulogized,  and  were  certainly  worthy  of  applause;  but  they 
are  entirely  eclipsed  by  the  bright  renown  of  the  ministry 
of  August  31,  which  in  nine  months  improvised  the  army 
and  navy  which  gained  the  victories  of  Paysandu,  Uru- 
guayana,  Riachuelo,  Cuevas,  Redempgdo  Island  or  Vic- 
toria, Passo  da  Patria,  and  May  2d  and  May  24,  1866, 
which  formed  the  first,  essential  and  principal  elements 
of  the  final  grand  triumph  of  the  Empire  in  the  Para- 
guayan war. 

JoSo  Pedro  Dias  Vieira  was  only  50  years  of  age,  when 
he  died  on  the  36th  of  October,  1870. 

He  had  received  the  title  of  Councilor,  was  oflScer  of 
the  Imperial  Order  of  the  Rose,  and  Grand  Cross  of  the 
Ernestine  Order  of  the  Ducal  House  of  Saxe. 

To  his  widow,  who  was  left  in  honorable  poverty, the  Im- 
perial Government  granted  a  pension  of  one  conto  and  two 
hundred  milreis  per  annum  on  account  of  the  consptci^us 
services  rendered  to  the  State  by  Councilor  Jodo  Pedro 
J>ias  Vieira, 


OF    Isa^A-HOJcX. 





T^^e  city  of  Alcantara  in  the  province  of  MaranMo  has 
^ad  the  fortune  of  being  the  birthplace  of  several  il- 
lustrious Brazilians.  It  was  there  that  was  born  on  the 
25th  of  December,  1807,  Joaquim  Franco  de  SA,  legitimate 
son  of  the  militia  colonel,  Romualdo  Antonio  Franco  de 
Si  and  D.  Estella  Francisca  da  Costa  Ferreira. 

Up  to  the  age  of  eighteen  under  the  direction  of  his 
fraternal  aunt,  D.  Anna  Francisca  de  S&,  he  studied  the 
primary  and  secondary  branches  of  instruction  and  the 
art  of  music,  of  which  he  was  a  distinguished  amateur. 
In  1826  he  went  to  Lisbon  and  in  1828  was  studying  in 
the  second  form  of  the  Coimbra  law-school  when  a  reaction 
of  the  absolutists  forced  him  to  return  to  Pernambuco, 
where  in  1832  he  received  the  diploma  of  Bachelor  of 
Laws  from  the  law-school  in '  Olinda,   having  during  his 

VOL.  I  51 

-  402  — 
college  life  distinguished  himself  in  his  class  by  his  intel- 
ligence and  application,  in  society  by  his  amiability, 
courtesy  and  musical  talent,  and  in  politics  by  his  pa- 
triotism and  courage  in  defending,  in  conjunction  with 
some  of  his  fellow  students,  the  cause  of  social  order 
against  the  assaults  of  armed  anarchy  and  a  licentious 

On  August  16,  1833,  he  was  appointed  solicitor  of  the 
national  sub-treasury  in  Maranhdo  and  worthily  oc- 
cupied this  office  until  Jan  2d  of  the  following  year  when 
he  began  his  judicial  career  as  district  judge  in  SEo  Luiz. 
It  fell  to  his  lot  to  Initiate  trial  by  jury  in  that  district, 
and  on  this  occasion  he  made  a  notable  address  on  the 
importance  of  the  institution. 

Thenceforward  the  public  life  of  Joaquim  Franco  de 
Sa  embraces  three  distinct  spheres :  the  magistracy,  par- 
liament and   public  administration. 

In  December,  1836,  he  obtained  his  transfer  to  the 
district  court  of  his  native  place,  Alcantara,  where  as 
judge  he  rendered  important  services,  systematizing  the 
modes  of  procedure  and  the  process  of  administering  justice. 
By  imperial  decree  of  Jan.  14,  1851,  he  was  promoted 
to  a  judgeship  in  the  Superior  Court  of  Maranhao,  but 
was   prevented    by  death  from  taking  his  seat. 

In  1841  he  had  entered  parliament  as  vice-deputy  for 
Maranhao  in  the  General  Assembly,  after  confirming  in 
the  provincial  assembly  of  his  province  his  reputation 
as  an  orator  possessing  weighty  ideas  and  gifted  with  an 
easy  flow  of  language.  He  was  twice  re-elected  deputy  and 
on  the  31st  of  March,  1849,  was  chosen  senator.  In  both 
chambers  he  took  part  in  important  debates,  and  distin- 
guished himself  by  the  ease  and  grace  of  his  elocution  and 
the  force  and  penetration  of  his  arguments. 

—  403  — 

But  on  his  administrative  career  rests  his  principal 
claim  to  distinction.  Having  been  appointed  vice-president 
of  Maranhao,  he  was  in  1837  required  to  perform  during 
four  months  the  duties  of  president,  and  for  this  space 
of  time  administered  the  affairs  of  the  province  with  mod- 
eration, justice  and  freedom  from  party  spirit.  In  so 
short  a  period  it  was  of  course  impossible  for  him  to 
devise  and  execute  many  improvements,  but  the  plan  for 
creating  a  company  for  the  purpose  of  placing  steamers 
on  the  Maranhao  rivers  gives  evidence,  in  connection 
with  other  acts,  to  his  administrative  ability.  In  1844 
in  the  midst  of  a  period  of  violent  party  excitement 
caused  by  a  heated  electoral  campaign  he  was  president 
of  Parahyba.  Just  and  moderate,  he  soothed  the  polit- 
ical agitation,  and,  though  depressed  in  spirit  by  the 
loss  of  his  wife  and  obliged  to  be  ever  vigilant  in  main- 
taining order  and  in  obviating  the  evil  consequences  of 
party  strife,  he  still  found  time  to  systematize  and  sim- 
plify the  public  service,  reforming  and  reorganizing  the 
financial  department  and  promulgating  regulations  in- 
tended to  render  the  administration  more  efficient  and 
less  restrained  in  its  action. 

This  province  also  he  governed  only  a  few   months. 

From  Oct.  27,  1846,  to  April  1,  1848,  he  was  president 
of  Maranhao.  He  found  the  province  still  suffering  from 
the  devastating  effects  of  the  Cabanos  insurrection  and 
torn  by  bitter  and  almost  ungovernable  factions.  Boldly 
and  patriotically  he  declared  that  justice  and  progress 
should  be  the  watchwords  of  his  administration.  He  was 
supported  by  the  Maranhdo  Liberal  League,  a  consider- 
able party  formed  of  the  dispersed  fragments  of  others 
for  the  express  purpose  of  sustaining  him,  and  by  the 
Progresso,  the  first  daily  paper  published  in  the  province, 

—  404  — 
which  was  edited   by  noted  political  and  literary  char- 

In  the  -.i  eanwhile  Franco  de  S4  reorganized  the  provincial 
administration,  introduced  into  the  budget  the  item  of 
Public  Works,  created  the  respective  bureau,  improved 
the  provincial  revenue  by  means  of  system  and  economy, 
and  causing  taxes  to  be  levied  on  articles  exceptionally 
exempted,  overcame  the  deficit  and  presented  a  surplus. 
In  Alcantara  he  opened  the  Garvalho  canal,  and  in 
1848,  renewing  his  efibrts  in  behalf  of  the  important 
enterprize,  began  the  works  of  that  of  Aparahy.  He 
encouraged  agriculture,  advocating  untiringly  the  culture 
of  cane  and  manufacture  of  sugar,  which  for  some  years 
had  been  almost  entirely  abandoned  in  the  province. 

In  less  than  two  years  he  had  given  MaranhSio  wealth, 
prosperity  and  order,  and  opened  before  it  a  brilliant 
prospect  for  the  future. 

His  administration   ended  on  the  1st  of  April,   1848. 

Joaquim  Franco  de  S4,  Senator  of  the  Empire  and 
Judge  of  the  Superior  Court,  died  in  the  city  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro  on  November  10,   1851. 

I    O^F     An^Hj 


This  is  the  name  of  a  poor  and  obscure  French  immigrant 
of  whom  no  one  had  heard  until  1826  and  the  date  of  whose 
arrival  in  Brazil  is  not  known. 

Seignot  Prancher,  a  man  without  wealth,  without 
that  brightness  of  intellect  which  often  takes  the  place  of 
instruction,  without  capacity  to  plan  and  to  calculate  for 
the  future  and  even  without  claim  to  be  considered  a 
mechanic  of  ordinary  skill  or  ingenuity,  was  merely  an 
industrious  workman,  economical  and  resolute  in  the  desire 
to  gain   a  livelihood   by  making  the  most  of  his  labor. 

This  poor  and  obscure  Frenchman  succeeded,  God  only 
knows  by  means  of  what  sacrifices  and  in  spite  of  what 
obstacles,  in  establishing  an  insignificant  printing  office  in 
an  unsightly  building  on  the  Rua  dos  Ourives,  and  had  the 
good  fortune  to  publish  in  his  small  establishment  one  of 

—  406  - 
the  oldest,  and  certainly  the  largest  and  most  widespread 
edition  of  the  Brazilian  Constitution,  adopted  on  the  25th 
of  March,  1824. 

Seignot  Prancher  was  neither  constitutional  nor  anti- 
constitutional  in  his  views ;  he  printed  the  Constitution 
as  a  commercial  speculation,  counting  on  a  rapid  and 
extensive  sale  of  the  publication.  It  was  to  him  merely  a 
partial  means  of  livelihood,  and  in  those  days  there  was 
little  printing  to  do  and  consequently  very  little  to  be  made 
out  of  it. 

But  Seignot  Prancher  was  visited  by  a  brilliant  idea 
whose  extent  and  future  development  his  feeble  intellect 
evidently  failed  to  comprehend. 

It  occurred  to  him  that  the  merchants  of  Rio  de  Janeiro 
would  take  an  interest  in  the  announcement  of  vessels 
arrived  and  cleared,  and  in  advertisements  relating  to 
auctions  and  other  branches  of  trade. 

Selecting  a  source  of  revenue  supposed  to  be  of  little 
value,  but  in  any  case,  although  a  doubtful  hope,  still  a 
resource  not  to  be  neglected  by  one  struggling  with 
laborious  poverty,  the  obscure  and  unlettered  Seignot 
Prancher  published  on  the  1st  of  April,  1826,  the  first 
number  of  the  Jomal  do  Commercio  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Without  even  being  a  dailj/y  badly  printed  on  coarse 
wrapping-paper,  containing  only  two  sides  of  printed 
matter  on  a  half-sheet  of  paper,  embracing  an  account  of 
the  movemont  of  the  port  and  some  other  ordinary  news 
items,  all,  however,  of  interest  to  the  trade  —  it  was  thus 
that  on  the  1st  of  April,  1826,  the  JorncU  do  Commercio 
made  its  first  appearance  in  the  world. 

It  was  thus  that  Seignot  Plancher,  without  compre- 
hending the  value  of  his  undertaking  whose  importance  he 
was  never-able  to  realize,  laid  the  foundation  of  the  paper 

~  407  — 
which  was  destined  shortly  to  hecomo  the  most,  imporiant, 
the  most  widely  circulated,  and  the  wealthiest  representa- 
tive of  the  daily  press  of  Brazil. 

The  trade  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  gave  a  cordial  reception  to 
the  half-sheet  of  wrapping-paper  which  Seignot  Plancher 
oflTered  it. 

The  most  imperfect  trade  journal  was  the  best,  because  it 
was  the  only  one. 

'Seignot  Plancher  saw  his  work  progress.  He  explored 
the  mine  of  advertisements  of  runaway  slaves  and  of  slaves 
for  sale,  afterwards  that  of  houses  to  rent,  and  finally 
everything  that  appealed  to  the  material  interests  of 
the  people.  He  even  went  so  far  sometimes  as  to  publish  an 
account  of  the  principal  political  events  of  Europe. 

The  Jornal  do  Commercio  grew  into  a  four-paged  daily, 
the  number  of  its  subscribers  increased  and  its  typographic 
appearance  improved.  On  the  9th  of  June,  1832,  Seignot 
Plancher  sold  his  paper  and  printing-office  to  Junius  Ville- 
neuve  and  Maugenol  for  52:664$000. 

In  six  years  the  Jornal  do  Commercio  had  given  Seignot 
Plancher  a  fortune  which  satisfied  his  ambition  and  which 
he  shortly  afterwards  went  to  France  to  enjoy. 

Yet  in  1832  the  Jornal  do  Commercio  was  but  in  its 
Im. fancy,  and  was  very  far  from  that  prosperous  position 
which  it  has  since  attained. 

Seignot  Plancher  was  industrious  and  diligent,  but  he 
had  neither  the  education  nor  the  intellect  to  build  up  his 
paper  into  a  journal  worthy  of  the  capital  of  a  civilized 
nation.  Nevertheless  his  name  must  be  mentioned  with 
interest,  for  it  belongs  to  the  history  of  Brazilian  jour- 

n  OF  -A-raiL 



Antonio  Nunes  de  Serqueira,    as    weare  informed  b 
Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa,  was  a  native  of  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
and  was  born  on  the  2d  of  April,  1701.  Having  studied  the 
humanities,  he  devoted  himself  to  the  priesthood  and  took 
orders  in  his  native  city. 

He  was  noted  for  his  talent  and  his  lively  imagination  as 
well  as  for  his  integrity  and  exemplary  deportment. 

He  was  an  enlightened  priest  and  a  profound  philosopher 
and  theologian.  The  honors  of  padre-mestre  were  con- 
ferred on  him,  and  he  was  rector  of  the  Seminary  of  S. 

He  cultivated  music  and  poetry  with  enthusiasm,  and  it 
is  said  with  much  success. 

He  was  noted  for  skill  in  the  organization  of  choirs  and 
for  his  musical  compositions  which  are  said  to  possess  more 

VOL.  I  52 

—  410  — 
than  ordinary  merit.  There  is  no  doubt  of  his  having  been 
oflScially  employed  in  composing  sacred  mnsic. 

He  was  member  of  the  «Academia  dos  Selectos,»  and 
some  of  his  verses  were ,  in  1754,  admitted  into  the  collection 
of  that  establishment. 

Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa  says  that  some  of  these  musi- 
cal and  poetical  compositions  have  been  printed. 

HI    OF    -AJ>IIIL 


Legitimate  son  of  Jos6  Francisco  de  Figueiredo  and  Feli- 
ciana Maria  da  ConceigSo,  Antonio,  who  afterwards  took  the 
name  of  Santa  Gertrudes,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  where  he  also  studied,  displaying  no  little  talent. 

On  the  2d  of  July,  1804,  he  took  the  vow  in  the  Carme- 
lite Order  and  in  the  course  of  time  grew  to  be  one  of  its 
most  distinguished  members. 

He  was  a  consummate  theologian  and  so  studious  that  it 
used  to  be  said  of  him  that  he  carried  a  library  in  his  head. 

He  was  well  acquainted  with  both  sacred  and  profane 
literature,  and  was  a  man  of  profound  erudition.  He  was 
justly  considered  an  able  and  eloquent  preacher  at  a  time 
when  Rio  de  Janeiro  was  noted  for  its  distinguished  pulpit 

—  412  - 

He  was  a  provincial  of  his  Order  and  lu^s  been  greatly 
eulogized  for  his  zeal  and  discretion. 

He  was  an  untiring  preacher,  and,  like  S.  Carlos,  S.  Paio 
and  many  others,  left  a  large  number  of  manuscript  ser- 
mons to  be  destroyed  by  neglect  or  despoiled  by  plagiarists. 

He  published  some  of  discourses,  but  most  of  these  have 
been  lost. 

One  of  his  sermons  which  has  been  most  eulogized  is 
that  which  he  delivered  in  the  chapel  of  the  Carmelite  Or- 
der on  the  3d  of  April,  1826,  on  the  return  of  the  Emperor 
D.  Pedro  I  from  Bahia  to  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

IV   OF   A.i>:RrL, 


Jos6  Lino  Coutinho  was  born  in  the  province  of  Bahia  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

After  studying  the  humanities  in  the  city  of  S.  Salvador, 
he  went  to  Portugal,  where  he  graduated  as  a  physician  in 
the  Coimbra  University.  On  his  return  to  his  native  land  he 
began  the  practice  of  medicine  occupying  his  spare  mo- 
ments in  literary  labors  connected  with  his  profession. 

In  1816  he  published  in  Bahia  a  quarto  volume  compris- 
ing a  translation  from  the  French  of  Cabanis'  Observa- 
tions on  the  Catarrhal  Diseases. 

He  also  wrote  an  interesting  treatise  which  he  entitled 
Medical  Topography  of  Bahia,  and  presented  it  to  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Science  in  Lisbon,  which  conferred  on 
him  a  fellowship.  This  treatise  was  published  in  Bahia 
in  1832. 

—  4U  — 

Lino  Coutinho  abandoned  medicine  for  politics.  He  was 
not  only  a  man  of  great  learning,  but  also  one  possessing 
few  equals  for  an  agreeable  and  insinuating  address.  Good, 
disinterested,  plain,  cheerful  and  witty,  easy  to  approach, 
and  of  the  strictest  integrity,  Lino  Coutinho  was  generally 
esteemed  and  extremely  popular. 

In  1821  he  was  elected  deputy  for  Bahia  to  the  Portu- 
guese constituint  assembly.  He  accepted  the  honorable 
mandate,  and,  in  that  celebrated  assemblage  distinguished 
himself,  in  conjunction  with  Antonio  Carlos,  Feij6  and 
Barata,  for  his  energetic  defense  of  Brazil.  With  the  above- 
named  deputies  and  two  others  he  secretly  embarked  for 
Falmouth  and  on  his  arrival  signed  with  them  the  famous 
manifesto  of  Oct.  22,  1822. 

Having  remained  in  England,  he  was  not  elected  to  the 
Brazilian  constituent  assembly  in  1823;  but  he  represented 
Bahia  in  the  chamber  of  deputies  during  the  first  and 
second  ordinary  legislatures. 

An  ardent  liberal,  he  was  constantly  in  opposition  during 
the  reign  of  D.  Pedro  I.  His  seat  in  the  chamber  was  in  front 
of  the  President's  table  and  near  the  seat  of  Vasconcellos. 
He  spoke  nearly  every  day,  and  though  he  was  inferior  to 
Vasconcellos  and  some  other  deputies  both  in  the  depth  of 
his  ideas  and  in  the  weight  of  his  arguments,  still  he  was  a 
terrible  adversary  to  the  government.  His  agreable  voice 
and  fluent  speech  secured  him  a  hearing,  and  his  subtile 
spirit,  fertile  in  epigrams,  in  irony  and  often  in  sharp  sar- 
casm, carried  with  him  the  assembly  and  inflicted  cruel  tor- 
tures on  the  ministers  and  their  adherents. 

On  account  of  the  pleasure  with  which  he  was  listened 
to  by  the  spectators.  Lino  Coutinho  was  called  the  deptUy 
of  the  galleries. 

In  1831,  after  the  abdication  of  D.  Pedro  I,  Lino  Coutinho 

—  415  - 
was  entrusted  with  the  department  of  the  Empire  in  the 
first  ministry  formed  under  the  permanent  regency.  Among 
his  colleagues  in  this  ministry,  which  was  organized  on 
thel6thof  July,  1831,  were  his  friends  Vasconcellos  and 
the  priest  Feij6,  the  firm  and  energetic  minister  of  justice. 
In  this  celebrated  and  glorious  cabinet  which  maintained 
public  order  and  saved  the  capital  of  the  Empire  from  the 
most  horrible  dangers,  Lino  Coutinho  served  until  April  4, 

This  ministry  assumed  the  reins  of  government  under  the 
most  trying  circumstances.  The  provinces  were  writhing  in 
the  convulsions  of  anarchy  and  disorder.  In  the  capital  of 
the  Empire,  under  the  very  eyes  of  the  government,  the 
troops  were  mutinous  and  ungovernable,  and  in  October, 
1831,  on  the  island  of  Cobras  broke  out  into  open  revolt. 
Conspiracies  and  mutinies  became  frequent,  and  the  3d  and 
17th  of  April,  1832,  were  marked  by  the  effusion  of  blood. 
Every  day  brought  fresh  anxieties,  every  hour  threatened 
new  dangers  and  gave  additional  cause  for  the  already 
constant  apprehensions  and  disquietude.  Such  were  the 
deligths  of  power  which  the  ministry  was  called  upon  to 
enjoy.  But  with  undaunted  fortitude  and  unflinching  pa- 
riotism  did  the  worthy  citizens  who  composed  it  bear  the. 
burdens  imposed  upon  them  by  their  duty  to  their  countryt 

But  during  these  twelve  months  of  storms  and  perils, 
harassed  by  all  these  annoyances  heightened  and  multi- 
plied by  the  atrocious  inventions  of  calumny,  passing  nights 
of  unrest  in  anticipation  of  the  events  of  the  following  day, 
Jos6  Lino  Coutinho  found  sufficient  time  and  calmness  of 
spirit  to  undertake,  prepare  and  promulgate  the  import- 
ant regulations  for  reforming  the  Medical  Colleges  in  the 
Empire  and  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  in  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

It  was  against  his  will  and  only  in  obedience  to  the  call 

—  416  — 

of  his  country,  beset  by  a  thousand  dangers,  that  he  consent- 
ed to  accept  a  minister's  portfolio.  He  was  sought  for  this 
purpose  at  his  small  and  modest  dwelling  on  the  Travessa 
do  Pago,  where  he  continued  to  reside  after  becoming  min- 
ister, for  he  was  poor  and  continued  to  live  in  the  same 
unpretending  style  as  before  his  elevation  to  a  place  in  the 
cabinet.  He  kept  no  carriage  and  no  orderlies,  and  never 
wore  a  laced  coat ;  but,  attired  in  the  plain  dress  of  an  or- 
dinary citizen,  he  went  on  foot  to  and  from  his  department 
and  the  Chambers.  He  used  his  position  as  minister  not  for 
making  a  vain  display,  but  for  rendering  his  country  serv- 
ices which  national  gratitude  will  not  allow  to  be  for- 

Leaving  the  government  on  July,  30  1832,  Dr.  Jos^Lino 
Coutinho  little  by  little  and  almost  imperceptibly  disap- 
peared from  the  political  arena. 

He  was  tormented  by  sufferings  which  became  every  day 
more  and  more  aggravated.  His  medical  knowledge  could 
not  overcome  his  excessive  fondness  for  Bahia  cookery 
which  abounds  in  exciting  stimulants.  Inflammation  of  the 
stomach  and  of  the  intestines  finally  put  an  end  to  his  life. 
Dr.  Jos6  Lino  Coutinho  died  in  the  city  of  Bahia  either  in 
1834  or  in  1835. 

In  1849  was  published  his  posthumous  work  entitled— 
Letters  on  the  education  of  Cora,  followed  by  a  ynoral, 
political  and  religious  catechism. 

Dr.  Jos6  Lino  Coutinho  was  a  distinguished  patriot  and 
a  man  of  the  .strictest  integrity. 



When  in  consequence  of  the  war  begun  in  1816  the  Por- 
tuguese troops  occupied  Uruguay,  among  them  was  Major 
Francisco  de  Paula  de  AvellarCabrita,  accompanied  by  his 
wife  D.  Apollonia  de  Willagran  Cabrita.  Hence  it  hap- 
pened that  the  son  of  this  couple,  JoSo  Carlos  de  Willagran 
Cabrita  was  born  in  the  city  of  Montevideo.  His  birthday 
was  December  30,  1820. 

'  On  January  13,  1840,  he  enlisted  as  a  volunteer  in  the 
1st  batallion  of  mounted  artillery  in  Rio  de  Janeiro.  On  the 
5th  of  the  following  month  he  was  recognized  as  a  cadet, 
and  on  March  1st,  admitted  into  the  Military  School. 

On  the  2d  of  December,  1842,  he  was  appointed  ensign  on 
account  of  his  high  standing  in  his  class,  and  on  the  16th  of 
January,  1847,  he  received  from  his  school  the  diploma  of 
bachelor  of  mathematics  and  physical  sciences. 

In  1851,  when  in  service  in  the  province  of  S.  Pedro  do 
▼OL.  1  53 

-.  418  - 

Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  he  received  orders  to  set  out  for  Para- 
guay for  the  purpose  of  serving  there  as  drillmaster  of  ar- 
tillery, little  supposing  the  Brazilian  Government  that  it 
was  thus  arming  and  disciplining  a  future  enemy. 

('abrita  was  eulogized  for  the  zeal  with  which  he  exe- 
cuted this  and  other  commissions. 

In  1862  he  had  already  been  promoted,  on  account  of 
meritorious  services,  to  the  rank  of  Major. 

The  Paraguayan  war  broke  out.  Gabrita  hastened  to  the 
theatre  of  action,  and  was  at  Corrientes  in  1866  when  he 
received  the  news  of  his  promotion  to  a  lieutenant- 

In  the  river  Parand,  opposite  the  Paraguayan  fort  of 
Itapirii,  lies  the  island  known  by  the  name  of  Redempgao, 
an  important  strategic  point  not  only  on  account  of  pro- 
tecting the  passage  of  an  invading  army,  but  also  on  account 
of  the  shelter  afforded  by  its  coves  to  the  Paraguayan  flat- 

The  valiant  Brazilian  general.  Baron,  now  Marquis  of 
Herval,  resolved  to  take  possession  of  this  island. 

On  the  night  between  April  5th  and  6th  the  bold  and 
skillful  Lieut. -Col.  Gabrita  surprised  and  captured  the  is- 
land, hoisting  the  gold-and-green  banner  which  during 
throe  days  waved  in  triumph  amid  a  storm  of  shot  and 
shell  from  the  fort  of  Itapirii.  During  the  Paraguayan 
war  the  Brazilian  troops  never  lost  a  position  taken  from 
the  enemy. 

On  the  night  between  the  9th  and  10th  of  April  the 
Paraguayans,  with  a  comparatively  large  force,  attacked 
the  island.  The  Dictator,  Lopes,  wished  at  all  hazards  to 
regain  the  position. 

His  valiant  and  savage  hosts  silently  disembark  from 
the  flat-boats,   and  advance  in  orderly  array.   But  they 

-  419  - 
are  seen  by  the  boy-hero,  Torres,  who  gives  the  signal 
of  alarm,  for  which  he  pays  with  his  life.  With  a  shout 
of  rage  they  throw  themselves  like  tigers  on  the  enemy. 
A  terrible  conflict  is  begun,  its  horrors  heightened  by  the 
surrounding  darkness. 

Gabrita  distinguishes  himself  by  his  gallantry  and  cool- 
ness. He  not  only  withstands  the  assailants,  but  drives 
them   before  him  and  hurls  them  back  to  the  beach. 

The  sun  of  the  10th  of  April  rises  in  splendor  on  the 
field  of  battle  and  discloses  the  broken  remnants  of  the 
Paraguayan  force  embarking  in  haste  and  confusion  in 
their  boats.  On  these  remnants  the  gun-boat  Henrique 
Dias  opens  fire  and  completes  the  work  of  their  almost 
entire  annihilation. 

The  intrepid  Cabrita  covered  with  laurels,  but  pant- 
ing with  fatigue,  allows  himself  no  rest.  After  seeing 
to  the  wounded  and  prisoners,  he  entered  a  chalana, 
accompanied  by  Major  Sampaio,  Lieutenant  Gunha  and 
Ensign  Woolf,  and  proceeds  to  draw  up  his  official  account 
of  the  action. 

It  was  a  lamentable  error  of  soldiers  and  officers  of 
every  grade  in  this  war  in  which  all  vied  with  each 
other  in  acts  of  heroism,  to  be  too  careless  in  exposing 
themselves  to  the  enemy's  fire  even  when  honor  and  duty 
did  not  demand  it. 

As  Cabrita  was  writing,  a  shell  exploded  in  the  midst  of 
the  group  which  surrounded  him,  killing  the  hero  and 
victor,  and  also  his  brave  companions  in  glory  and  triumph. 

The  captured  island  received  at  first  the  name  of  Gabri- 
ta, and  afterwards  that  of  Victory. 

In  other  words  the  name  remained  unchanged;  for 
Cabrita  and  Victory  are  synonymous  terms. 


vi    or    Ajpnjx^ 


Jose  Ignacio  de  Abreu  Lima,  son  of  Father  Jos^ 
Ignacio  Ribeiro  de  Abreu  Lima,  was  born  in  Pernam- 
buco  on   the  6th   of  April,    1796. 

After  having  studied  Latin,  philosophy,  rhetoric,  French 
and  English,  he  began  in  1811,  still  in  Olinda,  the  study 
of  regimental  artillery  tactics,  taking  at  the  same  time 
lessons  in  literature  from  his  father  who  taught  him  the 
first  principles  of  Greek. 

In  February,  1812,  he  embarked  for  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
and  in  this  city  was  admitted  into  the  first  form  of  the 
Royal  Military  Academy,  completing  his  artillery  stud- 
ies in  1816,  and  obtaining  every  year  a  prize  in  the 
class  of  mathematics. 

He  was  appointed  captain  of  artillery  and  regimental 

—  422  — 

He  arrived  in  Pernambuco  in  December  of  the  same 
year,  and  soon  afterwards  he  was  charged  with  the 
crimes  of  disorderly  conduct,  assault  and  battery,  and 
resistance  to  lawful  authority,  and  was  indicted  by  the 
Olinda  judge,  Antonio  Carlos  de  Andrada  Machado  e 

He  was  arrested,  and  appealing  from  the  sentence  of 
indictment,  he  accompanied  his  suit  to  Bahia,  where  on 
his  arrival  in  the  beginning  of  February,  1817,  he  was 
imprisoned  by  order  of  the  Count  of  Arcos  in  the  for- 
tress of  S.  Pedro.  He  was  still  there,  when  his  father 
arrived  as  emissary  of  the  revolutionary  government  of 
the  Pernambuco  republicans,  and,  on  landing  near  Bahia 
on  March  26,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  forewarned  and 
expectant  authorities. 

On  March  28,  at  the  latter's  request,  they  were  per- 
mitted to  see  each  other  in  prison,  and  on  the  follow- 
ing day  the  father  was  shot. 

After  this  horrible  and  trying  event  he  remained 
several  months  in  prison  with  his  brother  and  other  pris- 
oners who  had  arrived  from  Pernambuco.  The  two 
brothers  were  released  in  October,  and  being  aided  by  the 
Freemasons  to  the  amount  of  one  hundred  dollars,  em- 
barked for  the  United  States  of  North  America,  where 
they  arrived  in  February,  1818. 

In  some  brief  autobiographical  notes  Abreu  Lima  com- 
plains that  the  Pernambuco  revolutionary  commissioner, 
who  had  been  sent  to  the  United  States  with  a  consider- 
able sum  of  money,  refused  to  render  them  the  slightest 

In  April,  1818,  they  set  out  for  the  island  of  St. 
Thomas,  and  Captain  Abreu  Lima,  leaving  his  brother  as 
clerk  in  a  commercial  establishment  in  Porto  Rico,  sue* 

-  423  — 

ceeded,  after  great  difficulties  and  much  adverse  fortune, 
in  reaching  Augustura,  seat  of  the  Republican  govern- 
ment of  Venezuela.  This  was  in  November  of  1818, 
when  Gen.  Bolivar  had  just  returned  from  his  unfor- 
tunate Caracas  compaign. 

Abreu  was  admitted  into  the  service  of  Venezuela 
with  the  rank  of  captain  of  artillery  and  was  assigned 
to  duty  on  the   staff  of  the  commanding  general. 

His  military  life,  his  martial  deeds  and  his  brilliant 
services  in  the  war  for  the  independence  of  this  part  of 
America   form  a  long  and  glorious  record. 

Abreu  Lima  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  various 
battles  and  skirmishes,  in  military  enterprises  involving 
great  risk  and  important  results,  and  in  commissions  re- 
quiring tact  and  discretion.  He  held  important  offices,  such 
at  that  of  Secretary-General  to  General  Soublette,  Vice- 
President  of  the  Augustura  government,  to  whom  he 
was  also  aide-de-camp.  He  used  his  position  to  assist  his 
countrymen  in  misfortune.  Among  those  to  whom  his 
protection  was  extended  were  two  implicated  in  the  Per- 
nambuco  revolution  of  1817,  and  another,  the  unfortun- 
ate Jos^  da  Natividade  Saldanha,  a  Pernambuco  revo- 
lutionist who,  having  been  condemned  to  death  in  1824 
and  having  made  his  escape,  was  obliged  to  endure  the 
most  painful  and  trying  hardships  in  foreign  countries. 

He  was  sent  on  diplomatic  missions  to  the  United 
States,  was  honored  with  the  title  of  Liberator  of  New 
Grenada,  and  belonged  to  the  military  order  of  Libera- 
tors of  Venezuela. 

On  the  death  of  General  Bolivar  in  1830,  Abreu  Lima 
obtained  from  his  government  leave  to  absent  himself  from 
Columbia.  He  went  to  the  United  States  and  from  there 
to   Europe,  visiting  the  capitals  of  several  countries  and 

—  424  — 
remaining  for  some  time  in  Paris,  whence  he  came  to  Rio 
de  Janeiro  in  1832. 

The  Chambers  passed  a  resolution  restoring  him  to  the 
rights  of  citizenship,  recognizing  his  rank  as  general  and 
permitting  him  to  make  use  of  all  the  honors  and  decor- 
ations which  had  been  conferred  upon  him  for  the  serv- 
ices he  had  rendered  in  the  war  in  which  he  had  taken 
part  in  defense  of  the  freedom  of  the  ex-colonies  of  Spain 
in  South  America. 

In  1833  he  united  himself  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  to  the  Ga- 
ramuru,  or  restoration  party,  and  entered  into  a  heatpd 
and  lively  newspaper  war  with  Bvaristo  Ferreira  da 
Veiga.  His  principal  occupation,  however,  was  the  study 
of  national  history. 

In  1836  he  published,  in  opposition  to  the  government 
of  the  regent  Feijd,  a  paper  entitled  the  Raio  de  Jupiter 
which  advocated  the  conferring  of  the  regency  on  the 
Princess  Januaria. 

He  had  already  written  the  year  before  for  the  Men- 
sageiro  NictJieroyense,  and  in  1840  he  wrote  for  the  Maio- 

In  1844  he  left  Rio  de  Janeiro  for  Pernambuco,  where 
in  1848  he  published  a  paper  called  the  Barca  deS.  Pedro 
and  wrote  for  the  Diario  Novo,  organ  of  the  Liberal  party 
from  1844  to  1848,  when  the  Praieiro  insurrection  took 
place.  He  always  defended  the  principles  of  the  Liberal 
or,  as  it  was  then  called  in  Pernambuco,  the  Praieiro 

In  1867  he  began  to  write  for  the  newspapers  in  de- 
fense of  civil  marriage,  which  gave  rise  to  a  warm  dis- 
cussion which,  far  from  causing  him  to  draw  back,  was 
by  him  vigorously  maintained. 

This  illustrious  Brazilian  di«l  in  Recife  in  the  province 

—  425  — 

of  Pemambuco  in  1869,  and,  on  account  of  his  opinions  in 
regard  to  civil  marriage,  which  he  refused  to  recant  in 
obedience  to  the  injunctions  of  the  church  authorities, 
his  body  was  denied  sepulture  in  holy  ground,  a  circum- 
stance which  came  near  giving  rise  to  serious  disturbances 
in  the  city  of  Recife. 

VOL.  I  54 

VXC    OF    -A.I>ItI3L. 


The  town,  afterwards  city  of  Santos,  which  gave  birth 
to  the  Gusmans  and  to  the  Viscount  of  Sao  Leopoldo,  was 
also  the  birthplace  of  the  Andradas. 

In  that  place  on  June  13,  1763,  was  born  Jos6  Bonifacio 
de  Andrada  e  Silva,  legitimate  son  of  Col.  Bonifacio  Jose 
de  Andrada  and  D.  Maria  Barbara  da  Silva. 

Having  finished  in  Santos  his  primary  studies  and  com- 
menced the  study  of  Latin,  at  the  age  of  fourteen  he 
went  to  S.  Paulo  where  he  studied  philosophy  and  rhe- 
toric as  well  as  belles-lettres  and  the  modern  languages. 

In  three  years  he  had  made  extraordinary  progress. 
The  bishop.  Friar  Manoel  da  Ressurrei^ao,  earnestly  man- 
ifested his  desire  for  him  to  take  orders,  but  neither  the 
student  nor  his  family  was  willing  to  have  that  wish 

—  428  — 

At  the  age  of  seventeen  Jos6  Bonifacio  left  S.  Paulo 
and  came  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  whence  after  a  short  delay 
he  proceeded  to  Coimbra,  being  there  admitted  as  a  student 
into  the  law  and  natural  philosophy  branches  of  the  Uni- 
versity, in  both  of  which  he  graduated  and  took  the  degree 
of  bachelor. 

In  Coimbra  Jos6  Bonifacio  soon  established  a  reputa- 
tion for  possessing  an  intellect  above  the  ordinary  level. 
At  the  same  time  he  distinguished  himself  in  scientific 
studies,  and  especially  in  natural  philosophy.  He  attained 
vast  literary  acquirements,  and  cultivated  successfully 
the  poetical  art  for  which  he  had  natural  talent.  In  the 
midst  of  all  his  employments  he  still  found  time  not  only 
to  indulge  in  the  amusements  suitable  to  his  age,  but 
also  to  write  dissertations,  some  of  which  related  the  slaves 
and  Indians  in  Brazil. 

From  Coimbra  he  went  to  Lisbon  seeking  literary 
employment.  His  reputation  was  such  that  through  the 
influence  of  the  Duke  of  Lefdes  he  was  admitted  as  a  fellow 
of  the  General  Academy  of  Sciences,  which  received  from 
him  besides  other  works  a  notable  essay  on  whale  fisher- 
ies, on  the  best  process  of  preparing  the  oil  and  on  the 
advantages  to  be  derived  by  the  government  from  encour- 
aging and  protecting  the  immense  fisheries  that  could  be 
established  on  the  Brazilian  coast.  This  work  was  print- 
ed in  the  Academy's  collection  of  essays. 

On  the  recommendation  of  this  learned  society  Jos4  Bo- 
nifacio was  selected  to  travel  as  naturalist  and  metal- 

In  June,  1790,  this  ^aran*  of  27  years  of  age  left  Por- 
tugal. His  first  care  was  to  imbibe  the  lessons  of  Werner, 
Jussieu,  Lavoisier  and  others,  and  then  proceeded  to  study 
science  in  Nature's  own  book   and  to  examine  the  metal- 

—  429  — 
lurgical  establishments  in  every  State  in  Europe  and  the 
different  processes  employed  in  the  study  and  application 
of  the  principles  of  natural  philosophy.  He  visited  France, 
Germany,  the  Netherlands,  Italy,  Hungary,  Bohemia, 
Sweden,  Norway,  and  lastly  a  part  of  Turkey,  spending 
10  years  and  three  months  in  these  travels  and  writing  in 
the  mean  time  various  valuable  essays. 

In  Paris  he  read  before  the  Society  of  Natural  History 
a  scientific  and  historical  account  of  the  discovery  and 
characteristics  of  the  Brazilian  diamonds,  for  which  he 
was  honored  with  a  membership  of  the  society,  his  work 
being  published  in  the  Annals  of  Chemistry  of  Fourcroy. 

In  a  letter  first  published  in  German  and  addressed  to 
the  Engineer  Beyer,  Director  of  the  Schneeburg  mines,  he 
gave  a  brief  description  of  the  peculiar  characteristics  of 
12  new  minerals  which  he  had  discovered  in  Sweden  and 

This  letter,  which  was  alone  enough  to  immortalize 
its  author,  was  translated  and  published  in  the  French 
and  English  scientific  journals. 

He  also  published  other  works  in  regard  to  his  obser- 
vations on  the  Scandinavian  peninsula,  and  wrote  a 
valuable  essay  on  the  Salha  mines,  which  was  published 
in  German  in  the  Freiberg  Mining  Gazette. 

The  Stockholm  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  conferred  a 
fellowship  on  Jos6  Bonifacio. 

In  1794,  traveling  through  Italy,  he  wrote  an  essay 
which  he  entitled  «Geognostic  Excursion  to  the  Eugan- 
ian  Mountains  in  the  Territory  of  Padua, »  which  was 
printed  18  years  afterwards  (1812)  after  being  read  before 
the  Lisbon  Academy  of  Sciences. 

Besides  other  labors  of  less  importance,  he  wrote  a 

—  430  — 

work  on  the  electric  fluid,  which  may  be  found  in  the 
Fourcroy  Annals  of  Chemistry. 

This  pilgrim  of  science  devoted  himself  at  the  same 
time  to  the  study  of  literature  and  cultivated  poetry  as 
a  sweet  solace   for  his  labors. 

Id.  September,  1800,  he  returned  to  Portugal,  carrying 
\sith  him  a  European  celebrity. 

Proud  of  the  savant,  the  Portuguese  government  ap- 
pointed him  Intendant-General  of  Minas,  created  and 
conferred  on  him  a  professorship  of  geognosy  and  metal- 
lurgy in  the  Coimbra  University,  and  appointed  him  puisne 
judge  of  the  Opporto  Superior  Court. 

The  Scientific  Faculty  honored  him  with  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Natural  Philosophy. 

In  the  same  year  he  made  a  mineralogical  excursion 
in  the  province  of  Estremadura,  going  as  far  as  Coimbra, 
and  wrote  an  account  of  this  trip,  which  in  1812  was 
read  before  the  Lisbon  Academy  of  Sciences. 

Charged  with  canalizing  the  Mondego  and  with  bringing 
under  vegetation  the  sand-beds  on  the  Portuguese  coast, 
Jos6  Bonifacio  seems  to  have  acquired  the  gift  of  ubiquity 
in  executing  these  commissions  and  in  performing  his  judi- 
cial, administrative  and  professorial  duties. 

In  1807  the  invasion  of  Portugal  by  the  French  dis- 
turbed his  scientific  occupations,  which  he  temporarily 
abandoned  in  order  to  meet  the  more  pressing  claims  of 

Flattered  and  praised  by  the  French  generals  on  ac- 
count of  his  scientific  celebrity,  Jos6  Bonifacio  did  not 
allow  himself  to  be  won  over ;  but  on  the  first  rising  of 
the  Portuguese  he  was  at  his  post  of  honor  and  sent 
arms  and  gun-makers  to  the  assistance  of  the  patriots. 
He    served    as    Major   and    afterwards    as   Lieutenant- 

—  431  — 

Colonel  of  the  Students'  Battalion  and  fought  with  valor 
and  intrepidity  against  the  invading  eagles  of  France, 
and  for  the  cause  of  honor  and  Portugue  e  indepen- 

After  the  expulsion  of  the  French,  he  was  appointed 
police  intendant  of  Opporto,  and  performed  the  duties  of 
his  office  with  zeal  and  prudence.  It  fell  to  his  lot  to 
save  the  lives  of  a  number  of  persons  who,  suspected  of 
having  been  friendly  to  the  French,  were  in  danger  of 
becoming  victims  to  the  reactionary  fury. 

Returning  to  his  scientific  labors,  Jos6  Bonifacio,  who 
in  1812  had  been  unanimously  elected  Permanent  Secre- 
tary of  the  Lisbon  Academy  of  Sciences,  laid  before  it 
some  notable  works,  among  which  were  treatises  on  the 
following  subjects  : — the  stone  coal  of  Portugal ;  the 
advantages  in  planting  new  forests  in  Portugal,  and  the 
Prince  Regent  gold  mine  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 

He  had  then  labored  for  a  long  time  and  was  longing 
for  his  native  land  from  which  he  had  been  absent  for 
thirty-nine  years.  In  1819,  obtaining  the  permission  of 
the  government,  he  returned  to  Brazil. 

Arriving  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  refused  all  ofiers  of 
employment  made  to  him  by  the  government,  and,  when 
he  took  leave  of  King  John  VI,  refused  to  accede  to  the 
monarch's  request  that  he  would  at  least  accept  the 
place  of  Director  of  the  University  which  the  govern- 
ment proposed  founding  in  Brazil,  asking  for  time  to 
consider  and  promising  to  give  his  answer  after  reaching 

As  a  recompense  for  his  valuable  services  Jos6  Boni- 
facio was  honored  with  the  title  of  Councilor  and  the 
Cross  of  the  Order  of  Christ. 


Returning  to  his  native  land,  he  lived  in  retirement 
at  his  place  called  Outeirinhos,  where  he  employed  him- 
self in  arranging  his  manuscripts  and  in  classifying  his 
precious  collection  of  minerals,  of  plants  and  of  medals 
which  he  had  brought  from  Europe. 

In  1820  Councilor  Jos6  Bonifacio,  accompanied  by  his 
brother,  Martim  Francisco,  made  a  journey  through  part 
of  the  province  of  S.  Paulo  for  the  purpose  of  exploring 
auriferous  lands. 

A  valuable  report  of  their  investigations  was  published 
in  the  Journal  des  Mines,  containing  information  not  only 
in  regard  to  the  precious  metal  which  was  the  principal 
object  of  their  studies,  but  also  in  regard  to  rich  mines  of 
iron  and  other  minerals. 

The  Portuguese  revolution  broke  out  in  1820,  and  in  the 
following  year  the  Brazilian  provinces  declared  themselves 
in  favor  of  the  revolutionary  party.  A  provincial  committee 
was  organized  in  S.  Paulo,  and  the  learned  Councilor  Jos6 
Bonifacio  was  chosen  vice-president. 

The  Portuguese  Cfirtes,  in  pursuance  of  the  fatal  policy 
they  had  adopted  in  regard  to  Brazil,  abolished  its  courts  of 
justice,  revoked  the  legislative  measures  that  had  united 
the  provinces  and  raised  the  union  to  the  rank  of  a  king- 
dom, and  finally  decreed  the  recall  of  the  Prince  D.  Pedro, 
whom  the  king  had  left  as  regent  of  Brazil. 

The  Brazilians  retaliated,  and  Jose  Bonifacio,  responsive 
to  the  call  of  the  Rio  de  Janeiro  patriots,  assembled,  at  11 
o'clock  on  the  night  of  December  24,  1821,  the  provincial 
committee  and  caused  it  to  pass  a  resolution  asking  Prince 
D.  Pedro  to  remain  in  Brazil. 

In  Rio  de  Janeiro  the  people  had  signed  a  petition  con- 
taining the  same  request,  which  on  the  9th  of  January, 
1822,  was  laid  before  the  Prince  by  the  Senate. 

—  438  — 

D.  Pedro  passes  the  Rubicon,  declaring  his  resolution  to 
remain  in  Brazil. 

On  January  11,  the  Portuguese  garrison  mutinies,  but 
capitulates  on  the  following  day,  and  is  sent  to  Praia 
Grande  to  await  the  preparation  of  vessels  to  convey  the 
soldiers  to  Portugal. 

Jose  Bonifacio  arrives  from  S.  Paulo  at  the  head  of  a  depu- 
tation chosen  to  persuade  the  Prince  Regent  to  remain  in 
Brazil.  On  January  16  he  is  appointed  home  secretary  and 
minister  of  foreign  affairs. 

From  this  day  to  October  12,  1822,  the  hii^tory  of  Jos6 
Bonifacio  is  the  history  of  the  Brazilian  Revolution  and  of 
D.  Pedro  Fs  acclamation  as  Constitutional  Emperor  and  Per- 
petual Defender  of  Brazil. 

Jos6  Bonifacio  had  able  and  meritorious  assistants ;  he  it 
was,  though,  that  acted  as  mentor  to  the  young  and  inex- 
perienced Prince,  and  his  was  the  ruling  intellect  that 
directed  the  course  of  events. 

On  the  28th  of  October,  1822,  the  Andradas  ministry 
(Martim  Francisco  belonged  to  it  as  well  as  Jos6  Bonifacio) 
was  dismissed.  The  young  Emperor  yields  to  the  demand 
of  the  people  expressed  in  a  public  and  somewhat  riotous 
demonstration.  Two  days  afterwards  the  Andradas  are  re- 
called on  certain  extraordinary  conditions  which  are  exe- 
cuted in  the  deportation  of  several  political  celebrities  who 
had  rendered  valuable  assistance  to  the  cause  of  indepen- 
dence, and  among  whom  are  Ledo,  Januario  da  Gunha 
Barboza  and  Jos6  Clemente. 

The  Andradas  ministry  infused  life  and  activity  into  the 
war  for  independence,  and  succeeded  in  1823  in  completing 
the  work  of  uniting  the  provinces  in  one  great  Empire. 

The  members  of  the  constituint  assembly  labored,  without 
Yoi:..  I  55 

—  434  — 

party  ties,  in  the  work  of  framing  the  Constitution  of  the 

The  Andradas  ministry  continued  during  1823  to  display 
an  anti-Portuguese  spirit,  and  a  bill  attributed  to  its  in- 
fluence was  introduced  into  the  Assembly  containing  clauses 
of  an  excessively  violent  nature.  It  was  rejected,  and  sev- 
eral weeks  thereafter,  on  July  17,  the  Andradas  were 

The  new  administration  fell  into  the  opposite  error,  and 
the  suspicions  of  the  Brazilians  were  excited.  There  was 
supposed  to  be  a  plot  for  giving  the  Portuguese  element  a 
preponderating  influence  in  the  afi*airs  of  the  country. 

The  excitement  spread.  A  Brazilian  who  had  suffered 
violence  at  the  hands  of  Portuguese  officers  complained  to 
the  const ituint  assembly.  A  violent  discussion  followed, 
and  the  Andradas  warmly  defended  the  Brazilian  cause. 

In  this  threatening  state  of  affairs  the  Emperor  dissolved 
the  Assembly.  This  occurred  on  the  12th  of  November,  1823. 
As  thoy  were  leaving  the  assembly  building  two  of  the  An- 
drada  brothers  (Antonio  Carlos  and  Martim  Francisco)  and 
three  other  deputies  (Rocha,  Montezuma  and  Belchior  Pi- 
nheiro)  were  arrested.  Jos6  Bonifacio  was  arrested  at  his 
house.  A  few  days  afterwards  all  these  deputies  were  de- 

This  was  a  grave  political  blunder  for  which  D.  Pedro  I 
paid  dearly  and  which  caused  a  permanent  breach  between 
him  and  the  Liberal  party. 

Jos6  Bonifacio  accepted  the  decree  of  banishment  in  a 
calm  and  philosophic  spirit. 

While  in  the  constituint  assembly  he  had  drawn  up  two 
important  documents,  one  relating  to  slavery  and  the  other 
to  civilizing  the  Indians.  At  Bordeaux,  where  he  resided 
during  his  exile,  he  published  the  former  as  well  as  a  book 

—  435  — 

of  poetry  entitled  «  Poems  of  Araerico  Elysio,  »  one  of  the 
most  precious  of  Brazilian  literary  treasures. 

In  1829  Jos6  Bonifacio  returned  to  Brazil,  saddened  by 
the  recent  death  of  his  wife.  He  was  well  received  by 
1).  Pedro  I,  but,  old  and  weary  of  political  strife,  he  lived 
a  retired  life  on  the  small  and  beautiful  island  of  Paqueta. 

On  the  7th  of  April,  1831,  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  I, 
not  willing  to  yield  to  the  demand  made  by  the  peo- 
ple and  troops  for  the  dismissal  of  the  unpopular  minis- 
try organized  on  the  5th,  abdicated  his  throne  and  appoint- 
ed the  staunch  old  patriot  Jos6  Bonifacio,  the  man 
whom  he  had  exiled  in  1823,  as  guardian  to  D.  Pedro 
II  and  to  the  Imperial  princesses. 

The  chamber  of  deputies  considered  the  appointment 
illegal  and  refused  to  recognize  it.  Objecting  only  to  the 
act  and  not  to  he  appointee,  it  elected  the  same  guar- 
dian, Jose  Bonifacio,  who  protested  a  gainst  this  act  of  the 
legislative  power  and  defended  the  rights  of  the  ex-Emperor 
and  of  his  wards. 

Jose  Bonifacio  was  for  a  short  time  a  vice-deputy  in 
the  Chamber.  He  was  never,  however,  a  parliamentary 
orator,  and  the  Chamber  was  not  a  suitable  field  for  the 
display  of  his  talents  and  learning. 

In  1832  the  Cara/nunt,  or  restoration  party,  began  1o 
be  organized  and  to  conspire  against  the  government. 
Jose  Bonifacio  was  mixed  up  in  these  intrigues  and  was 
suspected  of  aiding  and  abetting  that  party. 

After  having  been  defeated  on  the  battle-field,  the 
Caramurus  again  conspired  in  1833. 

The  moderate  Liberals  who  were  then  in  power  un- 
doubtedly precipitated  events  and  purposely  hastened  the 
crisis  which  was  imminent,  causing  the  capital  to  be  the 
scene  of  reprehensible,   abusive  and  unpunished  disorders 

—  436  — 

to  which  members  of  the  restoration  party  were  victims 
on  the  nights  of  Dec.  2  and  5. 

Public  order  being  thus  threatened  and  the  city  filled 
with  sinister  apprehensions,  the  government  availed  itself 
of  the  opportunity  to  adopt  extra-legal  measures,  and  on 
Dec.  15  caused  Councilor  Jos6  Bonifacio  to  be  arrested 
in  the  Boa  Vista  palace  and  sent  in  custody  to  the 
island  of  PaquetA,  suspending  him  at  the  same  time  from 
the  guardianship  of  his  Imperial  wards  and  appointing 
the  Marquis  of  Itanhaem  in  his  place. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  observe  that  in  the  session  of  1834 
the  chamber  of  deputies  approved  and  applauded  all  the 
arbitrary  measures  of  the  government. 

Jos6  Bonifacio  undoubtedly  suffered  no  little  in  conse- 
quence of  this  violent  and  dictatorial  act  of  the  govern- 
ment. He  underwent  personal  restraint  and  was  proba- 
bly placed  under  espionage  for  some  months  on  the 
island  of  Paqueti;  but  otherwise  he  was  not  subjected  to 
any  persecution  or  annoyance,  and  the  government  made 
no  effort  to  prevent  his  acquittal  in  the  trial  which  was 
a  necessary  consequence  of  his  arrest. 

The  object  of  the  regency  was  to  remove  the  Emperor 
from  his  control,  and,  having  accomplished  its  purpose, 
it  was  satisfied. 

The  stoicism  of  the  venerable  sage  did  not  fail  him  in 
the  hour  of  adversity. 

When  he  was  carried  off  in  custody,  his  face  wore  an 
expression  of  meek  and  modest  triumph. 

During  his  detention  on  the  island  of  Paqueti  his  man- 
ner was  as  calm  and  cheerful,  as  affable  and  free  from 
care  as  if  he  were  merely  living  in  voluntary  and  pleas- 
urable retirement.    His  unchangeable  serenity  displayed, 

if  not  contempt,  at  least  indifference  to  the  reverses  Of 

Leaving  PaquetA,  Councilor  Jos6  Bonifacio  fixed  his 
residence  in  S.  Doraingos  in  the  city  of  Nictheroy,  and 
it  was  there  that  on  the  6th  day  of  April,  1838,  the 
illustrious  patriot  and  sage  gave  up  his  soul  to  his 

As  far  as  circumstances  permitted,  the  government 
paid  to  the  memory  of  Jos6  Bonifacio  all  the  tributes  of 
respect  due  to  the  memory  of  so  eminent  a  man.  His  death 
cast  a  gloom  over  the  hearts  of  the  people. 

The  only  medal  which  he  had  accepted  was  the  Cross 
of  the  Order  of  Christ  conferred  by  Queen  Maria  I. 

Ruling  spirit  in  the  ministry  in  1822  and  1823;  mentor 
(and  at  times  a  severe  one)  to  the  Prince  Regent,  afterwards 
Emperor  of  Brazil,  he  persistently  rejected  all  persuasions 
to  accept  some  of  the  highest  decorations. 

The  Patriarch  of  Brazilian  independence  was  not  even  a 
Senator  of  the  Empire. 

His  only  reward  was  the  fame  which  he  won  and  the 
esteem  and  gratitude  which  he  inspired.  The  new  gener- 
ation, at  least,  and  the  present  Emperor  have  been  able 
to  appreciate  his  greatness  and  to  revere  the  memory  of 
the  Brazilian  Washington. 

In  1829  or  1830  he  had  received  from  the  state  an  unso- 
licited but  well-merited  pension  of  four  contos  per 
annum.  On  his  death  the  government  granted  pensions 
to  his  daughters. 

On  September  1,  1872,  the  50th  anniversary  of  Brazil- 
ian Independence,  his  statue  was  unveiled  in  the  square 
of  Sao  Francisco  de  Paula  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
The  Emperor  presided  at  this  patriotic  solemnity;  and 
H.    M.    the  Empress,  the  Princess  Imperial,  her  august 

—  438  — 
spouse,   the  Count  d'Eu,  the  principal  nobility  and  officers 
of  the  court  and  government,  the  members  of  the  Histor- 
ical Institute  and  a  large  and  enthusiastic  concourse  of 
people  were  present  at  the  ceremony. 

Had  it  been  possible  for  him  to  be  alive  and  witness 
this  scene,  Jos6  Bonifacio  would  undoubtedly  have  dis- 
played the  same  quiet,  placid  and  unmoved  simplicity 
which  always  characterized  his  demeanor  in  the  midst  of 
earthly  splendors  and  vanities. 

Recognized  by  savants  as  belonging  to  their  fraternity, 
one  of  the  first  ministers  of  Brazil  and  the  patriarch  of  its 
independence,  honored  by  the  choice  of  D.  Pedro  I  as 
guardian  of  his  children,  at  once  famous  as  sage,  poet  and 
statesman,  Jos6  Bonifacio  de  Andrada  e  Silva  was  at  the 
same  time  a  model  of  modest  simplicity,  of  unsurpassed 
disinterestedness,  of  the  strictest  integrity  and  of  the 
purest  patriotism. 

The  Andrada  family  produced  three  brothers,  all 
renowned,  whose  glory  now  belongs  to  history ;  but  the 
greatest,  the  most  glorious  and  the  most  brilliant  of  the 
three  was  Jos6  Bonifacio. 


Vm    OF    A.T>JRJJLi 


Slender  trunk  of  a  fruitful  tree  Joao  Ramalho,  who 
resembled  Diogo  Alvares  {Caramuru)  in  the  incidents  of 
his  life,  lacked  that  halo  of  legendary  romance  and  poetry 
which  surrounded  his  prototype,  but  in  compensation  was 
perhaps  even  more  useful. 

Joao  Ramalho  was  wrecked  on  the  S.  Paulo  coast  in  a 
vessel  probably  bound  for  India. 

It  is  supposed  that  this  event  occurred  in  the  year  1512. 
The  history  of  the  first  few  months  of  his  life  after  this 
occurrence  has  never  been  related.  All  that  is  known  is 
that  he  found  his  way  to  the  wigwam  of  the  valiant 
morubixaba  (sachem)  Tebyrigi,  who  welcomed  him,  gave 
him  his  daughter  in  marriage  and  in  the  course  of  time 
placed  himself  entirely  under  his  guidance. 

-«  440  — 

It  is  probable  that  Jo5o  Ramalho,  adopting  the  custom 
of  the  Indians  among  whom  he  lived,  had  other  wives 
besides  Tebyrigd's  daughter,  for  the  progeny  which  he  left 
was  certainly  a  large  one. 

It  was  due  to  the  assistance  which  he  brought  from  the 
interior  of  the  country  that  Martim  AflFonso  de  Soaza  was 
able  to  found  on  the  coast  in  1532  the  colony  and  town  of 
Sao  Vicente f  and  it  was  by  his  advice  and  under  his  direc- 
tion that  the  said  Martim  AflFonso  founded  beyond  the 
eastern  range  of  mountains  the  colony  and  town  of  Pira- 
tininga,  of  which  JoSo  Ramalho  was  made  Gtmrda-mdr,  or 

The  latter  founded  near  Piratininga  the  settlement  of 
Santo  Andr6,  a  patriarchal  establishment  peopled  by  his 
children,  dependants  and  Indian  slaves,  which  grew  so 
rapidly  that  on  April  8,  1553,  it  was  incorporated  as  a 

Piratininga  and  Santo  Andr^  continued  to  flourish  until 
they  were  overshadowed  by  the  growing  town  of  Sao 
Paulo  which  was  built  up  around  a  Jesuit  college  of  the 
same  name. 

The  Jesuit  domination  gave  rise  to  bloodshed  as  early  as 
1556,  when  their  college  was  attacked  by  the  mamelukes 
of  Santo  Andr6  and  Piritininga. 

The  patriarch  of  the  mamelukes,  this  race  of  crusaders 
sprung  from  the  mixture  of  the  Portuguese  and  Indians, 
the  adventurous  and  enterprising  pioneers  of  S.  Paulo,  who 
overran  the  greater  portion  of  the  interior  of  Brazil,  was 
JoSo  Ramalho. 

Guided  by  his  influence  and  example,  the  Portuguese 
colonists  of  Piratininga  and  afterwards  those  of  Santo 
AndrA  united  themselves  in  legitimate  or  illegitimate 
bonds  with  the  Indian  women,  and  from  this  connection. 

—  441  — 
which  became  more  and  more  extended,  sprang  the  indomit- 
able mamelukes  and  pioneers  whose  prowess  and  almost 
incredible  conquests  excited  the  wonder  •)£  their  contem- 
poraries and  even  of  succeeding  ages. 

Jo£o  Ramalho  perpetuated  his  memory  by  his  misfor- 
tune in  being  shipwrecked,  by  his  adoption  into  the  sav- 
age household  of  Tebyriga,  by  his  valuable  assistance 
and  directions  in  the  foundation  of  the  colonies  and  towns 
of  SEo  Vicente  and  Piratininga,  by  founding  the  settle- 
ment and  town  of  Santo  Andr^,  and  above  all  by  being 
the  founder  of  the  race  of  Mamelukes  and  pioneers  of 
Sao  Paulo. 

Father  and  grandfather  to  heroes,  JoSo  Ramalho, 
although  a  Portuguese  by  birth,  was  the  first  Pau- 

Diogo  Alvares — Caramuni — was  in  Bahia  a  devoted 
auxiliary  of  the  glorious  conquests  of  civilization;  Jo^o 
Ramalho,  in  Sao  Paulo,  was,  without  suspecting  it,  the 
principal  founder  of  a  mighty  Empire. 

It  is  necessary  to  state  that  the  beginning  of  Joao  Ra- 
malho's  history  is  extremely  obscure.  Some  writers  aflSrm 
that  he  was  not  shipwrecked,  as  is  alleged  by  others, 
but  that  he  was  a  deported  convict  left  on  the  island  of 
GananSa  by  the  first  exploring  expedition  which  visited 
Brazil,  thirty  years  before  he  presented  himself  to  Mar- 
tim  A£fonso  de  Souza. 

yot.  ,  56 

IX    OF    -A.FIIT3L. 



Joao  Vieira  de  Carvalho  was  the  legitimate  son  of  the 
colonel  of  the  same  name  and  of  D.  Yicencia  da  Silva 
Nogueira.  He  was  born  in  1781  in  Oliven^a,  which  be- 
longed at  that  time  to  Portugal. 

He  enlisted  as  a  cadet  in  1786,  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  ensign  in  18Q1,  and  four  years  after  was  appoint- 
ed adjutant  of  the  2d  Oliven^a  Regiment. 

He  studied  at  the  College  of  the  Nobility,  and  was  re- 
warde4  with  successive  prizes,  obtaining  a  reputation  for  a 
more  than  ordinary  intellect. 

During  the  French  invasion  he  served  on  the  Peninsula, 

*  444  — 
but  unable  to  tolerate  the  idea  of  being  in  the  conquer- 
or's service,  he  had  himself  declared  unfit  for  military 
duty  and  under  the  protection  of  the  Marquis  of  Alorna 
embarked  for  Brazil,  where  on  arriving  he  placed  his 
intellect  at  the  disposal  of  the  Prince-Regent  D.  John. 

As  sergeant-major  of  engineers  he  served  in  the  cam- 
paigns of  1811—1812  and  1816—1817.  In  both  he  dis- 
played skill  and  valor,  especially  in  the  latter.  In  the 
direction  of  the  warks  of  fortifications  he  showed  both 
zeal  and  science,  and  at  once  ability  and  daring  in  diffi- 
cult marches  through  a  territory  occupied  by  the  enemy 
and  intersected  by  swamps  and  rivers.  In  the  battle  of 
Catalao  he  so  conducted  himself  as  to  be  promoted  for 
meritorious  services  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel. 
General  orders  of  his  commanders  and  the  Royal  Letter  of 
July  26,  1817,  furnish  an  official  record  of  the  important 
services  which  he  rendered  during  the  war. 

In  1821  Joao  Vieira  de  Carvalho  was  appointed  mili- 
tary commander  and  director  of  the  colony  of  Nova  Fri- 
burgo,  which  he  assisted  no  little  in  developing. 

In  1822  he  espoused  the  cause  of  Brazilian  indepen- 
dence, and  on  Oct.  28  was  entrusted  with  the  portfolio 
of  war  department  in  the  ephemeral  ministry  which,  hav- 
ing succeeded  the  Andrada  cabinet,  only  lasted  till  the 
30th,  when  the  latter  was  recalled  in  consequence  of  a 
popular  demonstration  in  its  favor. 

In  the  following  year  JoSo  Vieira  de  Carvalho  was 
knighted  and  in  1824  promoted  to  the  rank  of  brigadier- 
general  and  decorated  with  the  cross-  of-  the  Imperial 
Order  of  the  Crusader.  - 

On  .Augtist  6,  1824,  he  again  became  minister  of  war 
and,  on  leaving  office,  was  made^£arpn.of  Lages.. 

•On ..Ian. ^20,  1826,  ha  was  appointed  minister  of  JhaEoi' 

—  445  — 

pire,  ad  interim.  In  the  same  year  he  was  made  councilor 
of  State,  and  in  1827  promoted  to  the  rank  of  marshal. 
In  1838  he  became  Count  of  Lages  and  his  name  was  in- 
cluded in  the  triple  list  submitted  to  the  Crown  for  the 
selection  of  a  Senator. 

It  is  evident  that  the  Emperor,  D.  Pedro  II,  showered 
distinctions  upon  him  and  honored  him  with  the  utmost 

The  Liberal  party,  whose  opposition  to  the  government 
became  more  and  more  violent,  suspected  the  Count  of  Lages 
and  assailed  him  both  in  the  press  and  the  Chambers, 
accusing  him  of  a  conspiracy  to  establish  an  absolute 
government  in  Brazil. 

The  Count  of  Lages  became  unpopular. 

At  present,  however,  the  political  passions  of  that  time 
no  longer  affect  our  opinions  of  the  persons  who  figured 
in  the  scenes  then  enacted. 

The  Count  of  Lages  was  not  a  politician,  but  a  soldier; 
and  justly  grateful  to  the  Emperor,  became  to  him  a  de- 
voted and  self-sacrificing  friend.  Having  a  military  edu- 
cation, he  had  been  taught  to  observe  soldierly  discipline 
and  obedience.  He  was,  therefore,  unlike  most  young  men 
of  his  time,  who,  educated  at  the  University  had  there 
imbibed  the  liberal  ideas  which  flowed  like  lava  from  the 
French  volcano. 

This  explains  his  whole  conduct :  his  obedience  to  the 
Emperor  was  inspired  by  loyalty  and  his  devotion  by  gra- 

Undoubtedly  the  Liberal  party  which  opposed  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  Emperor  was  right  in  regarding  him  as 
an  adversary ;  but  the  Count  of  Lages  never  conspired  to 
establish  an  absolute  government. 

Neither  did  D.   Pedro  II  conceive  or  favor  this  plot 

—  446  — 

which  a  minister  more  monarchical  than  the  monarch  him- 
self had  formed,  and  which;  convinced  of  its  futility,  he 
afterwards  abandoned. 

This  plot  received  no  co-operation  from  the  Count  ofLages 
nor  did  it  correspond  with  the  wishes  of  the  Emperor  who, 
it  is  proper  to  observe,  was  still  able  to  count  on  the  obe- 
dience of  a  large  and  devoted  army. 

But  the  Count  of  Lages  was  not  accustomed  to  measure 
his  sacrifices  or  to  weigh  the  consequences  of  his  loyal  and 
cheerful  services  to  the  cause  of  the  throne  and  to  the 
Emperor's  person. 

He  showed  this  on  the  night  of  April  5th,  1831,  accept- 
ing the  war  portfolio  in  an  anti-liberal  reactionary  cabi- 
net, in  the  face  of  a  widespread  and  unrestrained  revolu- 
tionary spirit  openly  manifested  by  the  people  in  their 
nightly  meetings. 

This  threatening  and  impolitic  ministerial  organization 
would  only  have  been  explicable,  if  the  ministry  had 
been  armed  with  the  necessary  powers  and  enabled  to 
adopt  energetic  measures  for  repressing  all  opposition  to 
their  reactionary  and  disastrous  scheme. 

D.  Pedro  I,  who  undoubtedly  knew  what  he  was  doing» 
organized  the  ministry  on  an  openly  reactionary  basis,  but 
gave  it  no  power  to  sustain  the  ideas  which  it  represented. 

The  Count  of  Lages,  obedient  to  the  Emperor's  call,  ac- 
cepted the  war  portfolio  ;  but  had  the  disappointment  of 
finding  that  he  was  not  allowed  to  take  any  decisive  steps 
in  regard  to  the  military  force  in  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

The  insurrection  of  the  people  on  the  evening  of  April  6, 
and  the  mytinu  of  the  troops  on  the  night  of  the  same 
day  were  eflfected  without  opposition,  without  the 
slightest  effort  at  repression  on  the  part  of  the  government. 

It  was  just  as  if  there  were  no  ministers  in  existence. 

—  447  — 

At  early  dawn  on  the  7th  of  April  the  Emperor 
D.  Pedro  I  had  abdicated  his  throne,  and  one  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  ministry  of  April  5,  the  Marquis  of  Inhambupe 
was  charged  with  delivering  the  government  into  the 
hands  of  the  revolutionary  leaders. 

During  the  minority  of  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  II,  the 
Count  of  Lages  was  twice  placed  at  the  head  of  the  War 
Department ;  first  on  November  1,  1836  under  the  regency 
of  the  priest,  Diogo  Antonio  Feijd,  and  secondly  under  that 
of  Pedro  de  Araujo  Lima,  afterwards  Marquis  of  Olinda. 

In  1840  the  Count  of  Lages  was  among  those  who  exerted 
themselves  to  have  the  Emperor  declared  of  age,  and  in  the 
following  year  he  had  the  honor  of  acting  as  ensign-major 
at  the  ceremony  of  anointment  and  coronation,  being  at 
that  time  decorated  with  the  grand-cross  of  the  Order  of 
Aviz,  and  on  the  9th  of  April  raised  to  the  rank  of  Marquis 
of  Lages. 

When  Minister  of  War,  he  founded  the  Minors -School 
at  the  arsenal,  and  created  the  company  of  artificers  which 
has  proved  to  be  of  the  greatest  utility. 

The  establishment  of  the  powder  factory  at  Estrella  and 
the  foundation  of  the  asylum  for  invalid  soldiers  in  the 
fortress  of  Sao  Joao  were  due  to  the  same  minister. 

The  Marquis  of  Lages  died  on  the  1st  of  April,  1847,  at 
the  age  of  sixty-six. 

:X    OF    A.FJRTL, 


Legitimate  son  of  Dr.  Bartholomeu  Corrfia  Vidigal,  Fran- 
cisco CorrSa  Vidigal  was  born  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Ja- 

He  studied  the  humanities  in  this  city,  and  afterwards 
went  to  Coimbra  where  he  graduated  in  the  University  in 
canon  law.  From  Portugal  he  went  to  Rome,  where  he 
took  orders  and  perfected  his  studies. 

On  his  return  to  Brazil  he  was  appointed  vicar  of  Cu- 
yab&,  and  worthily  performed  his  parochial  duties. 

Returning  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  began  the  practice  of 
law  in  which  he  was  very  successful  and  won  considerable 

The  Prince-Regent  D,  Pedro  appointed  him  canon  of  the 
cathedral  and  the  bishop,  D.  Jos4,  appreciating  his  learning 
VOL.  1  57 

-  450  — 

and  virtues,  made  him  rector  of  the  S.  Jos6  Seminary  and 
judge  of  the  ecclesiastical  court. 

In  1829  he  was  appointed  Brasilian  minister  to  the  court 
of  Rome,  and  gave  so  much  satisfaction  that  the  Holy  See 
begged  that  he  should  be  permanently  retained  there. 

In  the  elections  for  the  first  general  legislature,  Correa 
Vidigal,  who  by  this  time  had  attained  to  the  title  of  Mon- 
seigneur,  was  elected  deputy  for  the  province  of  Rio  de 

In  the  Chamber  he  avoided  party  strife,  always  dis- 
playing moderation ,  always  siding  with  the  Government. 

Keeping  aloof  from  the  Liberal  opposition,  he  did  not, 
however,  take  an  active  part  against  it  in  the  debates 
of  the  House,  and  was  able  to  secure  the  respect  and 
good-will  of  all  parties. 

On  the  death  of  the  bishop,  D.  Jos6  Caetano,  he  was  unan- 
imously elected  capitular  vicar,  and  performed  the  dif- 
ficult duties  of  this  position  with  zeal  and  discretion  until 
his  death,  which  took  place  on  April    10,    1838. 

His  remains  repose  in  the  church  of  S.  Pedro,  in  Rio  de 

His  pastorals  have  been  highly  eulogized. 

Governing  the  See  as  capitular  vicar  at  a  time  when 
the  government  of  the  Empiire  had  a  serious  misunder- 
standing with  the  court  of  Rome,  Corrfia  Vidigal  never 
for  a  moment  forgot  or  neglected  the  civil  and  political 
respect  and  obedience  which  he  owed  to  the  State. 

He  retained  up  to  the  day  of  his  death  his  spirit  of  mo- 
deration and  the  modesty  which  adorned  his  strict 
sense  of  justice  and  his  notable  learning. 

311     OF    AraiTLi 


Brazil,  as  a  colony  and  possession  of  Portugal,  shared 
of  course  the  fate  of  the  home  government,  and  con- 
sequently was,  after  1580,  subject  to  the  yoke  of  Spain. 

At  the  close  of  a  twelve  year's  truce  which  had  been 
adjusted  .with  the  government  of  Madrid  in  1609,  Holland 
renewed  the  war.  This  is  not  the  proper  place  to  describe 
in  detail  the  means  which  she  employed  in  carrying  it 
on,  it  being  enough  to  say  that  Brazil  was  tho  principal 

In  1624  a  powerful  Dutch  squadron  attacked  and  cap- 
tured the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia,  capital  of  colonial 
Brazil,  but  after  severe  fighting  lost  it  again  in  the  follow- 
ing year. 

In  1830  the  Dutch  returned  with  an  immense  fleet  and 
a  powerful  army  for  the  purpose  of  conquering  the  cap- 

—  452  — 

taincy  of  Pernambuco.  They  took  the  capital,  Olinda, 
and  the  infant  town  of  Recife,  which  was  to  them  of  the 
utmost .  importance  as  a  sea-port. 

This  event  was  followed  by  five  years  of  terrible  war 
in  which  the  people  of  Pernambuco,  inferior  in  numbers 
to  the  enemy  and  almost  without  assistance,  covered 
themselves  with  glory,  displaying  indomitable  courage 
and  heroism. 

The  attention  of  Spain  was  divided  between  so  many 
objects  that  she  scarcely  remembered  the  colony  of  the 
country  which  she  had  conquered  ;  Portugal  in  her  sub- 
jugated condition  was  able  to  do  nothing ;  whilst  Holland, 
on  the  other  hand,  spared  no  effort  to  consolidate  her 
power  in  Pernambuco  and  extend  it  to  the  other  provinces. 

In  1635  the  army  of  Pernambuco,  seeing  that  the  fortune 
of  war  was  against  it,  made  a  desperate  defense  preparatory 
to  abandoning  the  positions  which  it  still  occupied. 

Mathias  de  Albuquerque,  the  gallant,  skillful  and  in- 
trepid Pernambuco  general,  was  attacked,  on  April  II,  at 
Villa  Formosa  by  superior  forces  and,  after  a  prolonged 
and  brilliant  defense,  obliged  to  withdraw  his  army  from 
the  contested  battle-ground. 

Arriving  at  the  river  Serinhaem,  closely  pursued  by 
the  enemy,  he  made  a  stand,  resolving  to  beat  back 
his  pursuers  or  perish  in  the  attempt.  The  battle  com- 
menced at  10  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  lasted  till  night- 
fall, resulting  in  the  complete  rout  of  the  Dutch  army, 
which  fled  from  the  field  under  the  cover  of  the  dark- 

But  the  little  army  of  Mathias  de  Albuquerque  suffered 

Among  the  gallant  soldiers  who  fell  on  this  field  was  the 
young  Pernambuco  hero,  Estevao  Velho,  son  of  Gon^alo, 

—  453  — 
who  had  already  lost  in  the  war  two  sons  and  one  son- 
i  n-law. 

Mathias  de  Albuquerque,  unmoved  in  the  midst  of  the 
conflict,  trembled  at  the  thought  of  the  terrible  blow  to 
be  inflicted  on  the  parents  of  Estevao  Velho,  when  the 
sad  tidings  should  be  divulged. 

This  distressing  affair  brought  to  light  a  type  of  fe- 
male heroism,  perhaps  superior  to  that  of  the  Spartan 
mother  who,  concealing  her  grief  for  the  loss  of  her  son 
in  her  desire  not  to  dampen  the  general  rejoicing  for 
her  country's  victory,  was  the  first  to  exclaim :  <  Let  us 
go  and  give  thanks  to  the  Gods !  » 

EstevSo  Velho  was  the  son  of  D.  Maria  de  Souza,  a 
noble  Pernambuco  lady,  the  virtuous,  pious  and  patriotic 
wife  of  Gongalo  Velho. 

Hearing  the  sudden  and  cruel  news  of  the  death  of 
her  third  son,  D.  Maria  de  Souza  keeps  back  the  tears  which 
spring  to  her  eyes,  and,  suffocating  her  violent  anguish, 
calls  to  her  presence,  in  a  firm  voice,  her  two  only  re- 
maining sons,  one  of  whom,  Gil  Velho,  was  14  years  old, 
while  his  younger  brother  was   only  12. 

When  the  two  boys  appear  before  her,  gazing  earn- 
estly on  the  elder's  face,  she  says : 

<  My  sons,  your  father  and  I  have  just  received  the 
news  of  the  death  of  your  brother  Estevao,  who  is  the 
third  we  have  lost  in  this  war,  besides  our  son-in-law. 
What  duty  demands  of  you  now  is  to  imitate  his  example. 
Go,  my  children,  take  your  swords  and,  if  need  be,  offer 
up  your  lives  in  defense  of  your  God,  your  king,  and 
your  country.  » 

It  is  possible  tliat  this  grand  and  energetic  speech  of 
D.  Maria  de  Souza  is  clothed  in  the  language  of  the  his- 
torian of  the  war,  the  Marquis  of  Basto,  Count  and  Lord 

—  454  — 
of  Pernambuco;    its  sublimity,   however,   is  not  in  the 
words  in  which  it  is  couched,  but  in  the  lofty,  resolute 
and  self-sacrificing  spirit  which  dictated  them. 

Gil  Velho  immediately  went  to  fill  up  the  place  of  his 
brother  Estevao  in  the  patriot  ranks,  and  his  younger 
brother,  then  only  twelre  years  of  age,  made  but  a  short 
delay  before  following  his  example.  They  were  boys  in 
years,  but  in  courage  and  resolution  they  proved  them- 
selves to  be  men  worthy  of  their  heroic  mother. 

And  let  it  be  noted  that  the  sublime  behavior  of 
D.  Maria  de  Souza  was  not  caused  by  the  stimulating  in- 
fluence of  victory,  but  was  performed  in  the  darkest  hour 
of  adversity,  when  her  country's  fortunes  were  well-nigh 

D.  Maria  de  Souza,  the  model  wife,  the  kind  and  bene- 
ficent lady,  presents  a  noble  picture  when,  suppressing  the 
natural  outbursts  of  a  mother's  anguish,  and  crushing  the 
tenderest  feelings  of  her  heart,  she  sends  forth  her  sur- 
viving children  to  battle  for  God,  King  and  Country. 

Among  the  heroines  of  the  world  she  occupies  an  ele- 
vated and  conspicuous  place. 

■g-TT     OF     A.I»IUXi 


Jos6  Velloso  Xavier  was  the  legitimate  son  of  Jos6  Vel- 
loso  da  Gamara  and  Rita  de  Jesus  Xavier.  He  was  born  in 
the  parish  of  Santo  Antonio,  town  of  Sao  Jos6,  in  the  ju- 
dicial district  of  Rio  das  Mortes,  province  of  Minas  Geraes. 
The  year  of  his  birth  wos  probably  1742,  for  it  was  in  this 
year  that  he  was  christened. 

On  the  nth  of  April,  1761,  he  adopted  a  claustral  life 
and  was  admitted  into  the  convent  of  S.  Boaventura  de 
Macacu,  which  goes  to  show  that  it  was  at  an  early 
period  that  he  had  arrived  at  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

On  April  12  of  the  following  year  he  took  the  solemn 
TOW  to  give  up  the  things  of  this  world,  to  abandon  all 
human  ambitions  and  re  nounce  his  name,  which  was  sub- 
stituted by  that  of  Friar  Jos6  Marianno  da  Concei$ao 

—  456  — 
He  was  soon  distinguished  by  his  virtues  and  his  rigid 
application  to  study.  He  was  consecrated  by  the  bishop, 
D.  Antonio  do  Desterro,  and  received  his  diploma  from  Friar 
Ignacio  da  Graga.  In  the  General  Convocation  of  July  23, 
1768,  he  was  appointed  preacher. 

He  tilled  several  offices  in  the  Rio  de  Janeiro  convent, 
was  appointed  confessor,  teacher  of  geometry  in  S.  Paulo, 
and  professor  of  rhetonc  in  the  convent  of  that  city,  and 
was  one  of  the  most  illustrious  Franciscans  of  the  eccle- 
siastical province  of  GonceiQao  do  Rio  de  Janeiro.  But 
Friar  Yelloso,  besides  devoting  himself  to  theological, 
philosophical  and  literary  studies,  occupied  himself  with 
those  relating  to  the  natural  sciences,  particularly  bo- 
tany. He  became  so  famous  a  botanist  that  the  viceroy,  Vasconcellos  e  Souza,  wisely  resolved  to  make  use 
of  his  services.  Accordingly,  the  latter  gave  orders  to  the 
Franciscan  provincial,  Friar  Jos6  dos  Anjos  Passes,  to 
allow  Friar  Velloso  to  leave  the  convent  at  will  and  to 
give  him  an  unlimited  leave  of  absence  in  order  that  he 
might  make  his  botanical  excursions.  It  was  these  long, 
difficult  and  fruitful  excursions  that  produced  the  valu- 
able work  to  which  Velloso  gave  the  name  of  Flora 

In  these  excursions  he  was  accompanied  by  Friar  Anas* 
tacio  de  Santa  Ignez,  who  was  skilled  in  botanical  defini- 
tions, and  by  Friar  Francisco  Solano,  a  self-taught  floral 

Friar  Velloso  either  accompanied  Luiz  de  Vasconcellos 
on  his  return  to  Portugal,  or,  as  is  more  probable,  made 
the  voyage  some  years  later. 

In  Lisbon  he  took  charge  of  the  printing-office  called 
Litteraria  do  Arco  do  Cego,  and  on  its  absorption  into  the 
Royal  Printing-office,  was  made  literary  director  of  the 

—  45'7  — 
latter,  conjointly  with  the  professors  Custodio  Jos6  de  Oli- 
veira  and  Joaquim  Jos^  da  Costa   e  S&,  and  the  Brazilian 
Hyppolito  Josd  da  Costa. 

As  a  reward  for  his  services  Friar  Velloso  received  from 
the  Prince-Regent,  afterwards  King  John  VI,  the  com- 
mission of  ex-provincial  and  a  pension  of  five  hundred  mil- 
reis.  Chosen  Fellow  of  the  Lisbon  Royal  Academy  of 
Sciences,  he  had  a  misunderstanding  with  that  corpora- 
tion, which  caused  his  name  to  be  stricken  from  the  rolls. 

He  was  a  friend  to  the  great  poet  Socage,  and  rendered 
him  all  the  assistance  in  his  power  while  literary  di- 
rector of  the  Royal  Printing  Office. 

In  1807  Friar  Velloso  accompanied  the  royal  family  to 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  when  on  the  13th  of  June,  1811,  he  died 
at  Inidnight  in  the  Santo  Antonio  convent. 

The  most  important  of  his  works  is  undoubtedly  the 
Flora Fluminense,  in  which  are  classified,  according  to  the 
system  of  Linneus,  many  of  the  plants  of  Rio  de  Janeiro 
and  its  suburbs. 

His  work  is  constantly  quoted  by  botanists  who  treat  of 
South  American  plants,  and  there  is  scarcely  a  single  bo- 
tanical family  without  genera  or  species  designated  by 
Velloso.  Many  of  his  designations  have  either  been  ac- 
cepted without  reserve  or  adopted  as  synonyms. 

Among  these  imperishable  monuments  of  glory  figure 
the  Jabanesia  Princips  in  Euphorbiacion  family,  and  the 
genus  Vellosia,  in  commemoration  of  the  illustrious  Bra- 
zilian's name. 

Eis  quinography  embraces  the  quin-quinasor  anti-febrile 
plants  which  he  supposed  to  be  related  to  the  real  chin- 
chona  ef  other  parts  of  South*  America,  but  which  are  now 
included  in  other  genera. 

VOL,  I  58 

—  158  — 

His  Brazilian  Ornithology,  or  enumeration  of  many  useful 
birds,  contains  a  great  deal  of  interesting  matter. 

His  study  on  cochineal  and  on  its  manufacture  into  car- 
mine embodies  some  valuable  information. 

He  also  published  a  monograph  on  fixed  alkalis. 

His  pamphlets  in  regard  to  practical  farming,  containing 
a  history  of  the  culture  of  the  sugar  cane,  his  studies  relat- 
ing to  saltpetre,  (nitrate  of  potash) and  on  the  mode  of  pre- 
paring animals  for  museums  and  a  number  of  other  paraph- 
lets  are  early  translations  made  by  Velloso,  in  accordance 
with  the  views  of  his  royal  protector,  D.  John  VI,  to  whom 
they  wore  mostly,  if  not  wholly  dedicated,  for  the  purpose 
of  disseminating  useful  information  amongst  the  Portu- 
guese people. 

He  published  them  free  of  cost  to  himself  in  the  printing- 
office  Litteraria  do  Argo  do  Cego. 

But  his  great  original  production  and  chief  glory,  the 
celebrated  Flora  Fluminense,  is  a  posthumous  work  pub- 
lished at  much  cost  through  the  insistence  of  the  Emperor 
D.  Pedro  I. 

This  biographical  sketch  is  necessarily  very  incomplete, 
especially  in  regard  to  the  merits  of  Friar  Velloso's  scien- 
tific works,  but  in  the  Review  of  the  Brazilian  Historical 
and  Geographical  Institute  may  be  found  a  learned  criti- 
cism of  these  works  in  the  extensive,  candid  and  ably 
written  biography  of  the  immortal  author  of  the  Flora 
Fluminense,  by  Dr.  Saldanha  da  Gama. 



A  native  of  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  where  he  was 
born  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  17th  century,  he  studied  in 
the  Jesuit  college  in  his  native  city  and  received  the  degree 
of  master  of  arts. 

Gifted  with  considerable  talent  and  possessing  a  decided 
religious  vocation  he  was  a  useful  priest  and  a  model  of 
charity.  One  of  the  first  canons  of  the  new  See  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  he  occupied  the  fourth  place  on  the  16th  of  June, 

He  accompanied  the  bishop,  D.  Jose  de  Barros  e  Alarcjlo, 
on  his  visit  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  was  appointed  attorney 
to  the  chapter. 

Returning  to  Bahia  with  the  bishop,  he  was  appointed 
visitor  of  the  churches  of  Reconcavo  in  1701,  and  shortly 
afterwards   was   again   made  attorney  of  the  chapter  and 

-  460  — 

charged  with  lajing  before  the  King  several  memorials 
relating  to  matters  of  importance. 

On  his  return  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  1703,  he  was  almost 
immediately  sent  by  the  bishop  (who  delegated  to  him  fall 
powers)  to  Minas  Geraes  in  order  to  fix  the  boundaries  of 
the  sees  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  Bahia,  and  to  take  steps  for 
preventing  unauthorized  priests  from  performing  parochial 
duties  in  the  interior  of  the  country. 

Appointed  arch-deacon,  he  took  possession  of  his  dignity 
on  the  13th  of  April,  1715.  In  the  following  year  he  was 
appointed  chief-treasurer. 

He  afterwards  governed  the  diocese  until  the  vacancy 
was  filled  by  the  bishop,  Prior  Antonio  de  Quadelupe,  and 
left  a  fine  example  of  disinterestedness,  scientific  brilliancy 
and  vigorous  activity. 

He  died  on  the  8th  of  January,  1734. 

He  bequeathed  to  his  church  six  thousand  cruzados,  to 
be  employed  at  the  bishop*s  discretion. 

He  left  the  necessary  means  for  paying  an  annual  alms 
of  twenty-four  milreis  to  twelve  indigent  persons  at  the 
ceremony  of  feet- washing  celebrated  on  Holy  Thursday,  in 
the  Casa  da  Misericordia,  besides  a  single  payment  of  two 
hundred  milreis  more. 

He  left  considerable  legacies  and  donations  to  convents, 
asylums  and  pious  works. 

These  charities  are  known  because  they  are  necessarily 
mentioned  in  his  will,  but,  although  many  of  the  recipients 
have  gratefully  acknowledged  the  benefits  received,  it  is 
impossible  to  calculate  the  acts  of  charity  which  he  per- 
formed and  the  daily  alms  which  he  distributed  before  his 



Manoel  de  Moraes  Navarro,  son  of  the  Paulista  Josd  de 
Almeida  Lara,  was  born  on  the  14th  of  April,  1697. 

He  settled  in  the  town  (now  city  of  Sorocaba)  where  he 
married.  His  name  figures  in  the  PaiUo  Peerage  of  Pedro 
Taques  de  Almeida  Paes  Leme. 

A  thorough  Paulista,  he  was  a  type  of  the  bold,  daring 
and  uncouth  pioneer,  at  times  heroic  and  at  times  revenge- 
ful and  cruel. 

Paes  Leme  informs  us  that  the  noble  and  useful  Manoel 
de  Moraes  for  a  long  time  occupied,  in  Sorocaba,  various 
offices  of  the  commonwealth,  and  that  he  always  came  out 
unscathed  from  the  investigations  of  the  Corregedor  and 
from  those  of  Jancyrinha. 

He  was  the  owner  of  a  cane  and  sugar-mill,  and  was 
reputed  a  just  and  upright  man. 

-  462  — 

Leaving  S.  Paulo,  he  went  to  Goyaz  in  search  of  gold 

During  his  absence  from  home,  his  house,  situated  on  the 
Papua  farm  among  the  Pilar  mines  in  the  judicial  district 
of  Villa  Bda,  was  attacked  by  a  large  band  of  runaway 
slaves  (and  probably  Indians),  being  defended  by  his  son 
Jos6  de  Almeida  Lara,  assisted  by  two  mulatto  slaves. 

Barricading  the  entrances  of  the  house  and  armed  each 
with  a  gun,  the  three  men  resisted,  for  twelve  hours  (they 
were  S.  Paulo  pioneers)  when,  the  doors  being  forced,  the 
assailants  entered  and  murdered  the  occupants,  whose 
bodies  they  mutilated  in  a  most  horrible  and  barbarous 

Manoel  de  Moraes  arrived  too  late  to  save  his  son,  but 
arming  his  friends  and  relatives  he  set  forth  in  search  of 
the  murderers.  But  it  seems  as  if  the  very  elements  con- 
spired to  prevent  the  horrible  vengeance  which  had  been 
planned;  the  heavens  were  opened,  emptying  on  the  earth 
mighty  torrents  of  rain  which,  raising  the  streams,  ren- 
dered them  unfordable  and  checked  the  advance  of  the 
avenghig  banner,  Manoel  de  Moraes  was  furious  with  rage 
and  disappointment. 

The  runaway  slaves  effected  their  escape,  but  continuing 
to  murder  and  pillage  they  obliged  the  governor  and  cap- 
tain-general of  Goyaz,  Count  of  Argos,  to  issue  an  order 
permitting  any  so  desiring  to  attack  their  hiding-places  and 
to  put  to  death  those  who  offered  resistance. 

Manoel  de  Moraes,  though  old  and  exhausted,  newly 
invaded  the  wilderness  and  destroyed  all  the  haunts  of 
runaway  slaves  that  he  could  find. 

Seeing  in  every  runaway  a  murderer  of  his  son,  he  of 
course  everywhere  pretended  to  encounter  resistence. 

When  he  returned  from  his  expedition,  hundreds  of  hu- 

man  ears  struugtogether,  gave  evidence  to  the  number  of 
victims  on  whom  he  had  wreaked  his  vengeance. 

Leaving  Goyaz  he  returned  to  his  plantation  atSorocaba, 
inconsolable  for  the  loss  of  his  son,  Jos6  de  Almeida  Lara, 
who  was  his  favorite  among  nine  children  and  who  had 
already  shown  himself  to  be  a  worthy  successor  of  the 
bold  pioneer  in  deeds  of  daring  and  valor. 

Manoel  de  Moraes  Navarro  died  several  years  after 


^V     OF    A.FRJJL, 

mi  mum  bezerra 

Legitimate  son  to  Antonio  Barbalho  Felpa  de  Barbuda 
and  Camilla  Barbalho,  Luiz  Barbalho  Bezerra  was  born  in 
Pernambuco  in  one  of  the  closing  years  of  the  16th  century. 

He  adopted  the  military  profession  and  had  served  four- 
teen years,  when  in  1630  the  Dutch  invaded  Pernambuco 
and  took  Olinda  and  Recife. 

The  war  with  the  Dutch  commenced,  and  Luiz  Barbalho 
carried  his  two  sons,  Agostinho  and  Guilherme,  and  his  ser- 
vants and  slaves  to  Gen.  Mathias  de  Albuquerque,  in  the 
improvised  fortress  of  Arraial  do  Bom  Jesus  and  oflFered  him 
his  and  their  services. 

He  soon  began  to  distinguish  himself.  To  relate  all  his 
heroic  deeds  from  1630  to  1635  would  be  to  give  an  account 
of  a  score  of  battles  and  skirmishes,  of  the  attack  and  cap- 
voL.  I  59 

—  466  — 
ture  of  redoubts,  of  the  repulse  of  the  enemy,  and  of  a 
series  of  wonderful  adventures. 

In  the  latter  year,  Mathias  de  Albuquerque  was  obliged 
to  retire  into  Alagdas,  leaving  Luiz  B  irbalho  and  Serge  ant- 
Major  Pedro  Corr^a  da  Gama  in  charge  of  the  fortress  of 
Nazareth,  when  after  holding  out  during  a  severe  siege  of 
four  months,  they  capitulated  on  July  2,  obtaining  the 
most  honorable  terms. 

So  tenacious  had  been  the  defense  and  such  were  the 
privations  which  the  garrison  had  suffered,  that  on 
marching  out  of  the  place  several  of  the  soldiers  dropped 
dead  from  the  eflFects  of  hunger. 

Luiz  Barbalho,  his  wife  and  children  were  kept  as  prison- 
ers, he  being  shortly  afterward  sent  to  Holland,  whence  he 
succeeded  in  making  his  way  to  Spain.  On  August  16, 1637, 
he  returned  to  Bahia,  having  been  appointed  commander 
of  a  body  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  men  which  he  had 
rais.ed  in  Lisbon. 

The  state  of  his  family  greatly  distressed  Luiz  Barbalho 
at  whose  request  General  Bagnuolo  wrote  to  Prince 
Maurice  of  Nassau,  asking  the  release  of  the  wife  and  ten 
children  of  Luiz  Barbalho,  who  were  still  detained  at 

The  generous  coinmaQder  of  the  Dutch  forces  readily 
complied  with  this  request  and,  after  two  years'  captiv- 
ity, the  family  of  Luiz  Barbalho  was  sent  to  Bahia. 

In  1638  Maurice  of  Nassau,  at  the  head  of  a  powerful 
army,  attempted  the  capture  of  Bahia.  Bagnuolo  carried 
to  the  assistence  of  the  beleaguered  city  the  little  army 
which  had  retired  from  Pernambuco,  and  which  was  then 
encamped  at  Torre  de  Garcia  d'Avila. 

Notwithstanding  his  personal  feelings  of  gratitude 
towards  the  Dutch  commander,  Luiz  Barbalho  fought  hero- 

—  467  — 
icallyin  defense  of  Bahia  and  of  Brazil,  and  on  the  repulse 
of  the  Dutch  he  was  rewarded  by  the  King,  and  his  name 
perpetuated  in  the  important  fort  which  he  had  constructed. 

In  1639  the  Count  of  Torre  arrived  at  Bahia  with  a 
powerful  fleet.  In  the  following  year  he  proceeded  to  exe- 
cute a  vast  plan  of  operations,  and  set  sail  with  more  than 
eighty  vessels,  carrying  on  board  land  forces  in  which 
were  included  Luiz  Barbalho  and  other  Brazilian  chiefs. 

The  plan  was  a  failure.  The  Count  of  Torre's  designs 
were  defeated  by  contrary  winds  and  storms,  and  in  several 
naval  encounters  with  the  Dutch  he  acted  in  a  manner 
which  casts  a  doubt  on  his  military  capacity. 

After  these  severe  reverses,  he  put  on  shore  Luiz  Bar- 
balho and  the  force  under  his  command  at  a  little  place 
called  Touros,  14  leagues  north  of  Rio  Grande,  and  made 

This  was  almost  a  barbarous  sacrifice. 

Luiz  Barbalho  thus  abandoned  with  a  few  hundred  sol- 
diers, to  whom  the  Count  of  Torre  had  given  only  two 
days'  rations,  found  himself  obliged  to  accept  one  of  the 
following  alternatives: — either  to  surrender  with  his  force, 
or  to  attempt  to  cross  Rio  Grande,  Parahyba  and  Pernam- 
buco,  three  captaincies  occupied  by  the  Dutch,  besides  that 
of  Sergipe,  without  a  base  of  operations  and  completely 
exposed  to  the  enemy. 

He  did  not  hesitate.  In  preference  to  a  surrender  to  the 
enemy  he  determined  to  attempt  this  almost  impossible 

Assembling  his  little  command,  consisting  of  about  a 
thousand  men  among  whom  were  several  valiant  officers, 
he  made  them  an  energetic  address,  and  commenced  his 
march.  Proceeding  towards  the  South,  he  purposely 
sought  the  towns  and  villages  on  his  line  of  march.    In 

—  468  — 
those  which  were  not  garrisoned  he  found  welcome   and 
assistance ;  in  the  others  he  attacked  the  Dutch  garrisons 
and  captured  their  stores,    of  which  he  burnt  everything 
which  he  could  not  carry  with  him. 

Three  columns  of  Dutch  troops,  of  1,000  men  each,  left 
Recife  in  pursuit  of  Barbalho,  whose  retreat  became  of 
course  more  and  more  diflScult. 

He  found  himself  obliged  to  take  circuitous  routes,  to 
penetrate  into  a  desert  and  barren  country,  to  open  a  way 
through  dense  forests  and  to  cross  deep  streams  swollen 
with  heavy  rains.  To  obtain  supplies  he  was  obliged  to 
keep  out  small  foraging  parties.  At  times  he  would  turn 
on  the  nearest  pursuing  column,  strike  it  a  sudden  blow, 
and  leaving  it  stunned  by  his  unexpected  attack,  would 
again  disappear  in  the  vast  forests,  deceiving  the  enemy  by 
intricate  counter-marches,  and  so  continuing  his  heroic 

At  length  he  reached  the  banks  of  the  S.  Francisco,  and 
crossing  the  river,  camped  on  the  southern  side,  giving  relief 
and  repose  to  his  worn-out  but  undaunted  troops  and  to 
the  civilians  of  both  sexes  who,  unwilling  to  live  under 
the  enemy's  yoke,  had  joined  the  little  army  on  the  route. 

The  Dutch  troops  did  not  pursue  them  beyond  the  S.  Fran- 
cisco, and  Luiz  Barbalho,  after  allowing  his  army  a  few 
days  rest,  continued  his  retreat,  passed  through  Sergipe, 
and  after  a  march  of  four  months  duration,  in  which  he 
traversed  three  hundred  leagues,  interrupted  by  numerous 
engagements  in  which  he  had  generally  been  successful, 
he  reached  the  city  of  S.  Salvador  da  Bahia. 

This  retreat  is  considered  the  most  wonderful  undertak- 
ing of  the  war.  Even  the  Dutch  writers  have  eulogized  it ; 
and  the  Portuguese  writers  have  compared  it  to  the  famous 

retreat  of  the  tenthousand,  and  denominated  Barbalho  the 
modem  Xenophon. 

Shortly  after  reaching  Bahia,  Luiz  Barbalho  was  sent  to 
dislodge  the  Dutch  who  had  begun  to  fortify  themselves  on 
the  River  Real.  He  attacked  them,  carried  their  works  and 
completely  routed  them,  killing  more  than  three  hundred 
of  their  men. 

Luiz  Barbalho  had  by  this  time  acquired  a  brilliant  and 
glorious  renown. 

In  the  meantime  the  Portuguese  revolution  broke  out 
and  shook  oflF  the  yoke  of  Spain.  The  Marquis  of  Montalvao, 
the  first  viceroy  of  Brazil,  proclaimed  his  allegiance  to 
D.  John  IV  ;  but,  as  his  two  brothers  had  fled  to  Spain, 
refusing  to  espouse  the  revolutionary  cause,  he. incurred 
the  suspicion  of  the  Portuguese  monarch.  Accordingly, 
though  D.  John  wrote  him  an  autograph  letter,  giving  an 
account  of  the  great  event  which  raised  him  to  the  throne 
and  asking  him  to  proclaim  his  authority  in  Brazil,  he,  a 
few  days  afterward,  dispatched  to  S.  Salvador,  the  Jesuit 
priest,  Francisco  de  Vilhena,  bearing  two  letters,  one 
addressed  to  the  viceroy,  relieving  him  of  his  office,  and 
the  other  appointing  a  provisional  government  composed  of 
the  bishop,  D.  Pedro  da  Silva,  Col.  Luiz  Barbalho  Bezerra, 
and  the  solicitor-general,  Lourengo  de  Brito  Corrfia. 

These  letters  were  to  be  delivered  in  case  the  Marquis 
failed  to  declare  his  allegiance  to  the  Portuguese  throne ; 
but  on  Vilhena's  arrival  at  Bahia,  he  found  that  the  au- 
thority of  D.  John  had  already  been  recognized.  Neverthe- 
less, either  from  levity  or  bad  faith,  he  delivered  the  letters 
and  induced  the  provisional  governors  to  depose  the  Mar- 
quis of  Montalvao  and  send  him  in  custody  to  Lisbon. 

This  event  obscured  for  some  months  the  fame  of  Luiz 

—  410  — 

Barbalho  who  in  his  turn  was  arrested  in  1642  and  sent 
to  Portugal. 

On  his  arrival  he  was  able  to  justify  himself  to  D.  John  IV, 
who  recognizing  that  he  was  entirely  innocent  of  a  criminal 
ambition  and  was  merely  a  victim  of  his  confidence  in 
Vilhena,  not  only  pardoned  him,  but  appointed  him,  in  1649, 
governor  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

In  this  office  he  displayed  the  utmost  zeal,  activity  and 
energy  until  the  day  of  his  death,  April  15,  1644. 

His  remains  were  interred  in  the  principal  vault  of  the 
Jesuit  church. 

XIVI    OF    A.T>:EiTL, 

kmm  n  cim  brochado 

Antonio  da  Cunba  Brochado  was  born  in  the  city  of 
Bahia.  He  was  the  legitimate  son  of  D.  Maria  Francisca 
de  Paula  e  Almeida  and  of  the  judge,  Belchior  da  Gunha 
Brochado,  who  was  Gentleman  of  the  Royal  Household, 
Treasury  Councilor,  and  corregedor  of  the  palace. 

He  studied  the  humanities  in  the  Jesuit  college  and  gra- 
duated in  the  Coimbra  University,  taking  the  degree  of 
bachelor  of  laws. 

After  his  arrival  in  Lisbon,  he  was  appointed  judge  of 
India  and  Mina. 

In  order  to  study  diplomacy  and  international  policy, 
he  accompanied  his  uncle^  Jos^  da  Gunha  Brochado,  when 
the  latter  was  sent  as  Minister  Plenipotentiary  to  the 
Court  of  Madrid. 

On  his  return  to  Portugal,  he  was  appointed  Treasury 

-472  - 
Councilor,  but  despising  the  grandeurs  of  this  world,   and 
only  desirous  of  God,  he  took  orders  and  entered  the  con- 
vent of  Santa  Cruz  in  Coimbra,  where  he  took  the  vow  on 
the  16th  of  April,  1735. 

He  translated  several  works  from  the  Spanish,  and 
figured  amongst  the  most  d  tinguished  literary  men  of 
his  age. 

x-vrc  OF  A.FnxL, 

mm  fiONEs  DOS  santos 


Of  humble  parentage,  Thomaz  dos  Santos  was  born  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro  on  April  17,  1803.  He  early  displayed  ex- 
traordinary intelligence,  and  he  learned  his  first  lessons 
with  so  little  eflFort  that  he  seemed  to  acquire  knowledge 
rather  by  instinct  than  by  study.  Such,  however,  was 
the  extreme  poverty  of  his  parents  that  they  were 
obliged  to  place  him  in  a  brazier's  shop. 

Whether  he  rebelled  against  this  mode  of  life  or 
whether  they  discovered  that  he  was  not  suited  to  it,  is  not 
known  ;  but  what  is  certain  is  that  he  was  taken  from  the 
shop  and  sent  to  the  Franciscans'  convent  for  the  purpose 
of  becoming  a  monk. 

The  late  Bishop  of  Marianna  saw  Thomaz  Gomes,  and, 
appreciating  his  talent,  received  him  into  the  Jacuecanga 
college  of  which  he  was  rector,  and  was  much  pleased 
VOL.  I  60 

—  4*74  — 
with  the  progress  which    his  pupil    there  made  in  the 
study  of  the  humanities. 

Having  completed  these  studies,  Thomaz  Gomes  went  to 
France  where  he  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts  in  the 
Academy  of  Paris  and  that  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  in  the 
Montpellier  faculty,  where  his  name  has  since  been  re- 
membered as  that  of  one  of  the  most  talented  students. 

After  his  return  to  Brazil,  he  was  in  1834  chosen  pro- 
fessor of  clinique  in  the  medical  school  of  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro, and  on  the  13th  of  December  of  the  same  year 
was  appointed  court  physician.  In  1837  he  was  trans- 
ferred from  the  professorship  of  clinique  to  that  of  hygiene 
in  the  same    school. 

He  was  member  of  the  Provincial  Assembly  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro  in  several  legislatures,  and  from  1845  to  1848, 
inclusive,  was  deputy  to  the  General  Assembly  from  the 
same  province,  which  three  times  included  his  name  in 
the  triple  list  for  the  selection  of  a  senator. 

He  served  as  vice-president  and  acting  president  of  the 
province  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  was  from  1858  to  1864,inclusive, 
director  of  public  instruction  in  the  same  province,  and 
from  1858  to  the  day  of  his  death,  director  of  the  Aca- 
demy of  Fine  Arts  in  the  capital  of  the  Empire. 

In  1851  he  became  principal  editor  of  the  Reforma 
newspaper,  which  at  that  time  was  organ  of  the  liberal 

He  was  honored  with  the  title  of  Councilor,  with  the 
Cross  of  Commander  of  the  Imperial  Order  of  the  Rose, 
with  that  of  Chevalier  of  the  Order  of  Christ,  and  with 
the  grand-cross  of  the  2d  class  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Stanislas  of  Russia.  He  was  corresponding  member  of  the 
Brazilian  Historical  and  Geographical  Institute,  and  of 
other  scientific  and  literary  societies. 

—  475  — 

In  his  college  lectures  he  was  n  oted  for  his  winning 
eloquence  and  for  the  unfailing  and  appropriate  illustra- 
tions with  which  he  explained  and  rendered  interesting  the 
teachings  of  medical  science. 

He  was  a  first-class  parliamentary  orator,  combining 
learning  with  fluency  and  delicacy  of  speech,  with  unan- 
swerable logic  and  with  correct  elocution.  His  favorite 
weapon  in  debate  was  a  sharp  and  penetrating  irony  which 
he   managed    with   a   skill    that    has    rarely  been  sur- 

The  sciences  did  not  monopolize  his  affections.  He 
zealously  cultivated  literature  and  was  familiar  with  the 
works  of  the  great  poets  of  all  ages. 

The  Portuguese  language  and  the  classical  works  writ- 
ten therein  were  his  special  study. 

On  the  day  before  his  death  on  which  was  probably  re- 
flecting,  his  favorite  subject  recurred  to  him. 

At  the  age  of  seventy-one  he  had  been  seized  with 
an  attack  of  the  disease  of  the  lungs  which  defied  medical 
treatment.  On  the  9th  of  June,  conversing  in  his  usual 
agreeable  manner,  he  referred  to  the  Portuguese  lan- 
guage and  remarked  : 

«One  of  its  chief  beauties  is,  Ithink,  the  formation  of  the 
word  cadaver  (corpu) — ca^'nis  datu  vermis.  » 

This  was   on  the  day  before  his  death. 

Possessed  of  more  than  ordinary  talent,  vast  powers  of 
illustration,  a  brilliant  imagination,  ready  and  lively 
wit,  abundant  stores  of  information,  judgment  and  good 
sense,  a  wonderful  memory  and  a  patriotic  heart.  Dr.  Tho- 
raaz  Gomes,  who  might  have  left  a  rich  and  voluminous 
collection  of  works,  died  without  having  contributed  a 
single  production  to  the  literature  of  his  country. 

—  476  - 
The  Idarned  Dr.  Joaquim  Caetano  da  Silva,  his  fellow- 
pupil,  friend  and  admirer,  used  to  say  of  him : —  «  Thomaz 
Gomes  is  not  only  a  man  of  great  talent;  he  is  more:  he 
is  a  genii$s  that  is  not  willing  to  soar.  » 



Josd  Mauricio  Nunes  Garcia  was  the  son  of  Apolinario 
Nunes  Garcia  and  D.  Victoria  Maria  da  Cruz,  and  was 
born   in  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  22d  of  September,  1767. 

He  lost  his  father  when  he  was  only  six  years  of  age, 
and,  left  in  charge  of  his  mother  and  of  a  maternal  aunt, 
whom  he  tenderly  loved,  he  was  by  them  carefully 
taught  the  first  and  elementary  lessons.  In  his  hours  of 
recreation,  instead  of  amusing  himself  with  the  usual 
sports  of  childhood,  he  preferred  to  play  on  the  Brazil- 
ian banjo  and  harpsichord,  often  singing  to  the  accom- 
paniment of  one  of  those  two  instruments. 

On  account  of  his  natural  taste  for  music  his  mother 
sent  him  to  the  school  of  Salvador  Josd,  where  in  a  short 
time  he   outstripped  all  his  fellow-pupils. 

—  478  — 

He  studied  Latin  with  Father  Elias,  the  Royal  tutor, 
who  at  the  end  of  three  years  declared  that  Jos6  Mauricio 
was  competent  to  take  his  place. 

He  studied  philosophy  in  the  class  of  Dr.  Gaulao,  and 
displayed  such  application  to  study  and  learned  so  rapidly 
that  it  was  proposed  to  make  him  assistant  master,  but  he 
refused,  having  another  vocation. 

What  he  desired  was  to  become  a  priest.  The  generous 
merchant,  Thomaz  Gongalves,  donated  to  him  a  house  in  the 
rua  das  Marrecas  fhow  n.  14)  and  with  this  fund  he  took 
orders  as  deacon,  and  in  1792  was  allowed  to  say  mass. 
In  1798  he  was  authorized  to  preach. 

Father  Jos6  Mauricio,  besides  Latin,  philosophy,  theol- 
ogy and  rhetoric  which  he  had  studied  under  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Manoel  Ignacio  da  Silva  Alvarenga,  was 
acquainted  with  history  and  geography,  knew  something  of 
Greek  and  Hebrew,  translated  English  and  was  thoroughly 
conversant  with  French  and  Italian. 

Learned,  modest  and  virtuous,  he  won  the  esteem  of  the 
bishop,  D.  Jos6  Caetano  da  Silva  Coutinho,  who  appreciated 
his  talents  and  invited  him  to  attend  the  literary  conver- 
sations at  his  palace. 

But  Father  Jos6  Mauricio  was  chiefly  fond  of  the  study 
of  music ;  but  such  was  his  poverty  that  for  many  years  he 
could  not  save  suflScient  money  to  buy  a  harpsichord,  after 
wearing  out  that  which  he  used  in  his  childhood. 

Without  masters  to  consult,  much  less  to  teach  the 
grand  secrets  of  music,  and  without  musical  repositories 
which  he  could  visit  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  succeeded  in 
acquiring  those  secrets  by  his  own  unaided  powers,  and  at 
the  Portuguese  court  in  1808,  showed  himself  an  accom- 
plished master  and  composer. 

Father  Jos6  was,  through  the  force  of  genius,  a  self-made 

—  479  — 

and  self-educated  musician  and  composer,  a  rigid  follower 
of  the  school  of  Hayden  and  Mozart,  who  would  have  wel- 
comed him  as  a  worthy  colleague  and  cultivator  of  the  art 
of  music. 

Before  the  arrival  of  the  Portuguese  royal  family  at  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  Father  Jos6  Mauricio  had  won  a  considerable 
reputation.  To  obtain  a  livelihood  he  gave  private  les- 
sons ;  but  he  also  gave  lessons  at  home  to  a  class  of  free 
pupils,  which  he  kept  up  for  thirty-eight  years.  His  pupils 
wore  a  red  and  blue  cockade  on  their  hats  and  were 
exempt  from  military  service.  For  a  long  time,  in  his  class, 
he  accompanied  the  solfeggios  with  banjo  arranged  with 
metallic  chords  in  default  of  a  harpsichord,  which  he  was 
unable  to  buy.  These  lessons  were  attended  by  many 
persons  who  afterwards  became  celebrated  professors  of 

In  1798  the  place  of  musical  director  of  the  cathedral 
became  vacant,  and  the  Bishop  gave  it  to  Father  Jos6  Mau- 
ricio with  a  salary  of  six  hundred  milreis. 

In  1808  the  Portuguese  royal  family  arrived.  The 
prince-regent,  afterwards  King  John  VI,  who  was  very 
fond  of  music  and  of  pompous  religious  ceremonies,  had 
brought  with  him  the  celebrated  master,  Marcos  Portugal ; 
the  first  time,  however,  that  he  heard  sacred  music  in  the 
cathedral  he  became  convinced  that  the  Brazilian  master 
need  fear  no  competitor. 

Almost  immediately  there  commenced  a  mean  and 
unworthy  rivalry.  Father  Jos6  Mauricio  was  a  mulatto, 
and  the  Portuguese  musicians  made  use  of  this  accident  of 
color  as  a  weapon  of  ridicule  and  contempt.  But  the 
Prince-Regent  appreciated  and  commended  the  Brazilian 
master,  and  in  1808  appointed  him  inspector  of  music  in 
the  royal  chapel. 

—  480* 

Father  Jos6  Mauricio  was  an  inspired  and  able  com- 
poser. His  compositions  of  sacred  music  were  nearly  all 
masterpieces.  In  1810,  at  the  close  of  a  religious  cere- 
mony, D.  John  was  so  charmed  with  the  music  he  had 
heard  that,  calling  the  master  to  his  presence,  he  took  the 
Cross  of  the  Order  of  Christ  from  the  breast  of  one  of  the 
courtiers  who  surrounded  him,  and  fastened  it  with  his 
own  bonds  on  that  of  3os6  Mauricio. 

Soon  after  he  gave  orders  that  the  latter  should  re- 
ceive a  daily  ration  as  servant  of  the  Royal  Household,  but 
at  the  request  of  Jos6  Mauricio,  who  suffered  no  little  an- 
noyance at  the  hands  of  the  Portuguese  servants,  it  was 
commuted  into  a  pecuniary  allowance  of  thirty-two  mil- 
reis  a  month. 

On  the  frigate  which  brought  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  the  Aus- 
trian Arch-Duchess  Leopoldina,  afterwards  first  Empress 
of  Brazil,  there  came  an  excellent  band  of  military  music. 

This  band  used  to  play  sometimes  on  the  Square  of 
S.  Jorge,  where  Jos6  Mauricio  was  then  living.  He  was 
so  much  pleased  with  the  masterly  execution  of  the  per- 
formers that  he  improvised  for  them  twelve  divertisemenis 
which  rank  among  the  most  ravishing  musical  inspira- 

Having  established  his  claim,  by  practical  tests,  to  the 
highest  place  among  the  composers  of  sacred  music,  Father 
Jos6  Mauricio,  by  order  of  the  King,  composed  for  the 
theatre  of  S.  Joao  the  opera  Le  DucGemelle,  whose  parti- 
tures  were  destroyed  in  the  burning  of  the  theatre  in 
1824,  and  the  copy  among  the  papers  of  Marcos  Portugal. 

The  Santa  Cruz  plantation,  was,  about  this  time,  the  scene 
of  an  artistic  combat  or  duel.  The  king  wished  to  cele- 
brate with  the  utmost  splendor  the  sacred  commemora- 
tion   of  the  beheading  of  John,   the  Baptist.  He  ordered 

—  481  — 
Marcos  Portugal  to  prepare  the  music  for  the  matins  and 
Josd  Mauricio  for  the  high  mass  and  credo.  The  former 
took  a  month  to  finish  his  work;  the  latter,  at  the  end 
of  15  days,  presented  a  composition  which  enchanted  the 
monarch  and  won  the  admiration  of  all  who  heard  it. 

On  his  return  to  Portugal  in  1821,  the  King  invited 
Father  Josd  Mauricio  to  accompany  him,  but  the  latter  did 
not  wish  to  leave  his  native  land.  D.  John,  who  was  a 
warm  friend  of  Brazil  and  the  Brazilians,  wrote  him  from 
Lisbon  a  letter  that  was  highly  honorable  and  flattering  to 
the  composer,  gently  complaining  of  his  refusal  to  accom- 
pany him.  This  document  is  in  the  possession  of  the  son 
of  the  composer.  Dr.  Jos6  Mauricio  Nunes  da  Silva,  who 
keeps  it  as  a  precious  and  honorable  heir-loom. 

When  D.  John  VI  left  Brazil,  the  religious  ceremonies 
were  no  longer  celebrated  with  the  same  pomp  and 

The  King's  departure  was  followed  by  the  revolution- 
ary period  of  1821-22;  and  the  reign  of  the  first  Emperor 
was  too  busy  with  stirring  political  events  to  leave  time 
for  encouraging  the  fine  arts. 

Father  Jos6  Mauricio,  forgotten,  discontented  and  in- 
firm, was  passing  in  silence  and  oblivion  to  the  grave. 

One  day  the  Emperor,  D.  Pedro  I,  who  had  noted  his 
prolonged  absence  from  the  palace,  met  him  in  the  Consti- 
tutional Square,  and,  reining  up  his  horse,  said  to  him  : 

«  We  never  see  you  at  the  Palace  now-a-days.  » 

«  Ah !  Sire !  »  sadly  answered  the  man  of  genius  who  had 
been  ungratefully  neglected;  «  I  have  given  all  that  I 
had  to  bestow.  » 

His  broken  health  becoming  worse,  he  was  obliged  to 
keep  his  bed  in  April,  1831.  Growing  worse  everyday, 
on  the  18th  of  that  month  he  left  the  garret  in  which  he 

VOL.  I  61 

—  482- 

slept  and  whose  stairway  was  very  narrow,  and  took  a 
room  on  the  ground  floor. 

His  affectionate  son,  returning  from  the  Surgical  School, 
wished  to  know  why  he  had  changed  his  quarters. 

«  So  as  to  give  less  trouble  in  the  carrying  of  my  body 
to  the  grave,  »  was  the  answer. 

On  the  evening  of  the  same  day.  Father  Jos6  Mauricio 
began  to  hum  the  hymn  to  the  Virgin,  and  a  few  moments 
afterwards  closed  his  eyes  and  expired. 

At  the  request  of  Dr.  Jos6  Mauricio  Nunes  Garcia,  Porto- 
Alegre,  already  at  that  time  a  distinguished  artist  and  now 
Baron  of  Santo  Angelo,  took  a  plaster  cast  of  the  face  of 
Father  Jos6  Mauricio,  which  is  still  in  the  National  Mu- 

Canon  Luiz  Gonial ves  dos  Santos,  on  hearing  of  his 
friend's  death,  hastened  to  his  house  in  order  to  dress  the 
corpse  for  interment,  but,  on  his  arrival,  found  that  this 
had  already  been  attended  to  by  the  dutiful  son  of  the  de- 
ceased. Dr.  Jos6  Mauricio,  who  years  afterwards  succeed- 
ed through  patient  and  persevering  efforts  in  obtaining 
his  father's  portrait. 

Father  Jos6  Mauricio  was  a  fruitful  composer,  and 
all  his  musical  compositions  furnish  a  brilliant  proof 
of  his  genius,  of  the  pure  classicalism  of  his  style,  and  of 
his  thorough  knowledge  of  the  art.  Among  his  most  ad- 
mired productions  are  the  Funeral  Symphony,  which  was 
executed  at  his  own  exequies,  the  Requiem,  the  Mass, 
the  Tedeum  and  Matins  for  the  festival  of  Saint  Cicilia, 
the  Twelve  Divertisements,  the  ouverture  of  the  Tempest, 
composed  for  a  dramatic  eulogy  acted  on  the  birthday  of 
the  viceroy,  D.  Fernando,  and  the  High  Mass  and  for 
the  commemoration  of  the  beheading  of  John,  the  Baptist. 

Neuckom  says  that  Father  Jos6  Mauricio  occupies  the 
first  place  among  the  musical  provisers  of  the  world. 

He  was  certainly  the  musical  genius  of  Brazil,  to  whom, 
after  a  lapse  of  nearly  a  century,  no  worthy  successor  has 
been   found. 



Wmm   TQIAI    Wl   BlRBOSl    UGS 

-'  ■-(Syi" 

Before  1786  twelve  Brazilian  students  at  Goimbra  met 
in  secret  conclave  and  discussing  the  greatness  of  the 
country,  then  a  colony,  swore  to  work  for  Brazilian  inde- 
pendence, availing  themselves  of  the  first  favorable  oppor- 
tunity for  accomplishing  their  object. 

In  1786  other  Brazilian  students  in  France,  among  whom 
were  Jos6  Joaquim  da  Maia  and  Jos6  Marianne  Leal,  na- 
tives of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  Domingos  YidaldeBarboza  Lage 
and  Josd  Pereira  Ribeiro,  natives  of  Minas  Geraes,  had 
gone  still  further.  Maia  had  even  addressed,  both  verbally 
and  by  writing,  the  American  minister  in  Paris,  Thomas 
Jefferson,  asking  for  the  support  of  the  United  States  to  the 
cause  of  Brazilian  independence. 

The  diplamat  gave  an  evasive  answer  which  certainly 
could  not  encourage  the  young  patriot. 

One  of  students,  Domingos  Vidal  de  Barboza  Lage,  was 

destined  to  become  si  victim  to  the  patriotic  scheme  which 
they  had  adopted. 

This  young  man  was  the  legitimate  son  of  Captain  Antonio 
Vidal  de  Barboza  and  D.  Maria  Thereza  de  Jesus,  and  was 
born  in  1761  in  the  province  of  Minas  Geraes,  in  the  parish 
of  Nossa  Senhora  da  Concei^ao  do  Caminho  do  Matto.  Sent 
to  France  to  study  medicine,  he  took  his  degree  in  1788 
and  returned  to  Brazil,  his  parents  having  died  during  his 

Dr.  Vidal  de  Barboza  found  the  so^ailled  Tvradentes 
conspiracy  nearly  ripe  in  Minas  and  did  not  hesitate  to 
join  it. 

Shortly  afterwards  the  conspirators  were  denounced, 
arrested  and  put  to  torture ;  and  finally  on  the  17th  of 
April,  1792,  the  secret  was  divulged  and  eleven  of  the  con- 
spirators condemned  to  death.  Among  them  was  Dr.  Tidal 
de  Barboza. 

On  April  19,  their  sentence  was  read  to  them  in  prison. 

On  the  following  day  a  magistrate  read  to  them  the  royal 
letter  of  October  15,  1790,  in  which  D.  Maria  I  commuted 
into  banishement  the  death  penalty  for  all  except  Tiradentes. 

The  punishment  to  be  suffered  by  Dr.  Domingos  de  Bar- 
boza Lagewas  ten  years'  exile  on  Santiago,  one  of  the  Cape 
Verde  islands. 

The  secretary  of  the  governor  of  the  island  was  Dr.  Joao 
da  Silva  Feij6,  a  native  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  a  noted  natur- 
alist, who  received  and  treated  with  attentive  kindness 
not  only  Dr.  Vidal,  but  also  his  fellow-exiles,  Rezende 
Costa,  father  and  son,  and  Joao  Dias  da  Matta. 

At  the  end  of  eight  months  Dr.  Vidal  de  Barboza  died  at 
the  convent  of  S.  Francisco  where  he  resided  in  the  city  of 
Ribeiro  Grande. 

2CX:      OF      -AJPIHIL. 


In  February,  1630,  a  formidable  Dutch  fleet  of  more  than 
sixty  vessels  with  a  powerful  land  force  arrived  at  Pernam- 
buco,  and  easily  took  the  capital,  Olinda,  and  a  few  days 
afterwards,  the  town  of  Recife  which  was  indispensable  as 
a  sea-port  for  communication  with  Holland. 

But  the  people  of  Pemambuco,  at  first  weak  and  timid  in 
resisting  the  enemy,  suddenly  became  heroes,  responding 
to  the  call  of  the  courageous  governor,  Gen.  Mathias  de 
Albuquerque,  who  established  and  fortified  the  historical 
and  glorious  Campo  Real  do  Bom  Jesus  on  a  plain  half 
way  between  Olinda  and  Recife,  and  there  assembled  the 
patriots  who  took  up  arms  against  the  foreign  invader. 

Rendering  his  position  impregnable,  Mathias  de  Albu- 
querque kept  the  Dutch  troops  shut  up  in  Recife  and  Olinda* 
and  harassed  them  by  means  o  f  guerrilla  companies  that 

-  488  — 
almost  succeeded  in  cutting  off  all  communication  between 
the  two  points  occupied  by  the  enemy. 

To  one  of  these  guerrilla  bands  belonged  Domingos  Fer- 
nandes  Calabar,  but  between  1630  and  April,  1632,  had 
won  no  distinction,  for  up  to  the  latter  date  no  mention  is 
made  of  his  name. 

This  partisan  leader  was  born,  it  is  generally  supposed, 
in  the  town  of  Porto  Calvo,  though  some  writers  assert 
that  he  was  born  and  christened  in  Olinda.  Poor  and 
unfavored  by  fortune,  he  had  above  all  one  defect  which 
Pernambuco,  essentially  aristocratic,  could  not  overlook  ; 
he  was  of  mongrel  blood  and  a  mulatto  in  color.  The  Por- 
tuguese historians  who  were  obliged  to  treat  of  his  deeds 
from  1633  to  1635  called  him  in  scorn  the  mulatto  Ca- 

From  1630  to  1632  the  Dutch  did  not  advance  a  step 
beyond  Olinda  and  Recife,  and  at  Itamaraci,  Parahyba,  Rio 
Grande  do  Norte,  Rio  Formoso  and  Pontal  de  Nazareth 
they  were  repulsed  with  heavy  loss. 

But  on  the  fatal  and  inglorious  20th  of  April,  1632,  the 
obscure  Domingos  Fernandes  Calabar,  who  had  fought  un- 
noticed among  the  defenders  of  Campo  Real,  deserted  and 
went  over  to  the  enemy,  and  immediately  the  fortunes  of 
war  were  changed. 

Ten  days  after  his  desertion,  Calabar  led  the  Dutch  troops 
to  Iguassti,  which  they  sacked,  killing  or  capturing  the  in- 

In  January,  1633,  he  directed  the  taking  of  the  fort  of 
Rio  Formoso,  and  in  June  he  led  the  enemy  to  victory  at 

In  December  of  the  same  year  he  conducted  Ceulen  io 
the  capture  of  the  fort  of  Reis  Magos  in  Rio  Grande  do 
Norte.    In  March,  1634,  Gen.   Segismund,  under  his  guid- 

ance,  avenged  the  defeat  suffered  in  February,  attacking 
and  capturing  the  port  of  Gape  Santo  Agostinho. 

Besides  these  successful  enterprises  in  which  he  took  part, 
Calabar,  as  an  officer  of  the  Dutch  army,  distinguished 
himself  in  numerous  engagements  fought  under  his  di- 
rection and  advice,  and  annulled  the  superiority  derived 
by  the  Pernambuco  forces  from  guerrilla  companies,  by 
organizing  companies  of  the  same  kind  for  the  Dutch  service. 

The  fortunes  of  war  were  obedient  to  the  command  oj 
the  deserter  Calabar. 

Duarte  de  Albuquerque  in  his  MemoirSy  and  other  Por- 
tuguese historians  who  accept  his  statements,  blacken  the 
memory  of  Calabar,  saying  that  he  deserted  to  escape 
punishment  for  a  theft  which  he  had  committed  in  the 
Royal  Sub-treasury;  and  Friar  Manoel  Callado,  in  his  7a- 
leroso  Lucideno,  says  he  was  prosecuted  for  this  crime 
by  the  judge,  Andr6  d'Almeida  Fonseca. 

But  when  could  the  poor  mulatto  Calabar,  of  whom  no 
one  had  heard  and  who  served  at  Campo  Real  entirely 
free  of  all  charges,  have  stolen  from  the  Royal  Sub- 
treasuries,  whose  revenues  at  that  time  were  very  pre- 
carious ? 

The  accusation  made  against  the  deserter,  who  proved 
to  be  so  formidable  an  enemy,  should  rest  on  some  more 
solid  basis  than  a  vague  and  odious  insinuation  devoid  of 
the  slighest  vestige  of  proof. 

It  is  absolutely  incorrect  that  the  confessor  of  Calabar  de- 
clared that  the  latter  in  his  last  moments  confessed  to  having 
committed  the  crime ;  Friar  Manoel  Callado  made  no  such 
declaration  as  is  attributed  to  him  nor  could  he  make  it 
without  a  most  scandalous  and  abusive  revelation  of  the 
secrets  of  the  confessional. 

The  stain  of  having  deserted  his  country's  flag  is  enough 
VOL.  I  62 

—  490  — 
and  more  than  enough  to  tarnish  the  memory  of  Calabar; 
everything,  however,  indicates  that  this  act,  which  is  cer- 
tainly inexcuasble  and  worthy  of  the  severest  censure, 
was  entirely  due  to  the  neglect  and  scorn  with  which 
he  was  treated  when  he  was  conscious  of  possessing  a  ca- 
pacity which  entitled  him  to  win  more  than  ordinary 

But  however  this  may  be,  Calabar,  after  joining  the 
Dutch,  gave  ample  proof  ef  his  skill  in  the  art  of  war  which 
he  had  had  no  suitable  opportunity  of  studying  either  theoret- 
ically or  practically.  Without  instruction,  but  with  won- 
derful intelligence  and  a  thorough  acquaintance  with 
the  topography  of  Pernambuco  and  of  the  coast  districts  of 
Parahyba  and  Rio  Grande  do  Norte,  he  was  during  the 
first  part  of  the  Dutch  war  the  most  distinguished  strate- 
gist among  the  Dutch  or  Pernambuco  chiefs. 

He  was  brave,  but  it  was  not  his  bravery,  but  his  mili- 
tary capacity,  his  skill  in  planning,  his  cunning  in  sur- 
prising the  enemy,  and  his  energy  in  executing  his  plans, 
that  gave  him  a  certainty  of  success. 

After  the  20th  of  April,  1832,  the  fortune  of  war  was 
nearly  always  adverse  to  the  Pernambuco  arms,  until, 
dislodged  from  Campo  Real  and  menaced  on  every  side, 
Mathias  de  Albuquerque,  in  order  to  save  the  remains  of 

his  army,  commenced  in  July,    1835,  his  withdrawal   to 

Arriving  in  the  vicinity  of  Porto  Calvo  on  the  124h  of 

that  month,  he  learned  that  on  the  preceding  day  Calabar 

had  reached  them  with  250  men  to  reinforce  the  garrison 

under  the  command  of  Picard. 
Then  SebastiSo  do  Souto,   a  resident  in  the  place  and 

supposed  to  be  a  friend  to  Picard,  rode  out  the  latter's 

horse  with  the  alleged  purpose  of  reconnoitering  Albuquer- 

-491  - 
que's  position.  What  he  did,  however,  was  to  combine 
with  the  Pernambuco  general  a  plan  for  capturing  the 
Dutch  garrison.  Accordingly  on  the  same  day  he  led  Pi- 
card  and  200  men  into  the  ambush  prepared  for  them.  Gut- 
ling  this  force  to  pieces,  Mathias  de  Albuquerque  immedia- 
tely fell  upon  Porto  Calvo,  whose  garrison  capitulated. 

So  Calabar,  then  a  major  in  the  Dutch  service,  fell  into 
the  hands  of  the  Pernambuco  army.  He  was  hanged  on  the 
22d  of  July,  having  been  shrived  on  the  preceding  day  by 
Friar  Manoel  do  Salvador,  otherwise  called  Friar  Manoel 


mm  Mt  u  SUVA  xavm-mdentes 

Joaquim  Jos6  da  Silva  Xavier  was  the  legitimate  son  of 
Domingos  da  Silva  dos  Santos  and  of  D.  Antonio  da  Encar- 
na^ao  Xavier.  He  was  born  in  the  year  1748  at  Pombal,  in 
the  municipal  district  of  the  town,  afterwards  city  of 
S.  Joao  d'El-rei  in  Minas  Geraes. 

His  family  was  poor  and  his  birth  humble,  and  from  his 
youth  upward  Fortune  showed  herself  unkind. 

Having  received  the  first  elements  of  an  education,  he 
became  a  peddlar,  and  plied  his  trade  in  Minas  Geraes, 
where  he  was  arrested. 

It  is  more  than  probable  that,  if  he  had  been  guilty  of 
any  crime  to  justify  this  arrest,  the  harsh  judges  who  tried 
him  and  his  fellow-rebels  would  have  unearthed  and  pro- 
claimed it. 

Tired  of  peddling,  he  enlisted  in  the  army,  entering  the 

—  494  — 
regiment  of  dragoons  commanded  by  the  governor  of  the 
captaincy,  and  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  ensign,  as  could 
not  have  been  the  case  had  he  been  imprisoned  for  any 
degrading  crime.  Brave  and  scrupulous  in  the  performance 
of  his  duties,  he  was  employed  in  several  dangerous  com- 
missions; but,  mortified  by  the  promotion  of  junior  officers 
over  his  head,  he  threw  up  his  commission. 

He  attempted  mining  on  a  small  tract  of  land  which  he 
had  obtained  in  the  parish  of  Simao  Pereira,  and  was  once 
more  unsuccessful. 

He  was  poor,  and,  being  unable  to  satisfy  liabilities 
which  he  had  incurred,  was  forced  to  give  up  his  land  and 
his  mining  claims. 

Obtaining  two  months*  leave  of  absence^  he  came  to  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  where,  after  studying  the  principal  necessities 
of  the  city,  he  proposed  canalizing  the  waters  of  the  Anda- 
rahy  and  the  MaracanS  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  the 
city  with  water.  He  also  proposed  establishing  several 
bonded  warehouses  along  the  side  of  the  bay.  But  the  vice- 
roy, Luiz  de  Vasconcellos,  would  not  hear  to  his  plans. 

Silva  Xavier  had  no  technical  knowledge,  nor  the  neces- 
sary capital  for  realizing  such  projects ,  but  his  oflfer  to 
undertake  them  displayed  an  energetic  and  enterprising 

Silva  Xavier  was  a  man  of  quick  comprehension  and 
gifted  with  a  certain  eloquence  in  which  earnestness  took 
the  place  of  elegance  and  caused  the  impropriety  of  his  ex- 
pressions to  be  forgiven. 

Skillful  in  extracting  teeth  and  in  making  sets  of  artifi- 
cial ones,  he  was  nicknamed  Tiradentes,  (tooth-pulled)  a 
name  which  passed  into  history. 

He  was  still  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  when  Dr.  Jos6  Alves  Ma- 
ciel  landed  there  on  his  return  from  England.    He  had 

—  4»5  - 
known  the  latter  in  Minas  and  on  his  arrival  sought  him 

Young  Maciel  came  from  Europe  with  his  head  full  of 
democratic  ideas  and  of  aspirations  for  the  industrial  ag- 
grandizement of  Brazil  and  especially  of  the  captaincy  of 
Minas  Geraes.  The  eflfect  of  his  conversation  on  Tiradentes 
was  like  that  of  a  spark  on  dry  tinder. 

This  was  in  1788. 

Returning  to  Minas  some  months  after  Dr.  Maciel, 
Tiradentes,  who  was  already  involved  in  the  plots  which 
were  in  existence  there,  entered  heart  and  soul  with  his 
customary  ardor  into  the  celebrated  Minas  conspiracy 
which  was  the  perdition  of  so  many  illustrious  victims, 
such  as  the  poets  Gonzaga,  Alvarenga  and  Manoel  da  Costa, 
Colonel  Francisco  de  Paula  Freire  de  Andrade,  the  Vicar 
Carlos  Corr^a,  the  priest  Costa  and  the  Rezendes. 

Tiradentes,    whose    character  was  not  well-balanced, 
allowed  his  frankness  to  degenerate  into  levity  and  his 
courage  and  valor  into   imprudent  and  vain  presumption, 
and  in  his  enthusiasm  implicated  himself  and  others  with 
ill-timed  demonstrations. 

Such  a  man  was  not  fit  to  be  a  leader,  and  should  not 
have  been  admitted  into  the  confidence  of  the  originators 
of  the  plot.  He  was  only  suitable  for  an  instrument.  But 
he  became  ofi'ended  with  the  chief  conspirators  if  they 
did  not  inform  him  of  everything  that  was  done  or  devised 
and  allow  him  to  freely  take  part  in  their  conferences. 

Some  one  informed  against  the  conspirators,  and,  while 
the  Viscount  of  Barbacena,  governor  of  the  captaincy, 
was  preparing  to  arrest  them,  Tiradentes  set  out  on  a  mis- 
sion to  Rio  de  Janeiro.  Soon  after  his  journey  was  made 
known  to  the  viceroy  by  a  letter  from  the  viscount. 

Luiz  de  Vasconcellos  never  lost  sight  of  Tiradentes, 

—  496  — 
and  the  latter,   suspecting  that  he  was  watched,  resorted 
to  flight. 

But  he  was  arrested  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  a  house  where 
he  had  concealed  himself,  and  was  by  order  of  the  vice- 
roy placed    in  solitary. 

From  this  period  (March,  1789)  dates  the  beginning  of 
Tiradentes'  advancement  from  the  second  or  third  to  the 
first  rank  of  the  conspirators. 

Being  questioned  in  regard  to  the  conspiracy,  he  made 
no  attempt  at  concealment,  but  openly  and  calmly  de- 
clared what  part  he  had  taken  therein,  and  generously 
endeavored  to  shield  from  suspicion  Thomaz  Antonio  Gon- 
zaga,  although  they  were  not  on  good  terms  at  that  time. 

He  and  ten  other  conspirators  were  sentenced  to 
death,  but  on  the  20th  of  April  they  were  brought  before 
a  magistrate  who  read  them  the  royal  letter  of  D.  Maria  I, 
of  Oct.  15,  1790,  commuting  the  death  penalty  into  trans- 
portation for  all  except  Tiradentes. 

The  only  one  brought  to  the  scafibld  was  merely  an 
agent  of  the  conspiracy ! 

TiradenteSy  loaded  with  chains,  sadly  smiled  and  con- 
gratulated his  fellow-conspirators. 

On  the  21st  of  April,  amid  shameful  official  rejoicings 
and  the  joyous  peal  of  bells,  Joaquim  Jos6  da  Silva  Xavier 
was  led  to  the  scaflFold,  and  sufi'ered  death  with  pro- 
found religious  contrition  and  unfaltering  courage. 

The  gallows  was  his  monument. 

From  his  obscurity  among  the  leaders  of  the  Minas 
conspiracy,  he  was  raised  up  by  the  very  iniquity  of  his 
sentence  to  a  place  above  them  all. 

The  scaflFold  was  the  height  from  which  he  was  present- 
ed to  the  view  of  posterity. 




The  third  son  of  noble  parents,  Pedro  Alvares  Cabral 
conferred  on  his  family  by  the  glory  which  he  acquired 
a  greater  boon   than  the  nobility  which  he  inherited. 

His  father  was  FernSo  Cabral,  governor  of  the  province 
of  Beira,  Lord  of  Azurara  and  chief  alcaide  of  Belmonte, 
and  his  mother  was  Izabel  de  GouvSa,  daughter  of  JoSo 
de  Gouvfia,  Lord  of  Almandra. 

Designated  by  King  Emmanuel  to  continue  in  India  the 
work  begun  by  Vasco  da  Gama,  Pedro  Alvares  Cabral, 
in  command  of  a  squadron  composed  of  ten  brigs  and 
three  sloops,  descended  the  Tagus  on  the  9th  of  March 
and  set  sail  on  his  voyage  across  the  ocean. 

YOL.  I  63 

—  4»3  — 

On  March  22  he  reached  Cape- Verde. 

In  prosecuting  his  voyage,  he  steered  to  the  west  in 
order  to  avoid  being  becalmed  on  the  African  coast,  and, 
without  knowing  it,  was  carried  still  further  out  of  his 
course  by  ocean  currents  at  that  time  unknown. 

On  the  21st  of  April  he  discovered  birds  and  floating 
vegetable  substances  which  indicate  that  land  is  near ;  a 
circumstance  that  causes  him  no  little  astonishment  and 
makes  him  pass  the  night  in  anxious  waiting  for  the  follow- 
ing day.  On  the  22d,  which  is  Easter  Wednesday,  he  dis- 
covers to  the  east  a  high  mountain,  to  which  he  gives  the 
name  of  Mount  Paschoal,  and  as  he  advances  is  astonished 
to  find  spread  out  before  him  a  long  unknown  line  of  land. 

The  23d  and  24th  were  spent  in  looking  for  a  harbor, 
and  it  was  discovered  that  the  country  was  inhabited  by 

On  April  26th  the  fleet  of  Cabral  entered  an  excellent 
harbor,  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  Por^to  Seguro. 

On  April  26th,  Easter  Sunday,  the  first  mass  in  Brazil  is 
read  at  an  altar  erected  on  a  small  island.  The  savages 
flock  around  and  are  gladdened  with  the  presents  that  are 
given  them,  consisting  of  small  looking-glasses,  colored 
beads  and  such  things. 

From  the  26th  to  the  30th,  Cabral  employed  himself  in 
preparing  to  treat  with  the  savages  and  to  take  steps  for 
placing  the  newly-discovered  land  formally  and  firmly 
under  the  dominion  of  the  Cross  and  of  the  Portuguese 

A  large  tree  is  felled  and  a  huge  cross  made  thereof. 

On  the  1st  of  May,  Cabral,  his  officers,  soldiers  and  sailors, 
under  the  guidance  of  the  priests,  form  a  procession  and,  to 
the  sound  of  sacred  music,  carry  the  holy  symbol  of  re- 
demption to  the  mainland,  where  at  a  few  steps  from  the 

-  499  - 
seaside  it  is  erected,  and  at  its  foot  an  altar  is  raised  bear- 
ing the  Portuguese  arms  and  bearing  the  device  of  D.  Em- 

Friar  Henrii^ue  celebrates  mass  and  preaches  a  sermon 
full  of  inspired  eloquence  which  moves  the  hearts  of  the 
sailors  and  excites  the  ignorant  wonder  of  the  savages. 

Cabral  returns  to  his  vessels,  leaving  on  shore  two  con- 
victs, who,  during  the  night,  are  joined  by  two  deserters. 
The  subsequent  fate  of  these  four  Portuguese  is  not  known. 

On  the  2d  of  May  Gaspar  de  Lemos  returns  with  one  of 
the  vessels  to  Lisbon  to  communicate  the  fortunate  discov- 
ery to  the  King.  On  the  same  day  at  dawn  Pedro  Alvares 
Cabral  proceeds  on  his  journey  to  India. 

Thenceforward,  his  history  is  no  longer  connected  with 
that  of  Brazil  to  which  he  belonged  for  only  eleven  days. 
But  those  eleven  days  are  worth  more  to  his  fame  than  all 
the  rest  of  his  life  beside,  for  it  was  during  this  period  that 
he  discovered  the  marvellously  rich  country  to  which  he 
erroneously  gave  the  name  of  Island  of  A'era  Cruz. 

Whatever  may  be  the  work  which  treats  of  Brazilian 
history  or  is  intended  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  cele- 
brated men  of  Brazil,  it  will  be  sadly  incomplete  if  its 
author  fails  to  inscribe  on  its  first  page  the  name  of  Pedro 
Alvares  Cabral. 

Here  it  is  inscribed  not  on  the  first  page,  but  on  that 
corresponding  to  the  1st  of  May ;  for  on  this  day  was  it 
that  the  famous  Portuguese  erected  the  holy  emblem 
of  the  cross  on  Brazilian  soil,  and  solemnly  carved  on 
the  altar  he  constructed  the  sign  of  dominion  of  the 
sovereign  of  his  country,  thus  raising  a  lasting  monument 
of  glory  worthy  of  the  heroic  and  then  powerful  nation  to 
which  he  belonged. 


3:xiii  o^p  -A.miij 


Jos6  Ferreira  Cardoso  was  born  in  the  city  of  Bahia  on 
April  23,  1761.  He  studied  the  humanities  and  devoted 
himself  untiringly  to  literary  pursuits.  A  great  Latin 
scholar  and  extremely  fond  of  the  Latin  poets,  he  himself 
composed  Latin  verse  of  considerable  merit. 

His  well-deserved  reputation  as  a  distinguished  poet  and 
literateur  was  confirmed  by  the  authorized  opinion  of  his 
friend,  the  famous  and  inspired  poet,  Manoel  Maria  Bar- 
boza  du  Bocage,  who  translated  into  Portuguese  the  poem 
Tripoli  of  the  illustrious  Brazilian,  thus  making  known  to 
the  public  the  beauties  and  lofty  sentiments  of  this  work. 

ixxiiv  OF  jlf:rtjl, 


— t2=<s*^i;^e5=<5w^ 

On  April  24,  1808,  was  born  Joao  Caetano   dos  Santos, 
the  famous  and  inspired  actor  whose  superior  has  never  yet  ■ 
trodden  the  Brazilian  stage. 

His  parents  were  D.  Joaquina  Maria  Roza  dos  f  antes  and 
the  militia  captain,  JoSo  Caetano  dos  Santos. 

Whether  from  the  weakness  of  excessive  love  or  from 
the  obstinacy  and  reluctance  of  a  mischievous  and  willful 
boy,  he  grew  to  early  manhood  without  even  acquiring  a 
common  school  education.  He  gave  undoubted  proofs  of 
talent  and  of  an  ardent  disposition  and  quick  understanding ; 
but  at  19  years  of  age  he  read  badly  and  wrote  still  worse. 

The  period  was  favorable  to  amusements  and  to  the 
neglect  of  his  studies.  In  1808  the  Portuguese  royal  family 
arrived  in  Brazil,  and  from  that  year  till  1821  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro was  in  a  blaze  of  public  rejoicings.  From  1821  to  1822 

—  5M- 
everybody's  mind  was  occupied  by  the  great  political 
events  of  the  day ;  the  children  were  lulled  to  sleep  to  the 
sound  of  patriotic  hymns  and  songs,  and  the  boys  were 
taught  political  lessons,  repeated  those  hymns  and  wera 
sent  to  greet  with  cheers  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  I. 

Jo5o  Caetano  had  barely  reached  the  period  of  adolence, 
when,  with  the  enthusiasm  of  the  times,  he  enlisted  as  a 
cadet  in  the  Emperor's  Batallion,  and  in  the  Cisplatine  war 
gave  proofs  of  that  courage  and  intrepidity  which  he  ever 

On  his  return  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  he  left  the  army,  and  in 
spite  of  his  parents'  opposition,  the  ridicule  and  the  censure 
of  his  relatives,  he  made  an  engagement  as  walking-gentle- 
man in  an  inferior  theatrical  company  which  was  playing 
in  the  parochial  village,  now  town,  of  Itaborahy,  province 
of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Jo3:o  Caetano  had  been  so  much  applauded  both  in  male  and 
female  parts  in  private  theatricals  that  he  was  completely 
carried  away  with  enthusiasm  for  a  theatrical  career.  He 
was  irresistably  attracted  by  his  vocation.  He  made  his 
professional  debut  at  Itaborahy  on  the  24th  of  April,  1827, 
performing  the  role  of  CaWo5  in  the  Carpinteiro  de  Lisboa. 
The  humble  author  of  this  sketch  had  the  good  fortune  to 
be  present  on  that  occasion ;  but  being  at  that  time  barely 
seven  years  of  age  he  can  only  remember  the  material  im- 
pressions produced  on  his  mind  by  that  revelation  of  dra- 
matic genius.  What  he  perfectly  recollects  is  that  he  was 
impressed  by  the  fine  personal  beauty  of  the  young  debutant 
and  by  the  wonderful  melodiousness  of  his  voice,  which 
was  almost  equal  to  music  in  its  power  of  expression. 

As  maybe  readily  imagined,  the  receipts  of  the  company 
were  insufficient  to  keep  it,  and  it  accordingly  was  broken 

—  505  — 

up  ;  but  Joao  Caetano  was  launched  in  a  career  which  he 
never  abandoned. 

Up  to  1835  the  theatrical  career  of  JoSo  Caetano  offers 
few  incidents  of  interest ;  and  those  few  were  due  to  the 
imprudence  of  his  enemies,  whose  envy  of  the  genius  he 
began  to  display  only  served  to  bring  it  out  in  a  clearer 

Engaged  in  the  Sao  Pedro  theatre,  whose  managers  were 
nearly  all  Portuguese,  they  obliged  him,  in  order  to  place 
him  in  a  false  position,  to  accept  the  role  of  anold  man  in 
the  comedy  Z).  Josi  visitando  os  carceres,  a  role  en- 
tirely out  of  his  line  and  of  only  secondary  importance. 

He  appeared  on  the  stage  properly  made  up,  and  so 
appropriate  were  his  very  first  words  and  gestures, 
and  so  natural  were  the  tone  and  coloring  which 
he  gave  to  the  secondary  part  entrusted  to  him,  that  he 
infused  into  it  life  and  vigor,  elevated  it  to  a  place  among 
the  principal  parts  and  brought  down  the  house  in  thunders 
of  applause. 

His  enemies,  however,  did  not  choose  to  accept  the 
defeat  which  they  suffered  at  his  hands.  He  was  compelled 
to  represent  the  ridiculous  and  absurd  part  of  Manoelinho 
in  the  farce,  0  Chapio  Pardo.  The  public  avenged  him, 
greeting  him  with  enthusiastic  applause. 

Joao  became  director  of  a  theatrical  company  in  the 
same  theatre  of  Sao  Pedro  de  Alcantara,  and  won  a  large 
group  of  admirers  ;  but  in  truth  his  acting  was  injured 
by  the  defects  of  the  school  in  which  he  had  been  trained : 
the  old  Portuguese  so-called  classic  school,  which  was 
founded  on  false  ideas  of  the  art  and  was  entirely  difierent 
from  that  established  afterwards  by  Garret  and  other  Por- 
tuguese poets  and  litterati. 

Joao  Caetano  was    an   excellent    example    of  nature 
VOL.  I  64 

-.506  — 
without  art.  He  had  no  education — could  barely  read,  and 
wrote  still  worse.  He  had  acquired  little,  very  little  from 
instruction,  but  in  compensation  instinct  taught  him  almost 
all  that  was  necessary. 

His  w^as  a  rare  and  privileged  nature  gifted  both 
mentally  and  physically.  Nature  had  given  him  a  really 
handsome  face,  eyes  which  reflected  every  imaginable 
passion,  a  well-shaped  mouth,  teeth  beautifully  white  and 
regular,  an  elegant  form,  a  voice  that  in  sentimental 
passages  was  as  soft  and  insinuating  as  the  drowsy  murmur 
of  the  brooklet,  and  in  scenes  of  violence  as  powerful  as 
the  deafening  peal  of  thunder;  his  action  and  gestures 
were  appropriate  and  expressive,  and  his  facial  muscles  were 
flexibleand  obedient  to  his  will.  In  short  he  possessed 
everything  necessary  to  constitute  a  great  actor  except 
the  correct  precepts  of  art. 

In  1836  the  Brazilian  poets,  Domingos  Magalhaes  and 
Porto- Alegre  (now  Viscount  of  Araguaya,  and  Baron  of 
Santo  Angelo)  arrived  from  Europe,  and,  devining  the 
genius  of  JoEo  Caetano,  initiated  him  into  the  romantic 

JoSo  Caetano  thus  became  the  founder  of  this  school  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro. 

In  the  Torre  de  Nesle,  Catharina  Hoioard,  Oscar  filho 
de  Ossian,  Aristode^no,  Antonio  Jose,  Othello,  and  in  a  score 
of  other  plays  he  excited  to  the  highest  point  the  enthusiasm 
of  the  public. 

Irritable,  haughty  and  inconstant,  the  great  actor  quar- 
relled with  the  two  poets.  Nevertheless  he  remembered 
their  lessons.  Prodigious  in  Kean,  unsurpassable  in  Cabo 
Simao,  stupendous  in  the  Gargalhada,  and  astonishing  and 
wonderful  in  everything,  his  genius  flashed  meteor-like 
across  the  Brazilian  stage. 

—  507  — 
Magalhaes  had  written  in  his  album,  among  others, 
the   following  lines: 

69  vdos  de  Talm&  com  quern  tu  sonhas, 
Oyante  segue,  escurecendo  a  iuTeja 
Que  }k  nem  ousa  disputar-te  a  gloria  ! 

Joao  Caetano  had  two  auxiliaries  which  were  the  wings 
of  his  untaught  genius  :  —  the  friendly  assistance  of  the 
two  poets  and  his  amorous  intercourse  with  the  actress, 
D.  Estella  Sezefredo  dos  Santos,  always  his  devoted  friend 
and  afterwards  his  wife.  Estella  had  not  a  tithe  of  JoSo 
Caetano's  dramatic  talent,  but  in  compensation  she  had 
more  judgment  and  had  carefully  and  thoroughly  studied 
the  dramatic  art. 

JoSo  Caetano  instinctively  devined  the  great  secrets 
of  the  art ;  Estella  mastered  them  by  means  of  severe 

The  last  time  that  Estella  shone  on  the  stage  was  in  the 
role  of  the  half-witted  old  woman  in  the  Mysteries  of 
Paris.  It  was  the  sunset  of  her  career ;  but  what  a  sunset! 
On  that  occasion  she  reached  the  boundaries  of  the  su- 

Alas!  the  days  of  Estella  and  of  Joao  Caetano  are 
fled !  The  actors  and  actresses  of  the  present  day,  the  best 
of  whom  degenerate  in  theatres  which  murder  the  dra- 
matic art,  are  sad  mediocrities  compared  with  that  great 
natural  genius  and  with  that  admirable  creation  of  art. 

Joao  Caetano  was  censured  by  his  contemporaries,  even 
by  his  admirers,  for  what  was  considered  his  overacting, 
his   tumultuous  bursts  of  passion  in  the  role  of  Othello. 

Years  passed  by,  and  Rio  de  Janeiro  was  visited  by  the 
European  dramatic  celebrities  Rossi  and  Salvini  who,  when 
they  appeared  in  this  part,  gave  it  the  very  same  render- 

—  cos- 
ing. It  was  then  that  his  censors,  astounded  and  repentant 
exclaimed  : 

«  Oh  !  we  have  seen  this  before  !  JoSo  Caetano  had  de- 
vined  and  produced  on  the  stage  the  wonders  of  Rossi 
and  Salvini.  )» 

Joao  Caetano  had  then  been  dead  nearly  two  years, 
having  died  on   the  24th  of  August,  1863. 

On  the  Brazilian  stage  no  one  can  dispute  the  glory  of 
his  genius.  He  was  a  dramatic  prodigy  who,  unfortunately, 
passed  from  existence  without  leaving  behind  him  follow- 
ers, and  without  founding  a  school  to  perpetuate  his 
glories  and  his  triumphs. 

XXV    OF    AI»RIIl 


Luiz  Gongalves  dos  Santos  was  born  in  the  city  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  25th  of  April,  1767.  His  mother, 
D.  Roza  Maria  de  Jesus,  was  a  native  of  the  same  city, 
and  his  father,  Jos6  dos  Santos,  was  a  Portuguese. 

The  child,  from  his  tenderest  years,  gave  proofs  of 
precocious  vivacity  and  intelligence. 

He  studied  in  the  city  of  his  birth,  and  every  class  he 
entered  was  a  scene  of  triumph.  He  was  the  pupil  of 
various  distinguished  masters  and  was  an  honor  to  them  all. 

He  had  already  studied  Latin,  philosophy,  dogmatic 
theology,  Greek,  rhetoric,  poetry,  geography  and  history, 
all  to  extraordinary  advantage,  and  was  preparing  for 
the  priesthood,  for  which  he  had  a  most  decided  vocation, 
when  his  father*s  house  was  ruined  from  the  effects  of 

the  barbarous  decree  with  which  Portugal,  led  by  short- 
sighted and  envious  avarice,  annihilated  the  art  of  work- 
■  ing  in  precious  metals,  at  that  time  flourishing  and  proj>- 
perous  in  Brazil.  Retiring  to  Suruhy,  he  was  assisted 
by  the  Latin  professor,  Jorge  Furtado  de  Mendonoa,  who 
took  him  to  his  house. 

Luiz  Gonralves  continued  lo  study.  The  bishop,  D.  Jose 
Joaquim  Justiniano  de  ilascarenhas,  appointed  him  assistant 
professor  of  Latin  in  the  Seminary  of  Nossa  Senhora  da 
Lapa,  where  he  taught,  among  other  illustrious  pupils, 
Januario  da  Cunha  Barbosa  and  Antonio  Jose  do  Ama- 

in  1794  he  was  received  into  orders  and  two  years 
afterwards  was  made  presbyter. 

Already  much  appreciated  for  his  capacity  and  instru- 
ction, he  was  selected  to  teach  philosophy  in  the  place 
of  his  master,  Dr.  Goulao,  royal  professor,  who  had  retired 
into  the  country  on  account  of  sickness. 

In  1809  he  was  appointed  royal  professor  of  Latin  and 
gave  up  his  place  at  the  seminary.  After  sixteen  years 
of  service,  his  hearing  became  affected,  and  he  was  obliged 
to  retire  on  a  pension  in  1825,  receiving  the  Cross  of  the 
Order  of  Christ  on  Oct.  13  of  that  year. 

A  fertile  writer,  he  began  in  1808  the  series  of  his 
works,  and,  though  he  may  not  have  written  too  soon 
on  the  final  work,  he  at  least  took  notes  from  which 
he  compiled  his  Memorias  para  servir  a  Historia  do 
Brazil,  completed  in  1821  and  published  in  two  quarto 
volumes  in  Lisbon  in  1825  and  1826. 

He  wrote  a  great  deal  and  continued  to  do  so  up  to 
the  end  of  his  life.  On  his  death  he  left  a  WS.  en- 
titled The  Caiholic  Faith  or  the  Symbol  of  the  Apostles 

—  611  — 

proced  and  explained  by  the  Holy  S capture,  a  work 
published  in  three  small  volumes  in  1847. 

Having  lived  always  on  little  means  he  was  threatened 
with  want  in  his  old  age;  but  the  government  of  the 
regency,  in  attention  to  his  services  and  deserts,  appointed 
him  prebendal  canon  of  the  Cathedral  and  Imperial  chapel 
in  1839,  the  same  year  in  which  he  received  the  diploma 
of  honorary  member  of  the  Brazilian  Historical  and  Geo- 
graphical Institute. 

Five  years  later,  finding  his  health  to  be  constantly 
growing  worse,  he  asked  for  the  sacraments  to  be  admin- 
istered to  him,  and  died  on  the  1st  of  December,  1844, 
nearly  seventy-eight  years  of  age. 

The  learning  of  Canon  Luiz  Goncalves  was  extremely 
varied.  He  was  versed  not  only  in  his  own  language, 
but  also  in  Latin,  Greek,  French,  English,  Italian,  Span- 
ish, and  was  somewhat  acquainted  with  Hebrew.  He 
was  thoroughly  acquainted  with  theological  and  philo- 
sophical sciences  and  possessed  extensive  literary  acquire- 

His  works  display  much  learning,but  it  must  be  acknowl- 
edged that  his  style  was  stiflF  and  often  incorrect.  His 
polemical  writings  betray  acrimony  and  subjection  to  the 
dictates  of  rage. 

He  was  small  of  stature  and  very  thin,  with  a  broad 
forehead,  large  mouth,  brilliant  eyes  and  a  shrill  voice. 
In  argument,  even  with  his  friends,  he  easily  became 
excited  and  wa:>  unable  to  remain  seated.  He  had  a  habit 
when  thus  excited  of  giving  small  jumps  to  the  front  as 
he  spoke,  which,  together  with  his  physical  appearance, 
obtained  for  him  the  nickname  of  Perereca,  or  Father 
Pererecay  a  name  by  which  ho  was  generally  known 

—  512  — 

and  which  was  often  offensively  applied  to  him  in  hostile 

He  left  numerous  printed  works  (  besides  those 
already  mentioned)  on  clerical  celibacy  and  religious 

XlXVl    OF     AJPTiXIa 


Joao  Francisco  Lisboa,  legitimate  son  of  the  agricul- 
turist, Joao  Francisco  de  Mello  Lisboa  and  D.  Gertrudes 
Rita  Gongalves  Nina,  was  born  in  the  province  of  Mara- 
nhaoon  the  22d  of  May,  1812. 

He  was  a  man  of  profound  learning  and  a  writer  of  a  high 
order  of  merit. 

Although  he  early  gave  proof  of  his  talent,  his  literary 
education  was  neglected  and  even  hindered  till  1829;  for 
as  boy  on  his  father's  plantation  he  was  allowed  the  same 
liberty  and  freedom  from  study  as  the  birds  of  the  air 
around  him,  and,  during  his  later  youth,  he  was  tied  down 
to  the  desk  and  counter  in  a  commercial  house.  But  at  the 
age  of  seventeen  his  spirit  rebelled  against  this  state  of 
affairs,  and  burst  asunder  the  chains  that  fettered  his  in- 
telligence.   " 

VOL.  I  65 

--  514  — 

In  compensation  for  past  neglect,  he  applied  himself 
assiduously  to  the  study  of  the  humanities  and  made  rapid 

The  political  events  of  1831  could  not  fail  to  actuate  on 
his  enthusiastic  and  generous  spirit.  Enlisting  at  once 
in  the  Liberal  ranks,  he  defended  in  the  press  the  noble 
ideas  of  his  party.  A  journalist  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
he  was  editor  of  the  Brazileiro  in  1832,  of  the  Pharol 
from  November  of  the  same  year  to  the  end  of  1833,  of  the 
Echo  do  Norte  from  May,  1834  to  1836,  and  finally  of 
the  Chronica  from  January,   1838,  to  March,  1841. 

During  ten  years  journalism  was  liisrobeofNessus,  which 
clung  to  him  both  amid  his  administrative  duties  as  Secre- 
tary of  the  President  of  the  province,  Antonio  Pedro  da 
Costa  Ferreira  (afterwards  Baron  of  Pindar6),  in  1835,  and 
also  in  his  legislative  career  in  the  first  legislature  of  the 
provincial  assembly  and  in  that  of  1848. 

But  what  could  not  be  efi'ected  by  fatigue,  incessant  and 
wearisome  strife  and  the  attacks  of  his  political  enemies, 
was  produced  by  the  indifi'erence  and  ingratitude  of  his 

There  are  in  political  life  awakenings  from  cherished 
illusions,  that  destroy  one's  faith ;  inexplicable  contra- 
dictions which  produce  scepticism  that  dries  up  the  heart ; 
selfish  rivalries  and  cruel  neglect  that  provoke  just  resent- 
ment and  give  rise  to  a  lofty  pride  where  only  modesty 
existed  before. 

Jofio  Francisco  Lisboa  was  the  journalist  of  his  party; 
he  was  besides  an  orator  of  merit  and  a  man  of  learning. 
But  in  1840,  when  he  offered  himself  as  a  candidate  to  the 
General  Assembly,  he  discovered  that  the  ill-will  of 
members  of  his  own  party  would  lead  to  his  failure. 
Against  this  treatment  his  pride  revolted  and  his  heart 

—  515  — 

was  filled  with  resentment.  He  did  not  commit  suicide ; 
but  he  broke  the  pen  which  he  no  longer  loved. 

Paraphrasing  the  conduct  which  the  sacred  orator  re- 
commended to  the  aged  warrior  forgotten  by  his  country, 
he  did  not  die  and  avenge  himself,  but  made  a  tomb-liko 
silence  his  revenge. 

Devoting  himself  to  the  practice  of  law,  in  which  ha 
earned  an  honorable  and  well-deserved  reputation,  he 
rested  eleven  years  from  the  labors  of  the  press ;  but  in 
1852  he  turned  to  them  anew,  not  as  before  to  defend  the 
principles  of  his  party,  but  to  censure  the  abuses  of  all 
parties,  to  expose  political  demoralization,  and  also  to 
write  the  history  of  his  province. 

It  was  then  that  he  began  the  publication  of  those 
interesting  pamphlets  under  the  title  of  the  Journal  de  Timon , 
in  which,  in  the  words  of  liis  worthy  biographer,  he 
painted  with  the  pencil  of  Gavarni  in  the  hands  of  Ju- 
venal those  thoroughly  correct  pictures  in  which  satire 
and  ridicule  show  forth  vice,  lawlessness  and  vanity. 
The  most  conspicuous  of  these  papers  are  the  last  two  in 
which,  studying  the  early  historians  of  Maranhao,  com- 
bining rare  documents  and  investigating  the  archives  of 
the  past,  he  produced  a  curious  historical  study  of  the 
civil,  administrative  and  economical  affairs  of  his  prov- 

The  Jornal  de  Timon  solidly  established  the  reputation 
of  Jo5o  Francisco  Lisboa  as  a  literateur,  historian  and 

H.  M.  the  Emperor  decorated  him  with  the  Cross  of  the 
Order  of  Christ ;  the  Historical  Institute  admitted  him  to 
a  membership,  and  his  name,  for  a  long  time  well-known 
in  Maranhao,  was  repeated  with  praise  and  esteem  through 
out  Brazil. 

—  516  — 

In  1855  Joao  Francisco  Lisboa  came  to  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
whence  he  shortly  afterwards  set  out  for  Lisbon,  charged 
by  the  government  with  collecting  documents  relating  to 
the  history  of  the  country.  Laborious  and  indefatigable, 
he  executed  his  commission  with  the  utmost  solicitude, 
and  at  the  same  time  wrote  the  biography  of  Father  Vieira 
and  collected  valuable  notes  for  writing  a  complete 
history  of  Maranhao,  to  be  carried  to  the  epoch  in  which 
he  lived.  He  was  still  engaged  in  this  work  when  he  died, 
of  a  disease  from  which  he  had  long  suffered,  on  the  26th 
of  April,  1863. 

By  means  of  the  mission  with  which  Joao  Francisco  had 
been  charged  by  the  Imperial  Government,  the  country 
obtained  copies  of  valuable  MSS.  and  memoirs  which  en- 
riched the  archives  of  the  Institute,  and  from  the  spon- 
taneous productions  of  his  able  and  patriotic  pen  it  has 
inherited  profound  studies,  some  of  which,  unfortunately, 
are  incomplete. 

xixi'v^n   o"P  j^jpjrjxa 


In  the  18th  century,  perhaps  in  the  beginning  of  the  2d 
quarter  or  end  of  the  1st,  Manoel  da  Cunha  was  born  of 
a  slave  mother  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  was 
himself  a  slave  belonging,  like  his  mother,  to  the  ante- 
cessors of  the  illustrious  Canon  Januario  da  Cunha  Bar- 

It  is  well-known  what  afifection  sometimes  existed 
between  the  children  of  slave  owners  and  those  of  their 
old  family  servants. 

Manoel  had  the  good  fortune  to  be  thus  esteemed  by  his 
young  masters  and  mistresses,  who  treated  him  kindly  and, 
finding  in  him  an  aptitude  for  painting,  sent  him  to  study 
in  Lisbon  the  art  of  Raphael  and  Buenaroti. 

In  a  few  years  he  painted  as  well  as  his  masters,  and, 

-518  - 

returning  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  worked  with  an  ardor  in- 
flamed by  two  motives — the  love  of  his  art  and  the  strong 
desire  of  obtaining  his  liberty. 

In  a  short  time  he  had  earned  a  part  of  what  was  neces- 
sary to  purchase  his  freedom,  and  obtained  the  rest  from 
the  charitable  merchant,  Jos6  Dias  da  Cruz,  so  that  he  was 
allowed  to  breathe  the  sweet  air  of  liberty,  and  smile  on 
its  unspeakable  charm. 

After  being  freed,  he  became  still  more  industrious.  He 
became  a  disciple  of  the  famous  master,  Joao  de  Souza,  and 
greatly  distinguished  himself. 

Manoel  da  Cunha  acquired  so  great  a  reputation  as  an 
artist  that  he  was  selected  by  the  city  council  to  paint  a 
full-length  portrait  of  the  captain-general, Gomes  Freire  de 
Andrade,  Count  of  Bobadella,  which,  by  order  of  the  king, 
was  hung  in  the  hall  where  the  council  sat,  and  which 
is  still  preserved  in  the  building  of  the  municipal  chamber. 

Among  other  works  of  Manoel  da  Cunha  are  the  fol- 
lowing : 

The  picture  of  the  descent  from  the  cross,  painted  on  the 
ceiling  of  the  chapel  of  Nosso  Senhor  dos  Passes,  in  the  old 
church  of  the  Carmo  convent,  afterwards  Royal,  and 
finally  Imperial,  chapel ;  that  of  Saint  Andrew  Avelinus,  in 
the  church  of  Sao  Sebastiao  do  Castello ;  various  por- 
traits of  benefactors  of  the  Santa  Casa  da  Misericordia  of 
Rio  de  Janeiro ;  several  paintings  commemorating  the 
Passion  of  our  Savior,  which  it  was  customary  to  carry  in 
procession  from  the  said  Santa  Casa  on  Holy  Thursday ; 
the  paintings  on  the  walls  and  ceiling  in  novitiate  chapel 
of  the  order  of  Sao  Francisco  de  Paula,  representing  our 
Lady  of  Victory  and  the  miracles  of  the  patriarch 
St.  Francis. 

Besides,  he  painted  many  portraits  which  are  in  the  pos- 

—  519  — 
session  of  the  families  for  which  they  were  done,  and  a 
number  of  fancy  paintings  which  have  been  lost  sight  of. 
He  established  a  school  of  painting  for  twelve  pupils,  a 
number  which  he  afterwards  reduced  to  six,  sending  ofif 
those  who  showed  less  aptitude  for  the  art  and  more  for 
mischief.  Age,  sickness  and  exhaustion  put  an  end  to  his 
life  in  1809. 

The  birthday  of  the  poor  slave  who  became  a  noted  artist 
is  not  known ;  neither  is  it  known  where  he  died ;  but 
Dr.  Manoel  Duarte  Moreira  de  Azevedo,  after  laborious 
researches,  discovered  in  the  obituary  registry  of  the  Hos- 
picio  Church  a  note  relating  to  the  funeral  of  Manoel  da 
Cunha,  under  the  date  of  April  27, 1809. 

Competent  authorities  who  have  examined  the  works  of 
Manoel  da  Cunha,  greatly  eulogize  their  merit,  especially 
in  consideration  of  his  humble  beginning,  his  narraw  sphere 
of  action  and  his  limited  resources,  without  masters,  with- 
out living  models,  without  originals  or  copies  of  the  great 
masters,  and  moreover  in  consideration  of  the  circumstan- 
ces of  colonial  Brazil  in  the  18th  century. 




Domingos  Ribeiro  dos  Guimaraes  Peixoto  was  born  in 
Pernambuco  on  the  14th  of  August,  1790.  He  was  the  le- 
gitimate son  of  Luiz  Ribeiro  Peixoto  dos  Guimaraes,  and 
D.  Josepha  Maria  da  Gonceigao  Peixoto. 

He  studied  the  humanities  in  his  native  city,  and  after- 
wards went  through  a  course  of  medical  studies  in  the  hos- 
pitals. Coming  to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  he  was  admitted  into  the 
surgical  school,  and  entered  as  a  boarding  pupil  in  the 
Military  Hospital. 

He  had  barely  finished  the  course  of  amatomy  and  physi- 
ology when  he  was  commissioned  (without  a  salary)  to 
VOL.  I  66 

—  522  — 

teach  those  sciences  to  the  pensioners,  who  by  order  of 
the  prince  regent,  had  been  brought  from  Africa. 

On  May  12,  1812,  he  obtained  his  diploma  as  surgeon. 
Having  been  appointed  first  military  surgeon,  he  was  in 
1817  made  surgeon  of  the  Royal  Household,  and  in  1820, 
of  the  Royal  Bedchamber.  Five  years  before  he  had  been 
appointed  vaccinator. 

In  1821  he  was  decorated  with  the  Cross  of  the  Order  of 
Christ.  On  the  4th  of  February,  1822,  he  was  commissioned 
with  embalming  the  body  of  D.  Joao  Carlos,  Prince  of 
Beira,  and  on  the  11th  of  March  was  accoucheur  to  the 
future  Empress  of  Brazil  when  she  gave  birth  to  the  Prin- 
cess D.  Januaria. 

The  same  honor  fell  to  his  lot  at  the  birth  of  the  Prin- 
cess D.  Francisca  on  the  2d  of  August,  1824,  and  of  the 
Prince  D.  Pedro,  present  Emperor  of  Brazil,  on  the  2d  of 
Decembei',  1825. 

On  the  latter  happy  occasion  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  I, 
embraced  him  in  the  presence  of  his  court  and  invited  the 
Empress  to  do  likewise. 

In  1824  he  was  knighted,  some  months  afterwards  he 
received  the  title  of  Councilor,  and  in  1825  he  was  deco- 
rated with  the  Cross  of  the  Order  of  Christ. 

On  September  27,  1827,  Councilor  Peixoto,  obtaining  the 
Emperor's  permission  and  a  pension  of  fifty  milreis  a  month 
during  the  time  occupied  in  his  studies,  left  for  France  for 
the  purpose  of  perfecting  his  studies  in  medicine. 

In  Paris  he  attended  the  medical  school  and  visited  the 

Well  received  on  all  hands  he  won  considerable  reputa- 
tion and  was  much  esteemed  by  the  most  celebrated  physi- 

The  government  of  Brazil  took  away  his  pension  and  his 

-  523  — 

place  and  salary  as  chief  surgeon  of  the  Empire ;  but  the 
Emperor  D.  Pedro  I  gave  him  from  his  own  private  purse 
eight  hundred  milreis  per  annum,  which  he  regularly  re- 
ceived until  he  had  completed  his  studies  and  obtained  his 

In  1831  Councilor  Peixoto  hastened  to  meet  the  ex-Em- 
peror D.  Pedro  I  after  his  abdication  and  arrival  in  Eu- 
rope, and  was  embraced  by  his  august  protector,  as  they 
wept  together  on  board  the  frigate  Volage. 

Councilor  Peixoto  returned  to  his  native  land  with  a  di- 
ploma of  Doctor  from  the  Paris  University,  and  preceded  by 
the  brilliant  reputation  which  he  had  won  in  Europe. 

As  physician  of  the  Imperial  Bedchamber,  he  had  in  1833 
the  good  fortune  to  save  the  life  of  the  Emperor  D.  Pedro  II 
endangered  by  a  serious  malady.  Tlie  regency  thanked  him 
for  this  important  service,  offering  him  a  pecuniary  reward 
which  he  refused,  accepting  the  title  of  First  Physician  to 
the  Emperor  and  Imperial  Family. 

On  the  organization  of  medical  schools  in  the  Empire, 
Councilor  Peixoto  was  appointed  director  of  that  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  and  the  professorship  of  physiology  was  graced 
and  honored  by  his  services. 

In  1841  he  was  appointed  chief  officer  in  waiting  to  the 
Imperial  Household. 

On  the  23d  of  February,  1845,  Councilor  Peixoto,  who 
had  been  accoucheur  on  the  birth  of  the  Emperor  1).  Pedro  II, 
now  acted  in  the  same  capacity  on  the  birth  of  his  son,  the 
august  prince-imperial  D.  Affonso. 

It  was  then  that  he  was  raised  to  a  peerage  with  the  title 
of  Baron  of  Iguarassu. 

He  died  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  on  the  24th  of 
April,  1856,  at  the  age  of  56,  though  he  appeared  much 

-524  - 

He  was  a  learned,  enlightened  and  experienced  practi- 
tioner, a  man  of  a  noble  heart  and  of  the  strictest  inte- 

His  eloquent  and  lucid  explanations  in  the  chair  of  pro- 
fessor of  physiology  were  delivered  with  suavity  of  tone, 
fluency  of  speech,  a  profusion  of  ideas  due  to  a  profound 
knowledge  of  the  subject,  clearness  of  expression  and 
purity  of  language  ;  at  times  gently  flowing  like  a  mur- 
muring brook  among  beds  of  flowers,  at  times  rushing 
along  with  the  irresistible  momentum  of  a  mighty  river. 

The  Baron  of  Iguarassii  left  to  Brazil  the  inheritance 
of  a  glorious  name. 

^XI2S:      OF     Ji^JPTUXu 

JORGE  DE  mmimi  mm 

When  D.  John  III,  in  1534,  divided  Brazil  into  heredi- 
tary captaincies  under  administrators  clothed  with  ex- 
taordinary  powers  and  privileges,  in  order  to  promote  the 
colonization  of  the  country,  he  bestowed  on  Duarte  Coelho 
Pereira  the  captaincy  of  Pernambuco  whose  coast  ex- 
tended from  the  river  S.    Francisco  to  the  Iguarassu. 

Duarte  Coelho  belonged  to  the  time-honored  lineage  of 
the  Coelhos  and  was  married  to  D.  Brites  de  Albuquerque. 

He  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  captaincy  of  which 
.he  was  made  donee,  and  it  was  there  that  his  two  sons 
were  born,  Duarte  Coelho  de  Albuquerque  in  1537,  and  the 
subject  of  this  sketch,  Jorge  de  Albuquerque  Coelho  on 
April  29,  1539. 

In  1554  when  the  distinguished  and  meritorious  first 
donee  of  Pernambuco  breathed  his  last,  his  sons  were  study- 

—  526  — 
ing  in  Lisbon,  and  the  captaincy,  delivered  into  the  feeble 
hands  of  his  widow,  was  threatened  with  extinction  by 
the  ferocious  Cahete  Indians. 

But  b}' order  of  the  regent  D.  Catharina,  the  two  young 
men    returned  to  Pernambuco    in  1558. 

On  their  arrival,  the  elder  as  hereditary  donee,  confided 
to  his  brother  the  command  of  the  forces,  and  the  latter, 
going  forth  to  meet  the  savages,  inflicted  on  them  a  signal 
defeat,  causing  considerable  slaughter  and  pursuing  them 
to  the  forests  in  which  they  sought   refuge. 

After  these  deeds,  Jorge  de  Albuquerque  remained  in 
Pernambuco  for  some  years  ;  but  on  tlie  16th  of  May, 
15(>5,  he  eml)arked  for  Lisbon  in  the  vessel  Santo  A7ito7iio, 

This  proved  to  be  a  terrible  voyage.  In  the  beginning, 
however,  it  was  very  successful ;  but  they  were  attacked 
by  French  pirates  and  after  a  prolonged  resistance  obliged 
to  surrender. 

The  captor  and  his  prize  were  sailing  in  sight  of  each 
other  when  a  furious  tempest  assailed  them.  The  Santo 
Antonio,  which  was  old  and  worn-out,  seemed  unable  to 
resist  the  shock.  The  pirates,  expecting  to  lose  her,  with- 
drew the  crew  with  which  they  had  manned  her  and 
removing  every  valuable  from  on  board,  left  the  old  vessel 
and  the  Portuguese  prisoners  to  the  mercy  of  the  waves. 

She  had  lost  her  masts  and  sprung  several  leaks.  More 
than  once  she  seemed  ready  to  sink,  but  Jorge  de  Albu- 
querque inspired  his  men  with  courage  and  kept  them  at 
work  until  the  storm  was  over ;  the  vessel,  however,  was^ 
unmanageable  and  floated  at  the  mercy  of  the  waves. 

After  a  while  the  provisions  and  water  gave  out ;  Jorge 
de  Albuquerque,  maintained  his  authority,  preventing 
suicides  and  inspiring  trust  in  God. 

Many  of  the  poor  wretches  perished,   but  finally  the 

—  52f7  — 

vessel  struck  on  Carcaes  shallows,  near  the  Tagus,  and 
emptied  on  the  beach  her  cargo  of  living  corpses,  who 
gratefully  returned  thanks  to  God  for  their  wonderful 

In  1578  Jorge  de  Albuquerque  (and  likewise  his  brother) 
accompanied  King  Sebastian  to  Africa.  On  the  4th  of 
August  the  fatal  battle  of  Alcacer-Quivir  was  fought. 
D.  Sebastian,  losing  his  horse  and  pierced  by  a  shot  from 
the  enemy,  was  in  danger  of  falling  into  the  hands  of  the 
infidels,  when  Jorge  de  Albuquerque,  wounded  and  covered 
^vith  blood,  arrived  on  the  spot  and  gave  his  charger  to 
the  King.  He  was  shortly  afterwards  seen  to  fall  in  the 

midst  of  a  group  of  the  enemy   and  was  left  on  the  field 

for  dead. 

The  battle  was  won  by  the  Moors.  Jorge  de  Albuquerque 
had  not  died,  but  was  picked  up  and  carried  a  prisoner  to 
Fez.  For  two  years  he  remained  in  captivity,  maimed  by 
his  wounds  and  obliged  to  use  crutches.  At  the  end  of  this 
time  he  was  ransomed  at  a  high  price  and  returned  to 
Portugal.  His  brother,  who  had  been  killed,  already 
slept  beneath  the  cruel  sod  of  a  foreign  land. 

On  his  arrival  in  Portugal,  Jorge  de  Albuquerque's  heart 
was  saddened  and  oppressed  by  finding  his  country  under 
the  dominion  of  Spain. 

By  his  brother's  death  he  succeeded  to  the  captaincy  of 
Pernambuco,  but  such  was  the  poverty  to  which  he  had 
been  reduced  that  he  was  obliged,  by  the  lack  of  means,  to 
remain  in  Portugal,  where  he  occupied  his  time  in  writing 
several  moral  and  political  works  and  a  history  of  the  war  s 
in  Brazil  during  the  first  colonial  period. 

In  Lisbon  there  was  born  to  him  a  son,  Duarte  de  Albu- 
querque Coelho.  As  soon  as  the  latter  was  of  age,  his  father 

gave  him  his  blessing  and  sent  him  to  Pernambuco  to 
represent   him  as  his  heir. 

In  1596  Jorge  de  Albuquerque  was  still  alive,  a  retired 
general  in  the  Portuguese  army,  covered  with  glory  and 
scars,    and   distinguished   also  for  his  literary  labors. 

The  year  of  his  death  is  unknown.  But  his  memory 
is  not  forgotten,  for  history  preserves  engraved  on  its 
brightest  pages  the  name  of  this  Brazilian  hero  who  ever 
loved  and  cherished  the  land  of  his  birth. 

OF  .A.F£lXrj 



Nothing  is  known  in  regard  to  the  exact  dates  of  the 
birth  and  death  of  Pero  de  Magalhaes  de  Gondavo.  It 
is  certain,  however,  that  he  was  born  in  the  city  of 
Braga  and  that  he  flourished  in   the  16th  century. 

It  is  said  that  he  fixed  his  residence  in  Brazil,  or  at 
least  that  he  made  a  longer  stay  than  would  be  occa- 
sioned by  a  mere  visit  to  the  country. 

Although  these  points  are  obscure,  he  has  left  his  name 
inseparably  connected  with  that  of  Brazil  as  its  first 
historian,  having  written  a  summary  account  of  its  dis- 
covery by  Pedro  Alvares  Cabral  and  of  the  manners  and 
customs  of  the  aboriginal  inhabitants,  together  with 
some  observations  on  the  natural  history  of  the  coun- 
try. This  work  has  the  following  title  : — History  of  the 
'province  of  Santa  CruZy  vulgarly  called  Brazil;  written 
by  Pero  de  Magalhdes  de  Gondavo  and  dedicated  to  the 
VOL.  I  67 

—  530  — 
illustrious  D.  Leonis,  first  Governor  of  Malacca  and  of 
other  parts  of  Southern  India. 

Besides  this  historical  work,  Gondav*)  wrote  a  Trea- 
tise 07%  the  Land  of  Brazil,  containing  a  Description  of 
Things  existing  in  that  Country,  printed  for  the  first  time 
in  Vol.  IV  of  the  Collection  of  Notes  for  the  History  and 
Geography  of  the  Ultramarine  Nations. 

Pero  de  MagalhSes  de  Gondavo  enjoyed  in  his  time  the 
reputation  of  a  learned   literateur  and  Latin  scholar. 

Innocencio  Francisco  da  Silva,  in  his  valuable  Porti^uese 
Bibliographic  Dictionary y  mentions  another  work  of  that 
writer — Rules  for  teaching  the  Orthography  of  the  Por- 
tuguese Language,  followed  by  a  Dialogue  in  defense  of 
the  same  Language. 

His  first  two  works,  the  History  and  the  Treatise — would 
no  longer,  nor  even  in  the  17th  century,  be  prized  for 
their  historical  value;  but  Gondavo  wrote  shortly  after 
the  discovery  of  Brazil,  about  the  time,  it  would  appear, 
when  this  name  began  to  be  substituted  for  that  of  Santa 
Cruz,  which  in  its  turn  had  supplanted  that  of  the  Island 
of  Vera  Cruz,  derived  from  a  geographical  error  of  Pedro 
Alvares  Cabral. 

To  those  two  small  works  of  Gondavo  belong  the  merit 
and  glory  of  priority.  They  contain  such  information 
as  it  was  possible  to  embody  in  them  at  that  time. 

Gondavo  was  the  venerable  laborer  of  civilization,  who 
laid  the   first  stone  of  the  foundation  of  Brazilian  history. 

His  name  remains  duly  registered  on  the  30th  of  April, 
the  day  on  which,  in  1500,  the  timber  was  made  ready  for 
the  Holy  Cross  which  Pedro  Alvares  Cabral  erected  on 
the  following  day  at  Porto  Seguro. 

END  OF  VOL.    I. 




I       Salvador  Corr^a  do  Sk  o  Benevides 1 

II  Marcilio  Dias 5 

III  Manoel  Antonio  Galvao 9 

IV  Casemiro  Jos6  Marques  de  Abreu 13 

V  Manoel   Botelho  de  Oliveira 19 

VI  Balthazar  da  Silva  Lisboa 21 

VII  Francisco  Jos6  Furtado - 25 

VIII  Jos6  da  Natividade  Saldanha 35 

IX  Jos^  Joaquim  da  Rocha 39 

X  Joao  Fernandes  Vieira 47 

XI  Luiz  Pereira  da  Nobrega  de  Souza  Coutinho 51 

XII  D.  Damiana  da  Cunha 56 

XIII  Vicente  Coelho  de  Seabra 61 

XIV  D.  Paulo  de  iMoura,   afterwards  friar  Paulo  de  Santa 
Calharina 65 

XV  Bartholomeu   Antonio  Cordovil 69 

XVI  Jeronymo  Francisco  Coelho 71 


XVII  Joaquim  Augusto  Ribeiro 75 

XVIII  Angelo  Muniz  da  Silva  Ferraz 81 

XIX  Trajano  Galvao  de  Carvalho 85 

XX  Mem  de  SA 89 

XXI  Henrique  Luiz  de  Niemeyer  Bellegarde 95 

XXII  Marlini  Affonso  do  Souza  99 

XXill   Can  lido  Jos6  de  Araujo  Vianna,  marquis  de  Sapucahy  . .  103 

XXIV  Friar  Jos6  de  Santa  Rita  Durao 115 

XXV  Friar  Paulo  da  Trindade 119 

XXVI  Paraguassli  Catharina  Alvares 121 

XXVII  Jacob  Andrade  Vellosino 125 

XXVIII  Antonio  Joaquim  Franco  de  Sk 127 

XXIX   Manoel  Dias— The  Roman 131 

XXX  Gomes  Freire  de  Andrade 135 

XXXI  Antonio  Jos6  Duarte  de  Araujo  Gondim 139 


I  Friar  Don  Francisco  de  Lima 141 

II  Manoel  Antonio  Vital  de  Oliveira 143 

III  Joao  Poreira  Ramos  de  Azeredo  Coutinho 147 

IV  Francisco  de  Souza 151 

V  Diogo  Antonio  Foij(5 153 

VI  Pedro  do  Albuquerque 161 

VII  D.  Romualdo  do  Souza  Coelho 165 

VIII  Emiliano  Faustino  Lins 169 

IX  Diogo  Gomes  Carneiro 173 

X  Friar  Francisco  Solano 175 

XI  Jerony mo  de  Albuquerque  Maranhao 177 

XII  Pedro  de  Alcantara  Bellegarde 183 

XIII  Antonio  de  Padua  Fleury 189 

XIV  Manoel  Jacintho  Nogueira  da  Gama,  marquis  de  Baependy.  193 

XV  Candido  Baptista  de  Oliveira 203 

XVI  Andr6  Pereira  Temudo 209 

XVII  Jose  Clemenle  Pereira 213 

XVIII   Donna  Clara  Camarao 819 


XIX  Joanna  Angelica 223 

XX  Angelo  do  Siqueira 227 

XXI  Jos6  Pereira  Rebougas 229 

XXII  Antonio  Francisco  Dutra  e  Mello 233 

XXIII  Martim  Francisco  Ribeiro  do  Andrada 237 

XXIV  Francisco  Candido  da  Silva  Torres  e  Alvim,  viscount  of 
Jerumirira 243 

XXV  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque 247 

XXVI  Diogo  Pinheiro  Camarfto 251 

XXVII  Belarmino  de  Mattos 263 

XXVIII  Jose  de  Sa  Bittencourt  Accioli 259 


I  Valentim  da  Fonseca  e  Silva 265 

II  Jose  Corr§a  da  Silva 269 

III  Jos6  Antonio  Marinho 273 

IV  Jos6  Joaquim  Carneiro  de  Campos,  noarquis  of  Caravellas .  279 

V  Manoel  Ferreira  de  Araujo  Guimaraes 283 

VI  Don  Francisco  de  Assis  Mascarenhas,  marquis  of  S.  Joao 

da  Palma *289 

VII  Vasco  Fornandes  Cesar  de  Menezes,  afterwards  count  of 
Sabugosa 293 

VIII  Francisco  Jo86  Soares  de  Andrea,  baron  of  Ca^apava ....  297 

IX  Antonio  Ferreira  Franca 305 

X  Jos6    Pires  de  Carvalho   Albuquerque 311 

XI  D.  Jose  Joaquim  Justiniano  Mascarenhas  Castello  Branco.  313 

XII  Francisco  Xavier  de  Santa  Thereza 317 

XUI  Jose  Martins  Pereira  de  Alencastre 319 

XIV  Euzebio  de  Mattos 323 

XV  Antonio  da  Costa 327 

XVI  Martim  Affonso  de  Souza  Ararigboia 331 

XVII  Friar  Jo86  da  Natividade— o  subtil 337 

XVIII  Jos6  Borges  de  Barros 339 

XIX  Joao  da  Silva  Machado,  baron  of  Antonina 343 

XX  Donna  Rosa  Maria  de  Siqueira « 345 


XXI  Domingos  Borges  de  Barros,  viscount  of  Pedra  Branca. .  349 

XXII  Joaquim  Francisco  do  Livramento 353 

XXIII  Estella  Sezefreda  dos  Santos 361 

XXIV  Joao  Chrysostomo  Callado 367 

XXY    Antonio  Augusto  de  Araujo  Torreao 373 

XXVI  Manool  Odorico  Mendes. 377 

XXVII  Thom6  de  Souza 381 

XXVIII  Antonio  Carlos  de  Mariz  e  Barros 387 

XXIX   Jos^  Ignacio  Ribeiro  de  Abreu  Lima 393 

XXX   Jose  Pedro  DiasVieira 397 

XXXI   Joaquim  Franco  de  S& 401 


I  Seignot  Planchor 405 

II  Father  Antonio  Nunes  de  Serqueira 409 

III  Friar  Antonio  de  Santa  Gertrudes 411 

IV  Jose  Lino  Coutinho 413 

y      Joao  Carlos  de  WiLlagran  Cabrita 417 

VI      Jose  Ignacio  de  Abreu  Lima 421 

YII     Jos6  Bonifacio  de  Andrada  e  Silva 427 

J         VIII    Joao  Raraalho 439 

IX  Joao  Yieira  de  Carvalho,  marquis  of  Lages 443 

X  Francisco  Corrfia  Vidigal 449 

V^  XI     D.  Maria  de  Souza 451 

XII  Friar  Jos6  Mariano  da  Conceig&o  Velloso 455 

XIII  Gaspar  Ribeiro  Pereira 459 

XIV  Manoel  de  Moraes  Navarro 461 

XV  Luiz  Barbalho  Bczerra 465 

XVI  Antonio  da  Cunha  Brochado 471 

XVII  Thomaz  Gomes  dos  Santos 4'73 

XVIII  Father  Jose  Mauricio  Nunes  Garcia 477 

XIX    Domingos  Vidigal  de  Barbosa  Lage 485 

^  XX     Domingos  Fernandes  Calabar 487 

y       XXI    Joaquim  Jose  da  Silva  Xavier— Tiradentes. 


XXII   Pedro  Alvares  Cabral,  the  discoverer  of  Brazil ^ . .  497 

XXIII  Jos^  Ferreira  Cardoso 501 

XXIV  Joao  Caetano  dos  Santos 503 

XXV   Father  Luiz  Gonjalves  dos  Santos 509 

XXVI  Joao  Francisco  Lisboa 513 

XXVII  Manoel  da  Cunha 517 

XXVIIl  Domingos   Ribeiro    dos   Guimaraes   Peixoto,  baron  of 

Iguarassd 521  / 

XXIX  Jorge  de  Albuquerque  Coelho 525  V 

XXX  Pero  de  Magalhaes  de  Gondavo 529 

—  •^-'^NJC'^VN^^